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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154436/the-ecology-of-teachers-experiences-with-violence-and-lack-of-administrative-support
#1
Susan D McMahon, Samantha Reaves, Elizabeth A McConnell, Eric Peist, Linda Ruiz
Teacher-directed violence is a common, yet understudied, phenomenon. Perpetrators of violence against teachers include not just students, but also administrators, parents, and colleagues. Administrators are key stakeholders when it comes to shaping school climate and safety that can reduce or increase the negative impact of violence against teachers. In this study, 237 teachers' qualitative responses from a larger sample of 2,431 anonymous, online survey responses were examined to better understand their experiences with incidents of violence and how administrators played a role in these experiences...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153459/-intrafamilial-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-present-data-and-treatment-prospects
#2
E Bousquet, N Franc, C Ha, D Purper-Ouakil
Child-to-parent violence is a form of family violence that is still a well-kept secret. Abused parents can be victims of different types of abuse. Children can use both physical and psychological violence such as financial threats to take control of the home. In this situation, parents often no longer dare to contradict their children by fear of triggering uncontrollable violence. Although the phenomenon recently drew the attention of the media, there is still little knowledge about its prevalence and clinical characteristics...
November 16, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144224/violence-exposure-and-neural-systems-underlying-working-memory-for-emotional-stimuli-in-youth
#3
Jessica L Jenness, Maya L Rosen, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
Violence exposure during childhood is common and associated with poor cognitive and academic functioning. However, little is known about how violence exposure influences cognitive processes that might contribute to these disparities, such as working memory, or their neural underpinnings, particularly for cognitive processes that occur in emotionally salient contexts. We address this gap in a sample of 54 participants aged 8 to 19 years (50% female), half with exposure to interpersonal violence. Participants completed a delayed match to sample task for emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132272/traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-conceptual-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-considerations-in-the-context-of-co-occurrence
#4
Jennifer J Vasterling, Shawna N Jacob, Ann Rasmusson
The events leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often psychologically traumatic (e.g., motor vehicle accidents) or occur within a broader context of psychological trauma, such as military combat or recurrent interpersonal violence. In such cases, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop and serve to complicate TBI recovery. Likewise, brain trauma may impede emotional resolution following psychological trauma exposure. This article addresses comorbid PTSD and TBI, including the epidemiology of PTSD following TBI; the clinical presentation of the comorbidity; potential mechanisms that complicate recovery from psychological trauma and TBI when they co-occur; and considerations for the clinical management of PTSD in the context of TBI, including implications for both psychosocial and psychopharmacological PTSD treatments...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112689/hiv-prevalence-and-behavioral-and-psychosocial-factors-among-transgender-women-and-cisgender-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-8-african-countries-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#5
Tonia Poteat, Benjamin Ackerman, Daouda Diouf, Nuha Ceesay, Tampose Mothopeng, Ky-Zerbo Odette, Seni Kouanda, Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Anato Simplice, Abo Kouame, Zandile Mnisi, Gift Trapence, L Leigh Ann van der Merwe, Vicente Jumbe, Stefan Baral
INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111954/working-with-stories-street-level-bureaucrats-and-their-work-with-individuals-with-psychiatric-disability-exposed-to-interpersonal-violence
#6
Ulf Ericsson, Anita Bengtsson Tops
The focus of our attention is the meeting between street-level bureaucrats and individuals with psychiatric disability exposed to interpersonal violence. Based on eleven interviews, we illustrate how stories are understood, used and made meaningful to the street-level bureaucrat. The contribution of this article is first of all that of being a framework, from a storytelling point of view, for the work and organizational experiences of street-level bureaucrats. Secondly, by paying attention to the story part of these relationships, we can better understand the situation of individuals with psychiatric disability exposed to interpersonal violence given their interaction with different street-level bureaucrats...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098071/the-use-of-the-clinical-ethnographic-narrative-interview-to-understand-and-support-help-seeking-after-gender-based-violence
#7
Denise M Saint Arnault
Gender-based violence (GBV), characterized by the abduction or rape of women and girls to humiliate, intimidate, and traumatize them and their communities, is a profoundly disturbing tactic in international conflict. Long after armed conflict has ended, survivors continue to experience physical injuries, psychological trauma, and social and cultural stigma. Guilt, shame, and continued interpersonal violence can become a normalized part of daily life, significantly challenging the road to healing and recovery...
September 2017: TPM. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097401/sensitive-periods-for-the-effect-of-childhood-interpersonal-violence-on-psychiatric-disorder-onset-among-adolescents
#8
Erin C Dunn, Yan Wang, Jenny Tse, Katie A McLaughlin, Garrett Fitzmaurice, Stephen E Gilman, Ezra S Susser
BackgroundAlthough childhood adversity is a strong determinant of psychopathology, it remains unclear whether there are 'sensitive periods' when a first episode of adversity is most harmful.AimsTo examine whether variation in the developmental timing of a first episode of interpersonal violence (up to age 18) associates with risk for psychopathology.MethodUsing cross-sectional data, we examined the association between age at first exposure to four types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse by parents, physical abuse by others, rape, and sexual assault/molestation) and onset of four classes of DSM-IV disorders (distress, fear, behaviour, substance use) (n = 9984)...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091828/prospectively-predicting-ptsd-status-with-heart-rate-reactivity-and-recovery-in-interpersonal-violence-survivors
#9
Brittany F Goodman, Michael G Griffin
The current study used heart rate (HR) reactivity to personalized trauma cues and HR recovery to predict later Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) status in female interpersonal violence survivors. A scripted imagery paradigm was used to assess initial (M = 1 month posttrauma) HR reactivity during exposure to and recovery following idiographic trauma cues. In addition, follow-up PTSD status (M = 8 months posttrauma) was assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD scale (CAPS). A logistic regression was used to predict PTSD status at the follow-up assessment with HR reactivity during exposure to a personalized trauma audio script and recovery periods at initial assessment entered hierarchically...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#10
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082128/family-violence-in-a-sample-of-treatment-seeking-gamblers-the-effect-of-having-dependent-children
#11
Maria Bellringer, Janet Pearson, Katie Palmer du Preez, Denise Wilson, Jane Koziol-McLain, Nick Garrett, Max Abbott
This study investigated the effect of problem gambler gender on the relationship between the gambler having dependent children (younger than 18 years) living at home and the gambler perpetrating or being a victim of family violence. The sample comprised 164 help-seeking gamblers (43% female; 37% with dependent child/ren) recruited from three national gambling treatment services in New Zealand. Family violence was measured using a modified version of the HITS scale covering physical, psychological, verbal, emotional and sexual violence...
2017: Asian journal of gambling issues and public health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075426/trauma-and-ptsd-in-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#12
Ronald C Kessler, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Corina Benjet, Evelyn J Bromet, Graça Cardoso, Louisa Degenhardt, Giovanni de Girolamo, Rumyana V Dinolova, Finola Ferry, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Yueqin Huang, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Daphna Levinson, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Kate M Scott, Dan J Stein, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Maria Carmen Viana, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Karestan C Koenen
Background: Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their 'worst.' Objective: To review research on associations of trauma type with PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of epidemiological surveys that obtained representative data on trauma-specific PTSD. Method: WMH Surveys in 24 countries (n = 68,894) assessed 29 lifetime traumas and evaluated PTSD twice for each respondent: once for the 'worst' lifetime trauma and separately for a randomly-selected trauma with weighting to adjust for individual differences in trauma exposures...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067831/social-and-structural-factors-increase-inconsistent-condom-use-by-sex-workers-one-time-and-regular-clients-in-northern-uganda
#13
Putu Duff, Josephine Birungi, Sabina Dobrer, Monika Akello, Godfrey Muzaaya, Kate Shannon
While sex workers (SWs) bear the brunt of the epidemic in Uganda, there remains a dearth of empirical research on the structural drivers of HIV prevention among SWs. This study examined the drivers of inconsistent condom use by one-time and regular clients of young women SWs in Gulu, Northern Uganda. Data were drawn from the Gulu Sexual Health Study, a cross-sectional study of young SWs, aged 14 years and older (2011-2012). SWs were recruited using peer/SW-led outreach, in partnership with The AIDS Support Organization and other CBOs...
October 25, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062296/a-social-ecological-framework-of-theory-assessment-and-prevention-of-suicide
#14
REVIEW
Robert J Cramer, Nestor D Kapusta
The juxtaposition of increasing suicide rates with continued calls for suicide prevention efforts begs for new approaches. Grounded in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) framework for tackling health issues, this personal views work integrates relevant suicide risk/protective factor, assessment, and intervention/prevention literatures. Based on these components of suicide risk, we articulate a Social-Ecological Suicide Prevention Model (SESPM) which provides an integration of general and population-specific risk and protective factors...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059689/in-state-and-interstate-associations-between-gun-shows-and-firearm-deaths-and-injuries-a-quasi-experimental-study
#15
Ellicott C Matthay, Jessica Galin, Kara E Rudolph, Kriszta Farkas, Garen J Wintemute, Jennifer Ahern
Background: Gun shows are an important source of firearms, but no adequately powered studies have examined whether they are associated with increases in firearm injuries. Objective: To determine whether gun shows are associated with short-term increases in local firearm injuries and whether this association differs by the state in which the gun show is held. Design: Quasi-experimental. Setting: California. Participants: Persons in California within driving distance of gun shows...
October 24, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032947/temporal-distribution-of-alcohol-related-facial-fractures
#16
Kai H Lee, Michael Qiu, Jiandong Sun
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to address 2 important aspects of temporal pattern in alcohol-related facial fractures: (1) comparison of temporal pattern of alcohol-related facial fracture (alcohol group) presentation with non-alcohol-related fracture (non-alcohol group) presentation; (2) temporal pattern of patient demographic characteristics, injury characteristics, and surgical management in the alcohol group presentation. STUDY DESIGN: This study retrospectively examined the Victorian admitted episodes data set (VAED) for the years 2010 to 2013...
September 19, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032323/neural-activity-during-traumatic-film-viewing-is-linked-to-endogenous-estradiol-and-hormonal-contraception
#17
Stephan F Miedl, Melanie Wegerer, Hubert Kerschbaum, Jens Blechert, Frank H Wilhelm
Women are at higher risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and recent research has highlighted a modulating role of female sex hormones for cognitive and emotional processes potentially underlying PTSD symptoms. However, studies combining fMRI recordings of brain activity during trauma film viewing with assessment of female sex hormones are missing. The trauma film paradigm - a widely used experimental analogue for trauma exposure - confronts healthy participants with traumatic film clips and thus allows studying peritraumatic processing under laboratory conditions...
October 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030157/bits-and-pieces-a-crowd-sourced-series-of-54-cases-of-fractured-hormonal-implants
#18
Bonnie C Crouthamel, Melissa A Schiff, Anne-Marie E Amies Oelschlager, Sarah W Prager, Katherine E Debiec
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The fracture of hormonal implants, including Implanon, Nexplanon, and histrelin acetate is rare. Our aim was to describe patient demographics, mechanisms, and consequences of fractured implants by surveying physicians' experience via listservs and social media. DESIGN: We developed a REDCap survey for physicians regarding their experience with implant fracture, including patient characteristics, mechanism of fracture, changes in menstrual bleeding patterns, time from insertion to fracture, and time from fracture to seeking care...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029680/long-term-effectiveness-of-treatment-as-usual-couple-therapy-for-military-veterans
#19
Kathryn M Nowlan, Emily J Georgia, Brian D Doss
Despite the fact that veterans face increased psychological and relationship distress as a result of their service-related experiences, no study to date has explored the long-term effectiveness of couple therapy for veterans. In the present investigation, 238 individuals (113 couples and 12 additional individuals) completed assessments 18 months after termination of treatment-as-usual couple therapy at two Veteran Administration Medical Centers. From pretreatment to 18-month follow-up, couples experienced significant increases in relationship satisfaction (d = 0...
November 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025051/integrating-behavioral-health-risk-assessment-into-centralized-intake-for-maternal-and-child-health-services
#20
Sarah Kye Price, D Crystal Coles, Tracey Wingold
Effectively promoting women's health during and around the time of pregnancy requires early, nonstigmatizing identification and assessment of behavioral health risks (such as depression, substance use, smoking, and interpersonal violence) combined with timely linkage to community support and specialized interventions. This article describes an integrated approach to behavioral health risk screening woven into a point of first contact with the health care delivery system: centralized intake for maternal and child health home visiting programs...
September 4, 2017: Health & Social Work
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