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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191820/vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-glycocalyx-mediates-shear-stress-induced-contractile-responses-via-a-rho-kinase-rock-myosin-light-chain-phosphatase-mlcp-pathway
#1
Hongyan Kang, Jiajia Liu, Anqiang Sun, Xiao Liu, Yubo Fan, Xiaoyan Deng
The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are exposed to interstitial flow induced shear stress that may be sensed by the surface glycocalyx, a surface layer composed primarily of proteoglycans and glycoproteins, to mediate cell contraction during the myogenic response. We, therefore, attempted to elucidate the signal pathway of the glycocalyx mechanotransduction in shear stress regulated SMC contraction. Human umbilical vein SMCs (HUVSMCs) deprived of serum for 3-4 days were exposed to a step increase (0 to 20 dyn/cm(2)) in shear stress in a parallel plate flow chamber, and reduction in the cell area was quantified as contraction...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191479/erratum-ultrafast-demagnetization-by-hot-electrons-diffusion-or-super-diffusion-struct-dyn-3-055101-2016
#2
G Salvatella, R Gort, K Bühlmann, S Däster, A Vaterlaus, Y Acremann
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1063/1.4964892.].
January 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178514/projection-target-defined-effects-of-orexin-and-dynorphin-on-vta-dopamine-neurons
#3
Corey Baimel, Benjamin K Lau, Min Qiao, Stephanie L Borgland
Circuit-specific signaling of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons drives different aspects of motivated behavior, but the neuromodulatory control of these circuits is unclear. We tested the actions of co-expressed lateral hypothalamic peptides, orexin A (oxA) and dynorphin (dyn), on projection-target-defined dopamine neurons in mice. We determined that VTA dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens lateral shell (lAcbSh), medial shell (mAcbSh), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are largely non-overlapping cell populations with different electrophysiological properties...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151494/relationship-between-maternal-hemodynamics-and-plasma-natriuretic-peptide-concentrations-during-pregnancy-complicated-by-preeclampsia-and-fetal-growth-restriction
#4
S R Giannubilo, A Pasculli, E Tidu, A Biagini, V Boscarato, A Ciavattini
OBJECTIVE: A proper maternal cardiovascular adaptation to the pregnancy plays a key role for promoting an adequate uteroplacental perfusion, for ensuring normal fetal development and for preventing gestational hypertensive complications such as preeclampsia. This study aims to evaluate hemodynamic measurements obtained by noninvasive methods among preclamptic women with and without fetal growth restriction (FGR) and the relationship with plasma levels of natriuretic peptides. STUDY DESIGN: The study compared 98 pregnant women (n=48 with preeclampsia; n=50 normotensive pregnant women) and 50 nonpregnant normotensive control subjects undergoing anultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM) and plasma assessment of atrial N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114900/the-reverse-remodeling-of-the-aorta-in-patients-after-renal-transplantation-the-value-of-aortic-stiffness-index-prospective-echocardiographic-study
#5
Tomasz Zapolski, Jacek Furmaga, Andrzej Jaroszyński, Anna Wysocka, Sławomir Rudzki, Andrzej P Wysokiński
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is regarded as a combination of two major separate diseases: atherosis and sclerosis. Sclerotic component depends on deterioration of elastic properties of the aortic wall and is called aortic stiffness. The most valuable, non-invasive method of aortic stiffness assessment is echocardiography, which allows to calculate the aortic stiffness index (ASI). ASI is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in different groups of patients...
January 23, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108832/beat-by-beat-assessment-of-cardiac-afterload-using-descending-aortic-velocity-pressure-loop-during-general-anesthesia-a-pilot-study
#6
Fabrice Vallée, Arthur Le Gall, Jona Joachim, Olivier Passouant, Joaquim Matéo, Arnaud Mari, Sandrine Millasseau, Alexandre Mebazaa, Etienne Gayat
Continuous cardiac afterload evaluation could represent a useful tool during general anesthesia (GA) to titrate vasopressor effect. Using beat to beat descending aortic pressure(P)/flow velocity(U) loop obtained from esophageal Doppler and femoral pressure signals might allow to track afterload changes. Methods We defined three angles characterizing the PU loop (alpha, beta and Global After-Load Angle (GALA)). Augmentation index (AIx) and total arterial compliance (Ctot) were measured via radial tonometry. Peripheral Vascular Resistances (PVR) were also calculated...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100643/fluid-shear-stress-increases-transepithelial-transport-of-ca2-in-ciliated-distal-convoluted-and-connecting-tubule-cells
#7
Sami G Mohammed, Francisco J Arjona, Femke Latta, René J M Bindels, Ronald Roepman, Joost G J Hoenderop
In kidney, transcellular transport of Ca(2+) is mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 proteins in distal convoluted and connecting tubules (DCT and CNT, respectively). It is not yet understood how DCT/CNT cells can adapt to differences in tubular flow rate and, consequently, Ca(2+) load. This study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which DCT/CNT cells sense fluid dynamics to control transepithelial Ca(2+) reabsorption and whether their primary cilia play an active role in this process...
January 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057053/a-pig-model-of-acute-right-ventricular-afterload-increase-by-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction
#8
Kathrine Knai, Nils Kristian Skjaervold
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to construct a non-invasive model for acute right ventricular afterload increase by hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Intact animal models are vital to improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute right ventricular failure. Acute right ventricular failure is caused by increased afterload of the right ventricle by chronic or acute pulmonary hypertension combined with regionally or globally reduced right ventricular contractile capacity...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045414/evaluation-of-left-atrial-mechanical-function-and-atrial-conduction-abnormalities-in-patients-with-isolated-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#9
Arif Arısoy, Kadriye Memiç, Selami Demirelli, Kayıhan Karaman, Fatih Altunkaş, Metin Karayakalı, Yusuf Karavelioğlu, Ataç Çelik
OBJECTIVE: Present study is an evaluation of left atrial (LA) mechanical and conduction function in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) without significant valve dysfunction, and an investigation of relationship between LA function and aortic elasticity. METHODS: Study population consisted of 34 isolated BAV patients (mean age: 34±13 years) and 29 healthy, age- and sex-matched volunteers (mean age: 30±10 years). LA volume was measured using biplane area-length method and LA active and passive emptying volume and fraction was calculated...
December 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011757/haemodynamic-effects-of-riociguat-in-inoperable-recurrent-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Nick H Kim, Andrea M D'Armini, Friedrich Grimminger, Ekkehard Grünig, Marius M Hoeper, Pavel Jansa, Eckhard Mayer, Claus Neurohr, Gérald Simonneau, Adam Torbicki, Chen Wang, Arno Fritsch, Neil Davie, Hossein-Ardeschir Ghofrani
OBJECTIVE: We compared the haemodynamic effects of riociguat in patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or persistent/recurrent CTEPH after pulmonary endarterectomy in the Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension Soluble Guanylate Cyclase-Stimulator Trial 1 study. METHODS: Patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent CTEPH (n=261; mean± SD age 59±14 years; 66% women) were randomised to riociguat (up to 2.5 mg three times daily) or placebo...
December 23, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011582/fluid-shear-stress-induces-upregulation-of-cox-2-and-pgi2-release-in-endothelial-cells-via-a-pathway-involving-pecam-1-pi3k-fak-and-p38
#11
Sparkle Russell-Puleri, Nathaniel G Dela Paz, Diana Adams, Mitali Chattopadhyay, Limary Melissa Cancel, Eno Ebong, A Wayne Orr, John A Frangos, John M Tarbell
Vascular endothelial cells play an important role in the regulation of vascular function in response to mechanical stimuli in both healthy and diseased states. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) is an important anti-atherogenic prostanoid and vasodilator produced in endothelial cells through the action of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2. However, the mechanisms involved in sustained, shear-induced production of COX-2 and PGI2 have not been elucidated, but are determined in the present study. We used cultured endothelial cells exposed to steady fluid shear stress (FSS) of 10 dyn/cm2 for 5-hrs to examine shear stress induced induction of COX-2/PGI2Our results demonstrate the relationship between mechanosensor platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and intracellular mechano-responsive molecules phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38, in the FSS induction of COX-2 expression and PGI2 release...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000882/modulation-of-low-shear-stress%C3%A2-induced-enos-multi%C3%A2-site-phosphorylation-and-nitric-oxide-production-via-protein-kinase-and-erk1-2-signaling
#12
Xiangquan Kong, Xinliang Qu, Bing Li, Zhimei Wang, Yuelin Chao, Xiaomin Jiang, Wen Wu, Shao-Liang Chen
Physiological shear stress has been demonstrated to serve an atheroprotective function by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) multi‑site phosphorylation. Low shear stress (LSS) serves an atheroprone role by increasing endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammation. The present study assessed whether LSS inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by modulating eNOS phosphorylation and potential signaling pathways. A parallel flow chamber imposed with 2 dyn/cm2 shear stress on endothelial cells was used...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997251/changes-of-respiratory-mechanics-in-copd-patients-from-stable-state-to-acute-exacerbations-with-respiratory-failure
#13
Piero Ceriana, Michele Vitacca, Annalisa Carlucci, Mara Paneroni, Lara Pisani, Stefano Nava
Symptoms, clinical course, functional and biological data during an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EXCOPD) have been investigated, but data on physiological changes of respiratory mechanics during a severe exacerbation with respiratory acidosis requiring noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) are scant. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of respiratory mechanics in COPD patients comparing data observed during EXCOPD with those observed during stable state in the recovery phase...
December 20, 2016: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989838/opioid-gene-expression-changes-and-post-translational-histone-modifications-at-promoter-regions-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens-after-acute-and-repeated-3-4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine-mdma-exposure
#14
Francesca Felicia Caputi, Martina Palmisano, Lucia Carboni, Sanzio Candeletti, Patrizia Romualdi
The recreational drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to produce neurotoxic damage and long-lasting changes in several brain areas. In addition to the involvement of serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems, little information exists about the contribution of nociceptin/orphaninFQ (N/OFQ)-NOP and dynorphin (DYN)-KOP systems in neuronal adaptations evoked by MDMA. Here we investigated the behavioral and molecular effects induced by acute (8mg/kg) or repeated (8mg/kg twice daily for seven days) MDMA exposure...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987334/echocardiography-findings-in-a-case-with-ballantyne-syndrome
#15
Yutaro Suzuki, Mie Yamamura, Keisuke Kikuchi, Rifumi Hattori, Takeshi Umazume, Hisanori Minakami
Marked fluid retention occurs in Ballantyne syndrome, but few reports are available on changes in cardiac morphology in this syndrome. A woman with generalized edema, dyspnea, fetal hydrops (skin edema and ascites), thickened placenta, and elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide level (344 pg/mL) was admitted to our hospital at gestational week (GW) 20(+3) . Blood pressure remained within the normal range. However, acute increases in left atrial volume index, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and hyperdynamic left ventricular function (as evidenced by increased left ventricular ejection fraction to 74% with cardiac index of 5...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914851/dynapenia-and-metabolic-health-in-obese-and-nonobese-adults-aged-70%C3%A2-years-and-older-the-life-study
#16
Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Stephen Anton, Daniel P Beavers, Todd M Manini, Roger Fielding, Ann Newman, Tim Church, Stephen B Kritchevsky, David Conroy, Mary M McDermott, Anda Botoseneanu, Michelle E Hauser, Marco Pahor
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dynapenia and metabolic risk factors in obese and nonobese older adults. METHODS: A total of 1453 men and women (age ≥70 years) from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study were categorized as (1) nondynapenic/nonobese (NDYN-NO), (2) dynapenic/nonobese (DYN-NO), (3) nondynapenic/obese (NDYN-O), or (4) dynapenic/obese (DYN-O), based on muscle strength (Foundation for the National Institute of Health criteria) and body mass index...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905067/mathematical-model-of-bone-remodeling-captures-the-antiresorptive-and-anabolic-actions-of-various-therapies
#17
David S Ross, Khamir Mehta, Antonio Cabal
A better understanding of the molecular pathways regulating the bone remodeling process should help in the development of new antiresorptive regulators and anabolic regulators, that is, regulators of bone resorption and of bone formation. Understanding the mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) influences bone formation and how it switches from anabolic to catabolic action is important for treating osteoporosis (Poole and Reeve in Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:612-617, 2005). In this paper we describe a mathematical model of bone remodeling that incorporates, extends, and integrates several models of particular aspects of this biochemical system (Cabal et al...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891289/nor-bni-antagonism-of-kappa-opioid-agonist-induced-reinstatement-of-ethanol-seeking-behavior
#18
Erin Harshberger, Emily A Gilson, Kelli Gillett, Jasmine H Stone, Laila El Amrani, Glenn R Valdez
Recent work suggests that the dynorphin (DYN)/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system may be a key mediator in the behavioral effects of alcohol. The objective of the present study was to examine the ability of the KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI) to attenuate relapse to ethanol seeking due to priming injections of the KOR agonist U50,488 at time points consistent with KOR selectivity. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 10% ethanol solution, and then responding was extinguished. Following extinction, rats were injected with U50,488 (0...
2016: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887774/rationale-and-study-design-of-respite-an-open-label-phase-3b-study-of-riociguat-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-who-demonstrate-an-insufficient-response-to-treatment-with-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors
#19
Marius M Hoeper, James R Klinger, Raymond L Benza, Gerald Simonneau, David Langleben, Robert Naeije, Paul A Corris
Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) who do not have an adequate response to therapy with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) may have insufficient synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). These patients may respond to a direct soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator such as riociguat. RESPITE (NCT02007629) was an open-label, multicenter, uncontrolled, single-arm phase 3b study of riociguat in patients with PAH who demonstrated an insufficient response to treatment with PDE-5i...
November 5, 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884008/left-ventricular-plication-reduces-wall-stress-and-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#20
Hidetsugu Asai, Yasushige Shingu, Tomoji Yamakawa, Haruki Niwano, Satoru Wakasa, Tomonori Ooka, Hiroki Kato, Tsuyoshi Tachibana, Yoshiro Matsui
BACKGROUND: The indications of left-ventricular plication (LVP) are controversial, although several studies have reported favorable outcomes in heart failure patients. The aim of this study was to assess left-ventricular (LV) wall stress and myocardial remodeling after LVP in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Sixteen rats underwent LVP by excluding the LV anterior wall scar 4 weeks after ligation of the left anterior descending artery. After 4 weeks, LV wall stress was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography and an LV catheter...
2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
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