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Interpersonal violence

Viola Bulgari, Laura Iozzino, Clarissa Ferrari, Marco Picchioni, Valentina Candini, Alessandra De Francesco, Paolo Maggi, Beatrice Segalini, Giovanni de Girolamo
The increased risk of violence in schizophrenia has been linked to several environmental, clinical and neuropsychological factors, including executive dysfunction. However, data about the nature of these effects are mixed and controversial. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological factors with violence risk in patients with schizophrenia, taking into account current psychopathology and lifetime alcohol use. We compared a sample of patients living in Residential Facilities (RFs) with schizophrenia and a past history of interpersonal violence (vSZ, N=50) to patients with schizophrenia matched on age, gender and alcohol abuse/dependence but with no violence history (nvSZ, N=37)...
October 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Sophie Rausch, Julia Herzog, Janine Thome, Petra Ludäscher, Meike Müller-Engelmann, Regina Steil, Kathlen Priebe, Thomas Fydrich, Nikolaus Kleindienst
BACKGROUND: Childhood interpersonal violence is a major risk factor for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), other axis-I disorders or Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical abuse (CPA) who meet the criteria of any axis-I disorder usually also exhibit general psychopathologic symptoms and impairments in quality of life and sexuality. The present study investigates whether women with a history of potentially traumatic CSA/CPA without any axis-I disorder or BPD show subthreshold symptoms of PTSD-specific and general psychopathology and impairments in global functioning, quality of life, and sexuality...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Manuel Eisner, Amy Nivette, Aja Louise Murray, Maria Krisch
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations for the period 2016-2030 aim to achieve a substantial reduction of interpersonal violence. An increasing body of evidence of what works, emerging from randomized controlled trials, can inform public health policy decisions. However, there is very limited evidence on the kinds of mechanisms that lead to sustained declines in interpersonal violence at the population level. We discuss the implications of what is known about recent major declines in violence to guide violence-reduction policies...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Mary D Fan, Joseph A Simonetti, Vivian H Lyons, Jin Wang, Douglas Zatzick, Frederick P Rivara
Background: Hospital-based violence intervention programs typically focus on patients whose firearm injury occurred through interpersonal violence (assault). Knowledge of violence perpetration by victims of unintentional (accidental) firearm injury is limited. Objective: To examine violence perpetration before and after a patient becomes hospitalized for firearm injury according to injury intent (intentional [assault] or unintentional [accidental]). Design: A case-control study and a retrospective cohort study...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Carol A Keane, Christopher A Magee, Peter J Kelly
Traumatic childhood experiences predict many adverse outcomes in adulthood including Complex-PTSD. Understanding complex trauma within socially disadvantaged populations has important implications for policy development and intervention implementation. This paper examined the nature of complex trauma experienced by disadvantaged individuals using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach. Data were collected through the large-scale Journeys Home Study (N=1682), utilising a representative sample of individuals experiencing low housing stability...
October 13, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kai Lee, James Olsen, Jiandong Sun, Arun Chandu
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol related facial trauma is an increasingly prominent social problem and health hazard. Interpersonal violence (IPV) is often implicated in these trauma presentations and the facial skeleton frequently targeted. This paper examines the characteristics of admitted patients with alcohol-related facial fractures. METHODS: Electronic data of patients assessed or treated with facial fractures from January 2012 to December 2014 at Western Health was obtained through Clinical Record Department...
October 15, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
S Saar, M Sokirjanski, L K Junkin, J Laos, A L Laar, I Merioja, U Lepner, L Kukk, A Remmelgas, T Asser, K Innos, J Starkopf, P Talving
PURPOSE: Trauma mechanisms and patterns of severe injuries during the Estonian independence have not been evaluated. The aim of the study was to compare the incidence and outcomes of severe injuries between time periods of early independence from the Soviet Union and the present time. METHODS: After the ethics review board approval, all adult trauma admissions to major trauma facilities in 1993-1994 and 2013-2014 with Injury Severity Score >15 were identified...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Erin C Dunn, Kristen Nishimi, Abigail Powers, Bekh Bradley
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, the impact of the developmental timing of exposure remains unclear. This study examined the effect of age at first trauma exposure on levels of adult depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHODS: Lifetime trauma exposure (including age at first exposure and frequency), current psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic information were collected during interviews with adults participating in a study at a public urban hospital in Atlanta, GA...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Donna Gillies, Licia Maiocchi, Abhishta P Bhandari, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jiawei Zhou, Jiarun Yang, Yunmiao Yu, Lin Wang, Dong Han, Xiongzhao Zhu, Jincai He, Xiaohui Qiu, Xiuxian Yang, Zhengxue Qiao, Hong Sui, Yanjie Yang
With the frequent occurrence of campus violence, scholars have devoted increasing attention to college students' aggression. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of aggression in Chinese university students and identify factors that could influence their aggression. We can thus find methods to reduce the incidence of college students' aggression in the future. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 4565) aged 16-25 years in Harbin. The Aggression Questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist and the Social Support Revalued Scale were used to collect data...
October 10, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Daniel S Schechter, Dominik A Moser, Virginie C Pointet, Tatjana Aue, Ludwig Stenz, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Wafae Adouan, Aurélia Manini, Francesca Suardi, Marylene Vital, Ana Sancho Rossignol, Maria I Cordero, Molly Rothenberg, François Ansermet, Sandra Rusconi Serpa, Alexandre G Dayer
BACKGROUND: Methylation of the serotonin 3A receptor gene (HTR3A) has been linked to child maltreatment and adult psychopathology. The present study examined whether HTR3A methylation might be associated with mothers' lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), IPV-related psychopathology, child disturbance of attachment, and maternal neural activity. METHODS: Number of maternal lifetime IPV exposures and measures of maternal psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and aggressive behavior (AgB), and a measure of child attachment disturbance known as "secure base distortion" (SBD) were assessed in a sample of 35 mothers and children aged 12-42 months...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Héctor Gómez-Dantés, Nancy Fullman, Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa, Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado, Blair Darney, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Juan A Rivera, Simon Barquera, Eduardo González-Pier, Tania Aburto-Soto, Elga Filipa Amorin de Castro, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Ana C Basto-Abreu, Carolina Batis, Guilherme Borges, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Julio C Campuzano-Rincón, Alejandra de Jesús Cantoral-Preciado, Alejandra G Contreras-Manzano, Lucia Cuevas-Nasu, Vanessa V de la Cruz-Gongora, Jose L Diaz-Ortega, María de Lourdes García-García, Armando Garcia-Guerra, Teresita González de Cossío, Luz D González-Castell, Ileana Heredia-Pi, Marta C Hijar-Medina, Alejandra Jauregui, Aida Jimenez-Corona, Nancy Lopez-Olmedo, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Catalina Medina-Garcia, Maria E Medina-Mora, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Julio C Montañez, Pablo Montero, Alejandra Montoya, Grea L Moreno-Banda, Andrea Pedroza-Tobías, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Amado D Quezada, Vesta L Richardson-López-Collada, Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Maria J Ríos Blancas, Christian Razo-Garcia, Martha P Romero Mendoza, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Luz M Sánchez-Romero, Astrid Schilmann, Edson Servan-Mori, Teresa Shamah-Levy, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, José L Texcalac-Sangrador, Haidong Wang, Theo Vos, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Mohsen Naghavi, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Rafael Lozano
BACKGROUND: Child and maternal health outcomes have notably improved in Mexico since 1990, whereas rising adult mortality rates defy traditional epidemiological transition models in which decreased death rates occur across all ages. These trends suggest Mexico is experiencing a more complex, dissonant health transition than historically observed. Enduring inequalities between states further emphasise the need for more detailed health assessments over time. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2013 (GBD 2013) provides the comprehensive, comparable framework through which such national and subnational analyses can occur...
October 5, 2016: Lancet
Elaine Hsieh
In this narrative review, the author synthesizes the literature on homelessness across various disciplines (e.g., public health, social work, sociology, and communication) to demonstrate how the experiences of homelessness can be created, maintained, and reinforced through communication, including interpersonal interactions and public discourse. By conceptualizing homelessness as a culturally constructed and socially situated phenomenon, the author examines (a) the complex conceptualization of homelessness, (b) everyday violence faced by people who are homeless, and (c) coping strategies of people who are homeless...
October 7, 2016: Social Work in Public Health
Lois Orton, Andy Pennington, Shilpa Nayak, Amanda Sowden, Martin White, Margaret Whitehead
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on health-related outcomes, of group microfinance schemes based on collective empowerment. METHODS: We searched the databases Social Sciences Citation Index, Embase, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, PsycINFO, Social Policy & Practice and Conference Proceedings Citation Index for articles published between 1 January 1980 and 29 February 2016. Articles reporting on health impacts associated with group-based microfinance were included in a narrative synthesis...
September 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Joan Samuels-Dennis, Liudi Xia, Sandra Secord, Amelia Raiger
Poverty, along with other factors such as unemployment, work and life stressors, interpersonal violence, and lack of access to high quality health and/or social services all play a role in determining who develops a mental illness and for whom those symptoms persist or worsen. Senior nursing student preparing to enter the field and working in a service learning capacity may be able to influence early recovery and symptom abatement among those most vulnerable to mental illness. A consortium of community stakeholders and researchers collaboratively designed a 10-week mental health promotion project called the Health Advocacy Project (HAP)...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
Leslie J Sattler, Kristie A Thomas, Tamara L Cadet
Youth violence in high schools is a pervasive and persistent problem in the United States. Students engage in physical fights, experience bullying and teen dating violence (TDV), are threatened with weapons, and miss school due to safety concerns. However, despite theoretical support, research has not sufficiently addressed the relationship between students' fear and fighting at school. This secondary analysis used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 13,583) to examine the relationship between fear at school, victimization, and engagement in fighting at school among high school students...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Susanna Pallini, Agnese Alfani, Lucrezia Marech, Fiorenzo Laghi
OBJECTIVES: Women victims of IPV are more likely insecurely attached and have experienced childhood abuse, which according to the attachment theory is deeply related to disorganized attachment. This case-control study was performed with the aim to compare the attachment status and the defensive processing patterns of women victims of IPV (cases) with women with no experiences of IPV (controls). METHODS: Cases were 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 51 years...
October 4, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Stjepan Siber, Marko Matijević, Miroslav Sikora, Dinko Leović, Ivan Mumlek, Darko Macan
OBJECTIVES: The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35...
December 2015: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
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