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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134560/neurochemical-and-neurotoxic-effects-of-mdma-ecstasy-and-caffeine-after-chronic-combined-administration-in-mice
#1
Anna Maria Górska, Katarzyna Kamińska, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargieła, Giulia Costa, Micaela Morelli, Ryszard Przewłocki, Grzegorz Kreiner, Krystyna Gołembiowska
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a psychostimulant popular as a recreational drug because of its effect on mood and social interactions. MDMA acts at dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and is known to induce damage of dopamine and serotonin neurons. MDMA is often ingested with caffeine. Caffeine as a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist affects dopaminergic and serotonergic transmissions. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum induced by MDMA and caffeine after their chronic administration...
November 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109352/mapping-of-kndy-neurons-and-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-the-interaction-between-kndy-and-substance-p-neural-systems-in-goat
#2
Hiroaki Okamura, Takashi Yamamura, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi
A population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin, and therefore they are referred to as KNDy neurons. It has been suggested that KNDy neurons participate in several brain functions, including the control of reproduction. The present study aimed to advance our understanding of the anatomy of the KNDy neural system. We first produced an antiserum against goat kisspeptin. After confirming its specificity, the antiserum was used to histochemically detect kisspeptin-positive signals...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069289/distinct-dynorphin-expression-patterns-with-low-and-high-dose-estrogen-treatment-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-female-rats
#3
Moeko Kanaya, Kinuyo Iwata, Hitoshi Ozawa
Kisspeptin (KISS1; encoded by Kiss1 ) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) co-express tachykinin 3 (TAC3; also known as neurokinin B) and dynorphin A (PDYN). Accordingly, they are termed KNDy neurons and considered to be crucial in generating pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Accumulating evidence suggests that Kiss1 and Tac3 are negatively regulated by estrogen. However it has not been fully determined whether and how estrogen modulates Pdyn and PDYN. Here, we examined the expression of Pdyn mRNA and PDYN by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in the ARC of female rats after ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus low or high-dose beta-estradiol (E 2 ) replacement...
October 24, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056156/dynorphin-kappa-opioid-receptor-signaling-in-preclinical-models-of-alcohol-drug-and-food-addiction
#4
Anushree Karkhanis, Katherine M Holleran, Sara R Jones
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is implicated in the "dark side" of addiction, in which stress exacerbates maladaptive responses to drug and alcohol exposure. For example, acute stress and acute ethanol exposure result in an elevation in dynorphin, the KOR endogenous ligand. Activation of KORs results in modulation of several neurotransmitters; however, this chapter will focus on its regulatory effects on dopamine in mesolimbic areas. Specifically, KOR activation has an inhibitory effect on dopamine release, thereby influencing reward processing...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052613/dynorphin-counteracts-orexin-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-cellular-and-behavioral-evidence
#5
Alessandra Matzeu, Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George, Paul Schweitzer, Rémi Martin-Fardon
The orexin (Orx) system plays a critical role in drug addiction and reward-related behaviors. The dynorphin (Dyn) system promotes depressive-like behavior and plays a key role in the aversive effects of stress. Orx and Dyn are co-released and have opposing functions in reward and motivation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous studies suggested that OrxA transmission in the posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (pPVT) participates in cocaine-seeking behavior. This study determined whether Orx and Dyn interact in the pPVT...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025923/plasticity-of-signaling-by-spinal-estrogen-receptor-alpha-kappa-opioid-receptor-and-mglurs-over-the-rat-reproductive-cycle-regulates-spinal-endomorphin-2-antinociception-relevance-of-endogenous-biased-agonism
#6
Nai-Jiang Liu, Vijaya Murugaiyan, Emiliya M Storman, Stephen A Schnell, Arjun Kumar, Martin W Wessendorf, Alan R Gintzler
We previously showed that intrathecal application of endomorphin 2 [EM2; the highly specific endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) ligand] induces antinociception that varies with stage of the rat estrous cycle -- minimal during diestrus and prominent during proestrus. Earlier studies, however, did not identify proestrus-activated signaling strategies that enable spinal EM2 antinociception. We now report that in female rats, increased spinal dynorphin release and kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling, as well as the emergence of glutamate-activated mGluR1 signaling, are critical to the transition from an EM2 non-responsive (during diestrus) to an analgesically responsive state (during proestrus)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968778/neuronal-expression-of-opioid-gene-is-controlled-by-dual-epigenetic-and-transcriptional-mechanism-in-human-brain
#7
Igor Bazov, Daniil Sarkisyan, Olga Kononenko, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Mumtaz Malik Taqi, Lada Stålhandske, Dineke S Verbeek, Jan Mulder, Grazyna Rajkowska, Donna Sheedy, Jillian Kril, Xueguang Sun, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Tatiana Yakovleva, Georgy Bakalkin
Molecular mechanisms that define patterns of neuropeptide expression are essential for the formation and rewiring of neural circuits. The prodynorphin gene (PDYN) gives rise to dynorphin opioid peptides mediating depression and substance dependence. We here demonstrated that PDYN is expressed in neurons in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and identified neuronal differentially methylated region in PDYN locus framed by CCCTC-binding factor binding sites. A short, nucleosome size human-specific promoter CpG island (CGI), a core of this region may serve as a regulatory module, which is hypomethylated in neurons, enriched in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, and targeted by USF2, a methylation-sensitive E-box transcription factor (TF)...
July 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938405/short-term-high-fat-diet-increases-leptin-activation-of-cart-neurons-and-advances-puberty-in-female-mice
#8
Jade Cabestre Venancio, Lisandra Oliveira Margatho, Rodrigo Rorato, Roberta Ribeiro Costa Rosales, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Ricardo Coletti, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Carol F Elias, Lucila Leico K Elias
Leptin is a permissive factor for puberty initiation, participating as a metabolic cue in the activation of the kisspeptin (Kiss1)-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal circuitry; however, it has no direct effect on Kiss1 neurons. Leptin acts on hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons, participating in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We investigated the influence of a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) on the effect of leptin on puberty timing. Kiss1-hrGFP female mice received a HFD or regular diet (RD) after weaning at postnatal day (PN)21 and were studied at PN28 and PN32...
November 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938398/long-term-recordings-of-arcuate-nucleus-kisspeptin-neurons-reveal-patterned-activity-that-is-modulated-by-gonadal-steroids-in-male-mice
#9
Charlotte Vanacker, Manuel Ricu Moya, R Anthony DeFazio, Michael L Johnson, Suzanne M Moenter
Pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is key to fertility. Pulse frequency is modulated by gonadal steroids and likely arises subsequent to coordination of GnRH neuron firing activity. The source of rhythm generation and the site of steroid feedback remain critical unanswered questions. Arcuate neurons that synthesize kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (KNDy) may be involved in both of these processes. We tested the hypotheses that action potential firing in KNDy neurons is episodic and that gonadal steroids regulate this pattern...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903474/nitric-oxide-heat-shock-protein-axis-in-menopausal-hot-flushes-neglected-metabolic-issues-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-associated-with-deranged-heat-shock-response
#10
Antônio Azambuja Miragem, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt
BACKGROUND: Although some unequivocal underlying mechanisms of menopausal hot flushes have been demonstrated in animal models, the paucity of similar approaches in humans impedes further mechanistic outcomes. Human studies might show some as yet unexpected physiological mechanisms of metabolic adaptation that permeate the phase of decreased oestrogen levels in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. This is particularly relevant because both the severity and time span of hot flushes are associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory disease...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860091/a-quantitative-study-of-neurochemically-defined-populations-of-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-superficial-dorsal-horn-of-the-mouse-spinal-cord
#11
Kieran A Boyle, Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Erika Polgár, Nicole Mooney, Emily O'Connor, Takahiro Furuta, Masahiko Watanabe, Andrew J Todd
Around a quarter of neurons in laminae I-II of the dorsal horn are inhibitory interneurons. These play an important role in modulating somatosensory information, including that perceived as pain or itch. Previous studies in rat identified four largely non-overlapping neurochemical populations among these cells, defined by expression of galanin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or parvalbumin. The galanin cells were subsequently shown to coexpress dynorphin. Several recent studies have used genetically modified mice to investigate the function of different interneuron populations, and it is therefore important to determine whether the same pattern applies in mouse, and to estimate the relative sizes of these populations...
November 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857070/repeated-administration-of-opra-kappa-ly2456302-a-novel-short-acting-selective-kop-r-antagonist-in-persons-with-and-without-cocaine-dependence
#12
Brian Reed, Eduardo R Butelman, Rebecca Fry, Rachel Kimani, Mary Jeanne Kreek
The KOP-r system and its endogenous ligands, the dynorphins, are involved in the neurobiological regulation of addictive states, and of mood. There is limited data on the impact of selective KOP-r antagonism in humans on basic bio-behavioral functions, or on addictive diseases and mood disorders. Previously studied selective KOP-r antagonists have unusual pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties (slow development of KOP-r selectivity, extremely long duration of action), which limit translation to human studies...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802836/neocortical-prodynorphin-expression-is-transiently-increased-with-learning-implications-for-time-and-learning-dependent-neocortical-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation
#13
Ryan Loh, Sean Collins, Roberto Galvez
There are several lines of evidence that indicate a prominent role for the opioid system in the acquisition and consolidation of learned associations. Specifically, kappa opioid receptor (KOR) modulation has been demonstrated to alter various behavioral tasks including whisker trace eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). WTEB is an associative conditioning paradigm in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; Whisker stimulation) is paired following a short stimulus free trace interval with a salient unconditioned stimulus that elicits a blink response (US; Eye shock)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800500/sb223412-a-neurokinin-3-receptor-selective-antagonist-suppresses-testosterone-secretion-in-male-guinea-pigs
#14
Sho Nakamura, Yoshiko Ito, Koki Yamamoto, Chudai Takahashi, Mingdao Dai, Miyu Tanahashi, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Hiroko Tsukamura, Shinya Oishi, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Fuko Matsuda
Guinea pigs are important zoo animals and have been recommended for animal-assisted activities or therapy, however there are problems concerning testosterone inducing aggressive or sexual behaviors in male guinea pigs. Testicular testosterone secretion is regulated by pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release in mammals. The mechanism generating GnRH/LH pulses is thought to be governed by kisspeptin neurons, which coexpress neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A (Dyn), in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
July 31, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726252/central-amygdala-relaxin-3-relaxin-family-peptide-receptor-3-signalling-modulates-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#15
Leigh C Walker, Hanna E Kastman, Elena V Krstew, Andrew L Gundlach, Andrew J Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alcohol use disorders are a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, and stress is a major trigger of relapse. The neuropeptide relaxin-3 and its cognate receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), modulate stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking in rats, and while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has been implicated in this regard, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) also receives a relaxin-3 innervation and CeA neurons densely express RXFP3 mRNA...
October 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722336/evidence-for-the-modulation-of-nociception-in-mice-by-central-mast-cells
#16
C L Kissel, K J Kovács, A A Larson
BACKGROUND: Hyperalgesia that develops following nerve ligation corresponds temporally and in magnitude with the number of thalamic mast cells located contralateral to the ligature. We tested the possibility that mast cells modulate nociception centrally, similar to their role in the periphery. METHODS: We examined the central effect of two hyperalgesic compounds that induce mast cell degranulation and of stabilized mast cells using cromolyn. RESULTS: Thermal hyperalgesia (tail flick) induced by nerve growth factor (NGF, a neurotrophic compound) and mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey) induced by dynorphin A (1-17) (opioid compound) each correlated with the per cent of thalamic mast cells that were degranulated...
November 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664358/oxytocin-intranasal-administration-affects-neural-networks-upstream-of-gnrh-neurons
#17
Mohammad Saied Salehi, Homayoun Khazali, Fariba Mahmoudi, Mahyar Janahmadi
The last decade has witnessed a surge in studies on the clinical applications of intranasal oxytocin as a method of enhancing social interaction. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying its function are not completely understood. Since oxytocin is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by affecting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) system, the present study addressed whether intranasal application of oxytocin has a role in affecting GNRH expression in the male rat hypothalamus...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653356/arcuate-nucleus-homeostatic-systems-reflect-blood-leptin-concentration-but-not-feeding-behaviour-during-scheduled-feeding-on-a-high-fat-diet-in-mice
#18
T Bake, J Baron, J S Duncan, D G A Morgan, J G Mercer
Hypothalamic homeostatic and forebrain reward-related genes were examined in the context of scheduled meal feeding without caloric restriction in C57BL/6 mice. Mice fed ad libitum but allowed access to a palatable high-fat (HF) diet for 2 hours a day rapidly adapted their feeding behaviour and consumed approximately 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2-hour scheduled feed. Gene expression levels were examined during either the first or second hour of scheduled feeding vs 24 hours ad libitum feeding on the same HF diet...
August 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649993/kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-in-dopamine-neurons-disrupts-behavioral-inhibition
#19
Antony D Abraham, Harrison M Fontaine, Allisa J Song, Mackenzie M Andrews, Madison A Baird, Brigitte L Kieffer, Benjamin B Land, Charles Chavkin
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system has been previously implicated in the regulation of cognition, but the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms underlying KOR-mediated cognitive disruption are unknown. Here, we used an operational test of cognition involving timing and behavioral inhibition and found that systemic KOR activation impairs performance of male and female C57BL/6 mice in the differential reinforcement of low response rates (DRL) task. Systemic KOR antagonism also blocked stress-induced disruptions of DRL performance...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630099/kndy-neurone-activation-prior-to-the-lh-surge-of-the-ewe-is-disrupted-by-lps
#20
Chrysanthi Fergani, Jean Routly, David Jones, Lucy Pickavance, Robert Frank Smith, Hilary Dobson
In the ewe, steroid hormones act on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to initiate the GnRH/LH surge. Within the ARC, steroid signal transduction may be mediated by dopamine, β-endorphin or neuropeptide Y (NPY) expressing cells, as well as those co-localising kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (termed KNDy). We investigated the time during the follicular phase when these cells become activated (i.e., co-localise c-Fos) relative to the timing of the LH surge onset and may, therefore, be involved in the surge generating mechanism...
June 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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