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Interpersonal violence

E K Hopper, L D Gonzalez
Human trafficking is a form of interpersonal trauma that has significant mental health impacts on survivors. This study examined psychological symptoms in 131 survivors of sex and labor trafficking, including people trafficked into or within the U.S. High rates of depression (71%) and PTSD (61%) were identified. Two thirds of survivors also met criteria for multiple categories of Complex PTSD (C-PTSD), including affect dysregulation and impulsivity; alterations in attention and consciousness; changes in interpersonal relationships; revictimization; somatic dysregulation; and alterations in self-perception...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
R V Herron, M A Wrathall
Living alongside and working with people with dementia who yell or strike out can be very demanding and sometimes harmful. It is generally understood that such actions may be a response to the social and physical environment, yet very little attention has been paid to understanding what role the environment plays in eliciting and responding to these actions across different settings. Drawing on 27 semi-structured interviews with formal and informal carers, this article examines how carers understand the actions of people with dementia in relation to their environment...
March 10, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Dana E Goin, Kara E Rudolph, Jennifer Ahern
Interpersonal firearm violence is a leading cause of death and injuries in the United States. Identifying community characteristics associated with firearm violence is important to improve confounder selection and control in health research, to better understand community-level factors that are associated with firearm violence, and to enhance community surveillance and control of firearm violence. The objective of this research was to use machine learning to identify an optimal set of predictors for urban interpersonal firearm violence rates using a broad set of community characteristics...
March 14, 2018: Health & Place
Tiago Gai Aita, Cecília Luiz Pereira Stabile, Cássia Cilene Dezan Garbelini, Glaykon Alex Vitti Stabile
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate whether the Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS), proposed by Bagheri et al in 2006, can predict intervention needs in the operating room (OR), length of hospital stay, and need for support by other specialties. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from the medical records of trauma patients from a public tertiary hospital between January 2009 and December 2015, related to age, gender, comorbidities, habits, history of maxillofacial trauma, etiology, and presence and location of fractures and lacerations, in addition to type of treatment performed and period of hospitalization...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Martha P Romero Mendoza, Héctor Gómez-Dantes, Quetzaliztli Manríquez Montiel, Gabriela J Saldívar Hernández, Julio C Campuzano Rincón, Rafael Lozano, María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza
The increasing burden of interpersonal violence in women in Mexico is a neglected social and health problem that competes with other leading causes of premature death, disability, and health losses in young women. In this article, we focus on revealing the burden of violence in girls and young women and its implications for public policy. This study presents the subnational analysis of Mexico from the Global Burden of Disease study (1990-2015). The global study harmonized information of 195 countries and 79 risk factors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Christiana R Dallas, Curtis H Harris, Cham E Dallas
In the U.S., migration has been documented to affect the prevalence of infectious disease. As a mitigation entity, border security has been recorded by numerous scholarly works as being essential to the support of the health of the U.S. POPULATION: Consequently, the lack of current health care monitoring of the permeable U.S. border places the U.S. population at risk in the broad sectors of infectious disease and interpersonal violence. Visualizing border security in the context of public health mitigation has significant potential to protect migrant health as well as that of all populations on both sides of the border...
March 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Rebecca W Stubbs, Chloe Morozoff, Shreya Shirude, Jürgen Unützer, Mohsen Naghavi, Ali H Mokdad, Christopher J L Murray
Importance: Substance use disorders, including alcohol use disorders and drug use disorders, and intentional injuries, including self-harm and interpersonal violence, are important causes of early death and disability in the United States. Objective: To estimate age-standardized mortality rates by county from alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, self-harm, and interpersonal violence in the United States. Design and Setting: Validated small-area estimation models were applied to deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the US Census Bureau, NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database to estimate county-level mortality rates from 1980 to 2014 for alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, self-harm, and interpersonal violence...
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Connie McGilloway, David Smith, Rose Galvin
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of sexual violence against adults with intellectual disability is significantly higher than in the general population. The aim of this systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis was to explore the barriers faced by adults with intellectual disability in reporting sexual assault from the perspective of different stakeholders. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Sangwon Kim, Yanghee Lee
Many things can harm children's well-being. Among them, exposure to parental violence makes children vulnerable and often leads to aggression and/or depression. However, not all children who have suffered parental violence show aggressive behavior or depressive mood. Social capital, defined as resources accruing from interpersonal relationships, was proposed to significantly mediate the relationships among adverse experiences and their negative impacts. In previous studies, social capital accrued from parents played a positive role for children in violent situations, but children exposed to parental violence need alternative sources of social capital...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Lorraine T Benuto, Yueran Yang, Andrew Ahrendt, Caroline Cummings
Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is a pattern of psychological symptoms that approximates the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and occurs in professionals who are exposed to individuals who have experienced trauma. While victim advocates are frontline health professionals who are trained to support victims of crime and interpersonal violence and are at risk for developing STS, they have been largely neglected in the extant literature on STS. The STS Scale (STSS) is a 17-item self-report questionnaire utilized to assess frequency of symptoms of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal, specifically related to providing services to victims of trauma...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Michele Cascardi, Megan Chesin, Molly Kammen
Perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) represent a heterogeneous group who engage in a variety of aggressive acts which often co-occur. However, few studies take this co-occurrence into consideration. Failure to consider overlapping forms of IPV confounds understanding of risk factors for physical IPV, which in turn undermines identification, prevention, and intervention efforts. Though rarely studied in emerging adults, personality variables have recently been identified as important correlates of IPV...
March 12, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Celia Hsiao, Deborah Fry, Catherine L Ward, Gary Ganz, Tabitha Casey, Xiaodong Zheng, Xiangming Fang
Despite the extent and magnitude of violence against children in South Africa, political and financial investments to prevent violence against children remain low. A recent costing study investigating the social burden and economic impact of violence against children in South Africa found notable reductions to mental and physical health outcomes in the population if children were prevented from experiencing violence, neglect and witnessing family violence. The results showed, among others, that drug abuse in the entire population could be reduced by up to 14% if sexual violence against children could be prevented, self-harm could be reduced by 23% in the population if children did not experience physical violence, anxiety could be reduced by 10% if children were not emotionally abused, alcohol abuse could be reduced by 14% in women if they did not experience neglect as children, and lastly, interpersonal violence in the population could be reduced by 16% if children did not witness family violence...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Kathryn E Cherry, Claudia Campbell, Elise Trombetta
Complex trauma exposure has been defined as multiple or chronic interpersonal trauma that begins early in life, which leads to widespread dysregulation. Previous studies have reported that minorities may be at greater risk for trauma exposure and symptoms; yet, racial differences have not been investigated in the context of complex trauma. The aim of the present study was to determine if there are racial disparities in children's trauma exposure and outcomes among 167 child survivors of complex trauma (3-18 years, M = 9...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Audrey Luo, Hongbo He, Somaia Mohamed, Robert Rosenheck
Stigma towards people with mental illness is a worldwide concern. A five-nation survey of medical student attitudes towards people with mental illness recently reported far lower levels of social acceptance among Chinese medical students compared to those from the US, Brazil, Ghana, and Nigeria. This qualitative study presented recent Chinese medical school graduates with probes based on questions used in the aforementioned cross-national study to elicit their views of factors underlying the negative attitudes towards social acceptance of people with mental illness...
March 5, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Anvita Bhardwaj, Christine Bourey, Sauharda Rai, Ramesh Prasad Adhikari, Carol M Worthman, Brandon A Kohrt
Background: Suicide risk reduction is crucial for 15-29-year-old youth, who account for 46% of suicide deaths in low- and middle-income countries. Suicide predictors in high-resource settings, specifically depression, do not adequately predict suicidality in these settings. We explored if interpersonal violence (IPV) was associated with suicidality, independent of depression, in Nepal. Methods: A longitudinal cohort of child soldiers and matched civilian children, enrolled in 2007 after the People's War in Nepal, were re-interviewed in 2012...
2018: Global Mental Health
Edith Van't Hof, Katie S Dawson, Alison Schafer, Anna Chiumento, Melissa Harper Shehadeh, Marit Sijbrandij, Richard A Bryant, Dorothy Anjuri, Phiona Koyiet, Lincoln Ndogoni, Jeannette Ulate, Mark van Ommeren
Background: Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief multicomponent intervention incorporating behavioral strategies delivered by lay health workers. The effectiveness of PM+ has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials in Kenya and Pakistan. When developing interventions for large-scale implementation it is considered essential to evaluate their feasibility and acceptability in addition to their efficacy. This paper discusses a qualitative evaluation of PM+ for women affected by adversity in Kenya...
2018: Global Mental Health
Erin J Rotheram-Fuller, Mark Tomlinson, Aaron Scheffler, Thomas W Weichle, Panteha Hayati Rezvan, Warren Scott Comulada, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
OBJECTIVE: The consequences of maternal depressed mood on children's growth, health, and cognitive and language development are examined over the first 3 years of life. METHOD: Pregnant women in 24 periurban township neighborhoods in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 1,238 mothers) were randomized by neighborhood to a home visiting intervention or a standard care condition. Reassessments were conducted for 93%-85% of mothers at 2-weeks, 6-, 18-, and 36-months postbirth...
March 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Sabrina R Liu, Maryam Kia-Keating
OBJECTIVE: Occurring at an alarming rate in the United States, mass violence has been linked to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in both direct victims and community members who are indirectly exposed. Identifying what distinct exposure patterns exist and their relation to later PTSS has important clinical implications. The present study determined classes of exposure to an event of mass violence, and if PTSS differed across classes. METHOD: First- and second-year college students (N = 1,189) participated in a confidential online survey following a mass murder at their university, which assessed event exposure and PTSS 3 months later...
March 5, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Marboh Goretti Iaisuklang, Arif Ali
Context: Psychological distress is higher in women working in sex industry. The various psycho social issues are associated with female commercial sex workers (FCSWs). The host of psychosocial vulnerabilities including, childhood sexual abuse, exposure to childhood physical abuse, poverty, interpersonal violence in adulthood, sexually transmitted diseases, and substance use, forms a fertile ground for psychiatric morbidity. Aim: This study aims to assess the psychiatric morbidity among FCSWs in Shillong, India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Cave Sinai, Tatja Hirvikoski, Maria Wiklander, Anna-Lena Nordström, Peter Nordström, Åsa Nilsonne, Alexander Wilczek, Marie Åsberg, Jussi Jokinen
BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the validity of the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS), as a screening tool for PTSD, among women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and severe suicidal behavior. METHOD: 106 women with BPD and at least two suicide attempts were assessed with the KIVS for exposure to interpersonal violence as a child and as an adult. The screening ability of the KIVS for the diagnosis of PTSD was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
February 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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