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Yu-Ping Su, Cheng-Nan Chen, Hsin-I Chang, Kuo-Chin Huang, Chin-Chang Cheng, Fang-Yao Chiu, Ko-Chao Lee, Chun-Min Lo, Shun-Fu Chang
Low shear stress has been proposed to play a reparative role in modulating cartilage homeostasis. Recently, epidemiological studies have found a positive correlation between the resistin level in serum and synovial fluid and osteoarthritis (OA) severity in patients. However, the effect of moderate shear stress on the catabolic stimulation of resistin in OA chondrocytes remains unclear. Hence, this study was to investigate whether low shear stress could regulate resistin-induced catabolic cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in human OA chondrocytes and the underlying mechanism...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Aravind Chandrasekaran, Justin Chan, Carmay Lim, Lee-Wei Yang
Structure-encoded conformational dynamics are crucial for biomolecular functions. However, there is insufficient evidence to support the notion that dynamics plays a role in guiding protein-nucleic acid interactions. Here, we show that protein-DNA docking orientation is a function of protein intrinsic dynamics but the binding site itself does not display unique patterns in the examined spectrum of motions. This revelation is made possible by a novel technique that locates 'dynamics interfaces' in proteins across which protein parts are anti-correlated in their slowest dynamics...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Fernando Garcia-Polite, Jordi Martorell, Paula Del Rey-Puech, Pedro Melgar-Lesmes, Caroline C O'Brien, Jaume Roquer, Angel Ois, Alessandro Principe, Elazer R Edelman, Mercedes Balcells
Microvascular endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier exhibit a protective phenotype, which is highly induced by biochemical and biomechanical stimuli. Amongst them, shear stress enhances junctional tightness and limits transport at capillary-like levels. Abnormal flow patterns can reduce functional features of macrovascular endothelium. We now examine if this is true in brain microvascular endothelial cells. We suggest in this paper a complex response of endothelial cells to aberrant forces under different flow domains...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Edouard Lecarpentier, Anthony Atallah, Jean Guibourdenche, Marylise Hebert-Schuster, Sarah Vieillefosse, Audrey Chissey, Bassam Haddad, Guillaume Pidoux, Daniele Evain-Brion, Abdul Barakat, Thierry Fournier, Vassilis Tsatsaris
The effects of fluid shear stress (FSS) on the human syncytiotrophoblast and its biological functions have never been studied. During pregnancy, the syncytiotrophoblast is the main source of placental growth factor (PlGF), a proangiogenic factor involved in the placental angiogenesis and the vascular adaptation to pregnancy. The role of FSS in regulating PlGF expression in syncytiotrophoblasts is unknown. We investigated the impact of FSS on the production and secretion of the PlGF by the human syncytiotrophoblasts in primary cell culture...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Edip Güvenç Çekiç, Özcan Başaran, Nesrin Filiz Başaran, Onur Elmas, Volkan Doğan, Gurbet Özge Mert, Kadir Uğur Mert, Ibrahim Altun, Fatih Akın, Murat Biteker
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Decreased vascular reactivity in atherosclerosis was previously shown. In our study, it was aimed to demonstrate the decreased vascular functions in both microvascular and macrovascular tissues and to estimate any correlation between them. METHODS: Twenty-five control outpatients with no coronary artery disease (CAD) history and 26 outpatients with CAD history were enrolled in the study. Local cutaneous post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) responses after three minutes of brachial occlusion with a pneumatic cuff were recorded noninvasively by a Perimed Periflux 5010 laser Doppler flow system...
September 28, 2016: Microvascular Research
D Vinayagam, Elena Mantovani, B Thilaganthan, A Khalil
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) are associated with altered maternal haemodynamics, which can be investigated using non-invasive methodologies. OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal haemodynamics using USCOM 1A® in patients presenting with non-medicated, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and normotensive controls. METHODS: A prospective, nested case-control study in 65 patients presenting with unmedicated hypertension. The control population consisted of 400 subjects who did not have a history of hypertensive disorders...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
D Vinayagam, Juan Gutierrez, J Binder, B Thilaganathan, A Khalil
BACKGROUND: The increase in the prevalence of and the adverse risks to both mother and foetus associated with maternal obesity is a global concern. The adverse cardiovascular risk associated with obesity is well-known, however, there is a paucity of data assessing central haemodynamics in class 3 (morbid) obesity (BMI440 kg/m(2)) during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the haemodynamic profile in women with class 3 maternal obesity against those with a normal BMI (20-30 kg/m(2)), using ultrasound-based, non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
J Tay, L Foo, C McEniery, I Wilkinson, C Lees
INTRODUCTION: This pilot study aims to compare cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) in pregnancies with fetal growth restriction (FGR) with healthy normal third trimester of pregnancies. Most studies previously done on cardiac parameters in pregnancy focused mainly on pre-eclampsia (PE) and FGR with PE, but not in normotensive FGR women. METHODS: Eight pregnancies with FGR (AC < 10th percentile with raised umbilical PI) in the third trimester (27-35 weeks gestation) compared with 42 uncomplicated ongoing pregnancies within similar gestation bands...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Weilan Wu, Xuguang Feng, Ye Yuan, Ying Liu, Meiyu Li, Jianguo Bin, Yunbin Xiao, Wangjun Liao, Yulin Liao, Wenzhu Zhang, Jianping Bin
PURPOSE: Ultrasound molecular imaging (UMI) has potential to evaluate an inflammatory profile of endothelium. However, it is less successful in large arteries. This study compared magnetic microbubbles (MBs) selectively targeted to endothelial P-selectin and dual-targeting MBs in vitro and in vivo. PROCEDURES: MBs were modified with P-selectin antibody (MBPM) or isotype control antibody (MBCM) via a magnetic streptavidin bridge, and MBs were conjugated to P-selectin antibody (MBP) or both P-selectin antibody and PAA-sialyl Lewis(x) (MBD) via regular streptavidin linker...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Sara M Hall, Lindsay LeBaron, Cyf Ramos-Colon, Chaoling Qu, Jennifer Yanhua Xie, Frank Porreca, Josephine Lai, Yeon Sun Lee, Victor J Hruby
Dynorphin A (Dyn A) is a unique endogenous ligand that possesses well-known neuroinhibitory effects via opioid receptors with a preference for the kappa receptor but also neuroexcitatory effects, which cause hyperalgesia. We have shown that the neuroexcitatory effects are mediated through bradykinin (BK) receptors and that intrathecal ( administration of our lead ligand 1, [des-Arg(7)]-Dyn A-(4-11), which shows good binding affinity (IC50 = 150 nM) at the BK receptors, blocks Dyn A-induced hyperalgesia in naïve animals and reverses thermal and tactile hypersensitivities in a dose-dependent manner in nerve-injured animals...
September 27, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Lian Willetts, David Bond, Konstantin Stoletov, John D Lewis
Metastasis, or the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant sites, is the leading cause of cancer-associated death. Metastasis is a complex multi-step process comprised of invasion, intravasation, survival in circulation, extravasation, and formation of metastatic colonies. Currently, in vitro assays are limited in their ability to investigate these intricate processes and do not faithfully reflect metastasis as it occurs in vivo. Traditional in vivo models of metastasis are limited by their ability to visualize the seemingly sporadic behavior of where and when cancer cells spread (Reymond et al...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Patrícia Moura Rosa, Nimi Gopalakrishnan, Hany Ibrahim, Markus Haug, Øyvind Halaas
T cells play a central role in immunity towards cancer and infectious diseases. T cell responses are initiated in the T cell zone of the lymph node (LN), where resident antigen-bearing dendritic cells (DCs) prime and activate antigen-specific T cells passing by. In the present study, we investigated the T cell : DC interaction in a microfluidic device to understand the intercellular dynamics and physiological conditions in the LN. We show random migration of antigen-specific T cells onto the antigen-presenting DC monolayer independent of the flow direction with a mean T cell : DC dwell time of 12...
October 7, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Quhuan Li, Annica Wayman, Jiangguo Lin, Ying Fang, Cheng Zhu, Jianhua Wu
Selectin-ligand interactions mediate tethering and rolling of circulating leukocytes on the vessel wall during inflammation. Extensive study has been devoted to elucidating the kinetic and mechanical constraints of receptor-ligand-interaction-mediated leukocyte adhesion, yet many questions remain unanswered. Here, we describe our design of an inverted flow chamber to compare adhesions of HL-60 cells to E-selectin in the upright and inverted orientations. This new, to our knowledge, design allowed us to evaluate the effect of gravity and to investigate the mechanisms of flow-enhanced adhesion...
August 23, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Michael Greif, Tibor Nagy, Maksym Soloviov, Luca Castiglioni, Matthias Hengsberger, Markus Meuwly, Jürg Osterwalder
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1063/1.4922611.].
September 2016: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
J-X Liu, Z-P Yan, Y-Y Zhang, J Wu, X-H Liu, Y Zeng
We have previously demonstrated the adaptive remodeling of endothelial glycocalyx under shear stress. However, the underlying mechanism in glycocalyx remodeling, especially the expression of the components heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) under shear stress was not completely known. In the present study, we investigated the expression of those HSPGs (syndecan family and glypican-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) responded to the distinct magnitude of shear stress, and performed a systematic and comprehensive analyze on the relationship between shear stress and HSPGs mRNA expression in a temporal manner...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Lan Wang, Sen Jiang, Jingyun Shi, Sugang Gong, Qinhua Zhao, Rong Jiang, Ping Yuan, Bigyan Pudasaini, Jing He, Zhicheng Jing, Jinming Liu
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), as a complication of bronchiectasis, is associated with increased mortality. However, hemodynamic characteristics and the efficacy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) therapies in patients with bronchiectasis and PH remain unknown. Patients with bilateral bronchiectasis and concurrent PH were included in the study. Patient characteristics at baseline and during follow-up, as well as survival, were analyzed. This observational study was conducted in 36 patients with a mean age of 51...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Lynne A Munro, Stephen R Stannard, Philip W Fink, Andrew Foskett
Participant and protocol factors affect post-activation potentiation response. Performance enhancement is more consistent in highly-trained participants following multiple sets of a biomechanically similar conditioning activity. Providing optimal conditions, 6 international-level sprint cyclists executed multiple sets of short maximal conditioning contractions on a high-inertia ergometer before metered sprint performance. Three trial conditions were completed on separate days after a standardised warm-up: dynamic (DYN: 4 × 4 crank-cycles), isometric (ISO: 4 × 5-sec maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)), and control (CON: rest)...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Patrizia Romani, Alessio Papi, Marilena Ignesti, Giulia Soccolini, Tien Hsu, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Enzo Spisni, Valeria Cavaliere
Dynamin GTPase (Dyn) plays a critical role in membrane-remodelling events underlying endocytosis. Studies in Drosophila identified a functional interaction between the Dyn homologue, encoded by the shibire (shi) gene, and Abnormal wing discs (Awd), a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) that is the homologue of group I Nme human genes. These Drosophila studies showed that awd mutations enhance mutant shi phenotype and thus indicated the existence of a highly specific interaction between these genes. Furthermore, in human cells, it has been shown that Nme proteins promote Dyn activity in different membrane compartments through spatially controlled supply of GTP...
November 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Magdalena Rysz-Górzynska, Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maria-Corina Serban, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Sorin Ursoniu, Peter P Toth, Vera Bittner, Gerald F Watts, Gregory Y H Lip, Jacek Rysz, Alberico L Catapano, Maciej Banach
Since the evidence regarding statin therapy in PAH has not been conclusive, we assessed the impact of statin therapy in PAH through a systematic review and meta-analysis of available studies. We searched selected databases up to August 1, 2015 to identify the studies investigating the effect of statin administration on PAH. Meta-analysis was performed using either a fixed-effects or random-effect model according to I(2) statistic. Meta-analysis of 8 studies with 665 patients did not suggest any significant improvement in 6-min walking distance (6MWD) by statin therapy (weighed mean difference [WMD]: -6...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Chudzińska, Izabela Komorowicz, Anetta Hanć, Ryszard Gołdyn, Danuta Barałkiewicz
The content of elements in fish tissues and organs from Swarzędzkie Lake was investigated in order to evaluate the possible risk associated with their consumption by animals as well as humans. Samples of muscle, liver and fish bone of three fish species; roach (Rutilus rutilus), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were collected from seine catches undertaken as part of the biomanipulation of Swarzędzkie Lake. Element concentration (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the exception of Hg where the flow injection analysis system cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (FIAS-CVAAS) was applied...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
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