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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709385/recurrent-childhood-animal-cruelty-and-its-link-to-recurrent-adult-interpersonal-violence
#1
Caleb E Trentham, Christopher Hensley, Christina Policastro
In the early 1960s, researchers began to examine the potential link between childhood animal cruelty and future interpersonal violence. Findings since then have been inconsistent in establishing a relationship between the two. This may be due to researchers failing to measure the recurrency of childhood animal abuse and the recurrency of later violent acts committed in adulthood. The current study, using data from 257 inmates at a medium-security prison in a Southern state, is a replication of research conducted by Tallichet and Hensley, and Hensley, Tallichet, and Dutkiewicz, which examined this recurrency issue...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702506/prenatal-depression-risk-factors-developmental-effects-and-interventions-a-review
#2
Tiffany Field
This narrative review based on a literature search in PubMed and PsycInfo on the two terms prenatal and antenatal depression includes empirical studies, reviews and meta-analyses that have been published during the last 5 years on risk factors, developmental effects and interventions for prenatal depression. Risk factor studies that met criteria feature demographic measures (lower socioeconomic status, less education, non-marital status, non-employment, less social support and health locus of control, unintended pregnancy, partner violence and history of child abuse) and physiological variables (cortisol, amylase, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and intrauterine artery resistance)...
February 2017: Journal of Pregnancy and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694536/orbital-fractures-treated-in-auckland-from-2010-2015-review-of-patient-outcomes
#3
Lanit Anand, Christopher Sealey
AIM: The purpose of this study was to review patient outcomes from surgical reconstruction of isolated orbital fractures, performed by the Auckland District Health Board (ADHB) Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery service (OMFS), from 2010 to 2015. In particular, we wished to assess titanium as an orbital reconstructive material and compare outcomes with the international literature. METHOD: Hospital records for 103 adults (>18 years old) who underwent repair of isolated orbital fractures by the OMFS department at Middlemore Hospital, between 2010 and 2015, were reviewed...
July 7, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693710/lifetime-victimization-among-spanish-adolescents
#4
Sílvia Indias García, Joaquín de Paul Ochotorena
BACKGROUND: The damaging effects of direct and indirect experience of interpersonal violence on children’s development are widely acknowledged. The objective of the present study was to analyze lifetime victimization among adolescents of a community sample. METHOD: Participants were 608 adolescents aged 12-18 from Northern Spain. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire was used to measure lifetime victimization. RESULTS: Over 90% of the adolescent population has been exposed to some kind of victimization...
August 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682194/interpersonal-and-structural-contexts-of-intimate-partner-violence-among-female-sex-workers-in-conflict-affected-northern-uganda
#5
Margaret Erickson, Shira M Goldenberg, Aditi Master, Godfrey Muzaaya, Monica Akello, Melissa Braschel, Josephine Birungi, Kate Shannon
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in Sub-Saharan Africa. We explored interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. METHODS: This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV...
July 6, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664351/would-brief-alcohol-intervention-be-helpful-in-facial-trauma-patients-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Kai H Lee, Andrew Hughes
Facial trauma is commonly associated with excessive consumption of alcohol and is often associated with interpersonal violence or motor vehicle accidents. Alcohol-related trauma presentation to hospitals causes a major service burden, and there have been efforts to reduce such trauma load with educational programs and social support. Brief alcohol intervention (BAI) in an acute setting (emergency department or trauma centre) has been shown as an effective means to reduce future alcohol intake and the incidence of future alcohol-related injuries, especially in the period immediately following injuries...
June 30, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658379/mortality-and-years-of-life-lost-by-interpersonal-violence-and-self-harm-in-brazil-and-brazilian-states-analysis-of-the-estimates-of-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-1990-and-2015
#7
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo, Adauto Martins Soares, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Marli de Mesquita Silva Montenegro, Roberto Marini Ladeira, Otaliba Libanio de Morais, Ana Paula Melo, Meghan Mooney, Mohsen Naghavi
Objective: To analyze mortality and years of life lost due to death or disability (disability-adjusted life years - DALYs) for interpersonal violence and self-harm, comparing 1990 and 2015, in Brazil and Federated Units, using estimates produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods: Secondary data analysis of estimates from the GBD 2015, producing standardized death rates and years of life lost due to death or disability. The main source of death data was the Mortality Information System, submitted to correction of underreporting of deaths and redistribution of garbage codes...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652055/access-to-a-loaded-gun-without-adult-permission-and-school-based-bullying
#8
Maayan S Simckes, Joseph A Simonetti, Megan A Moreno, Frederick P Rivara, Barbara A Oudekerk, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar
PURPOSE: Gun access and bullying are risk factors for sustaining or perpetrating violence among adolescents. Our knowledge of gun access among bullied students is limited. METHODS: We used data on students, aged 12-18 years, from the 2011 and 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey to assess the association between self-reported bullying victimization (traditional and cyber) and access to a loaded gun without adult permission. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from multivariable Poisson regression using the Taylor series after controlling for student age, sex, family income, public/private school, and race...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#9
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640677/constant-lethality-of-gunshot-injuries-from-firearm-assault-united-states-2003-2012
#10
Philip J Cook, Ariadne E Rivera-Aguirre, Magdalena Cerdá, Garen Wintemute
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity of the apparent downward trend in the national case-fatality rate for gunshot wounds from assault. METHODS: We reanalyzed the estimated annual number of nonfatal firearm injuries the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System reported from 2003 to 2012. We adjusted the estimates for discontinuities created by the substitution of 1 hospital for another in the sample and for a downward trend in the percentage of gunshot injuries classified as "unknown circumstance...
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640664/%C3%A2-somos-iguales-using-a-structural-violence-framework-to-understand-gender-and-health-inequities-from-an-intersectional-perspective-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#11
Geordan D Shannon, Angelica Motta, Carlos F Cáceres, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Diana Bowie, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Amazon, historical events of colonization and political marginalization intersect with identities of ethnicity, class and geography in the construction of gender and health inequities. Gender-based inequalities can manifest in poor health outcomes via discriminatory practices, healthcare system imbalances, inequities in health research, and differential exposures and vulnerabilities to diseases. Structural violence is a comprehensive framework to explain the mechanisms by which social forces such as poverty, racism and gender inequity become embodied as individual experiences and health outcomes, and thus may be a useful tool in structuring an intersectional analysis of gender and health inequities in Amazonian Peru...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617143/does-ethno-cultural-betrayal-in-trauma-affect-asian-american-pacific-islander-college-students-mental-health-outcomes-an-exploratory-study
#12
Jennifer M Gómez
OBJECTIVES: Interpersonal trauma has deleterious effects on mental health (1) , with college students experiencing relatively high rates of lifetime trauma (2) . Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have the lowest rate of mental health care utilization (4) . According to cultural betrayal trauma theory (CBTT) (9, 10, 11) , societal inequality may impact within-group violence in minority populations, thus having implications for mental health. In the current exploratory study, between-group (interracial) and within-group (ethno-cultural betrayal) trauma and mental health outcomes were examined in AAPI college students...
June 15, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612168/civilian-cerebral-gunshot-wounds-in-rural-south-african-patients-are-associated-with-significantly-higher-mortality-rates-than-in-urban-patients
#13
V Y Kong, J L Bruce, B Sartorius, G L Laing, J Odendaal, P Brysiewicz, D L Clarke
INTRODUCTION: This study focuses on a specific and often dramatic injury, namely gunshot wounds (GSW) of the head in order to determine whether there is a discrepancy in outcome between patients who sustain their injury in a rural setting and those who sustain it in an urban setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involves a retrospective review of our prospectively maintained regional electronic trauma registry. All patients who sustained a cerebral GSW from January 2010 to December 2014 were reviewed...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609721/broken-lives-fights-fractures-and-motor-vehicle-accidents-among-heroin-users-entering-detoxification
#14
Michael D Stein, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND: The lives of persons who use illicit substances are filled with physical adversities and negative outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the frequency of substance-related fights, fractures, and driving accidents in the past year among heroin users entering an inpatient detoxification program, and 2) to determine demographic and recent substance use factors associated with the most common of these physical traumas. METHODS: Between May 2015 and December 2015, we surveyed 433 persons entering a short-term inpatient detoxification program that reported heroin use in the last month and recorded their experiences of physical traumas in the last year...
June 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595479/psychobiology-of-cumulative-trauma-hair-cortisol-as-a-risk-marker-for-stress-exposure-in-women
#15
Matthew C Morris, James L Abelson, Alyssa S Mielock, Uma Rao
Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i...
June 29, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581648/suicide-ideation-and-attempts-among-adolescents-engaged-in-risk-behaviors-a-latent-class-analysis
#16
Matthew J Thullen, Lindsay A Taliaferro, Jennifer J Muehlenkamp
This study addressed gaps in the literature regarding how different profiles of adolescent risk behavior relate to suicide. Data came from the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey of 9th and 12th grade students. Latent class analysis derived a set of four classes reflecting unique patterns of eight behaviors: maladaptive dieting, prescription drug misuse, illegal drug use, marijuana use, problem drinking, risky sexual behavior, perpetration of interpersonal violence, and self-injury. A class demonstrating high engagement in all risk behaviors, and a class highest on self-injury and maladaptive dieting but low on several other risk behaviors, showed high risk for suicide...
September 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562198/challenges-for-providing-health-care-in-traumatized-populations-barriers-for-ptsd-treatments-and-the-need-for-new-developments
#17
Evaldas Kazlauskas
There is a growing recognition about the effects of traumatic experiences on mental health worldwide. With ongoing conflicts, natural disasters, interpersonal violence, and other traumatic events it is estimated that approximately 70% of the global population have been exposed to at least one lifetime traumatic experience. Research shows a substantial proportion of survivors, especially in low- and middle-income countries, would have a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During recent decades effective evidence-based treatments for PTSD have been developed...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559457/violent-injury-predicts-poor-psychological-outcomes-after-traumatic-injury-in-a-hard-to-reach-population-an-observational-cohort-study
#18
Emmylou Rahtz, Kamaldeep Bhui, Melanie Smuk, Iain Hutchison, Ania Korszun
BACKGROUND: People who experience physical trauma face a range of psychosocial outcomes. These may be overlooked by busy clinicians. While some risk factors are understood, understanding of the psychological effects of violent injury remains limited, particularly in UK settings. This study compared psychological outcomes following interpersonal violence and accidental injury, including the persistence of psychological distress. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was carried out at two time points of patients admitted to a large teaching hospital in London between July 2012 and April 2014...
May 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558619/mental-toughness-in-south-african-youth
#19
Richard G Cowden, Peter J Clough, Kwaku Oppong Asante
Young people are particularly vulnerable to health risk behaviors and interpersonal violence, stimulating scholars' attention towards identifying factors that may reduce the likelihood that these actions will occur. Associated with positive outcomes in a variety of domains, mental toughness in young people might protect them from engaging in potentially deleterious interpersonal or health-risk behaviors, while potentially promoting positive psychological behaviors. Within this framework, the present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness, attitudes towards physical and psychological risk-taking, and trait forgiveness in a sample of 123 (males = 54, females = 69) South African youth ( M age = 23...
April 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555292/associations-between-trauma-type-timing-and-accumulation-on-current-coping-behaviors-in-adolescents-results-from-a-large-population-based-sample
#20
Rachel A Vaughn-Coaxum, Yan Wang, Jenna Kiely, John R Weisz, Erin C Dunn
The development of adolescents' coping in response to stress is critical for adaptive functioning; these coping strategies may be shaped by numerous environmental factors during childhood, including experiences such as exposure to trauma. Childhood trauma has been shown to undermine contemporaneous coping, but how does a history of exposure to trauma and the characteristics of that trauma (type, timing, and accumulation) relate to current coping among adolescents? We addressed this question using a nationally-representative sample of 9427 adolescents (ages 13-18; 48...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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