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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149084/preparative-separation-and-purification-of-four-glycosides-from-gentianae-radix-by-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography-and-comparison-of-their-anti-no-production-effects
#1
Bao Chen, Yinghua Peng, Xinhui Wang, Zhiman Li, Yinshi Sun
Secoiridoid and iridoid glycosides are the main active components of Gentianaeradix. In this work, one iridoid and three secoiridoid glycosides from Gentianaeradix have been purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography in two runs using different solvent systems. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (2:1:3, v/v/v) was the optimum solvent system to purify ca. 4.36 mg of loganic acid, 3.05 mg of swertiamarin, and 35.66 mg of gentiopicroside with 98.1%, 97.2% and 98.6% purities, respectively, while 31.15 mg of trifloroside with 98...
November 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141871/potential-approaches-to-prevent-hypoglycemia-associated-autonomic-failure
#2
REVIEW
Eric Lontchi-Yimagou, Jee Young You, Michelle Carey, Ilan Gabriely, Harry Shamoon, Meredith Hawkins
Clear health benefits are associated with intensive glucose control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, maintaining near-normal glycemia remains an elusive goal for many patients, in large part owing to the risk of severe hypoglycemia. In fact, recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia lead to 'hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure' (HAAF), characterized by defective counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Extensive studies to understand the mechanisms underlying HAAF have revealed multiple potential etiologies, suggesting various approaches to prevent the development of HAAF...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141680/applying-a-community-based-participatory-research-approach-to-improve-access-to-healthcare-for-eritrean-asylum-seekers-in-israel-a-pilot-study
#3
Nora Gottlieb, Tomer Weinstein, Jonah Mink, Habtom M Ghebrezghiabher, Zebib Sultan, Rachel Reichlin
BACKGROUND: Israel hosts approximately 50,000 asylum seekers, most of them from Eritrea. Exclusive policies restrict their access to healthcare. In 2013, local activists partnered with Eritrean asylum seekers to assess health needs as well as willingness to pay for health insurance among the Eritrean communities. This initiative was meant as a step towards jointly advocating access to Israel's public healthcare system and towards strengthening collective efficacy among the asylum-seeking communities, as well as a first attempt to apply a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to migrant health research in Israel...
November 15, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140821/retarding-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-use-of-modalities-that-counter-acid-retention
#4
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acid retention because of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases tissue acidity and accelerates progression of CKD, whereas reduction in acid retention slows progression of CKD. Herein, we describe the mechanisms through which increased tissue acidity worsens CKD, modalities for countering acid retention and their impact on progression of CKD, and current recommendations for therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in animals and humans show that increased tissue acidity raises the renal levels of endothelin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and ammoniagenesis, thereby worsening renal fibrosis and causing progression of CKD...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138650/evaluation-of-antibiotic-self-medication-among-outpatients-of-the-state-university-hospital-of-port-au-prince-haiti-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Kenny Moise, Joseph Junior Bernard, Jean Hugues Henrys
In Haiti, where all drugs are available over the counter, self-medication with antibiotics appears as a common practice. Inappropriate use of beta-lactams and macrolides is likely to contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to (i) assess the extent of self-medication with antibiotics, (ii) explore the contributing factors (age, gender and educational background) and (iii) identify specific antibiotic drug classes used among patients attending the outpatient clinic of the State University Hospital of Port-au-Prince...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137778/the-use-of-ultrasound-to-reduce-internal-concentration-polarization-in-forward-osmosis
#6
Yongjun Choi, Tae-Mun Hwang, Sanghyun Jeong, Sangho Lee
Unlike reverse osmosis (RO) that is dominated by the hydraulic pressure differential, forward osmosis (FO) uses the osmotic pressure gradient as the driving force between a dilute feed solution and a concentrated draw solution across a membrane. High pressure is not required in FO, which means that FO can be used as an alternative to RO as an energy-saving separation process in desalination technology. However, a major limiting factor of the FO process is the internal concentration polarization (ICP). Because of the stagnant environment inside the porous supporting layer of a FO membrane, it is difficult to mitigate the ICP by simply increasing the shear stress or promoting turbulence...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136554/separation-and-purification-of-four-phenolic-compounds-from-persimmon-by-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography
#7
Jinming Peng, Kaikai Li, Wei Zhu, Xiangyi Deng, Chunmei Li
An efficient method was established by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) for preparation of four phenolic compounds from the depolymerization products of persimmon tannin. Using the two solvent systems of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/water (3:17:20, v/v/v) and ethyl acetate/methanol/water (50:1:50, v/v/v), the preparative isolation was successfully performed by a two-step separation. The yields of one run (150mg crude sample) for gallic acid, methyl gallate, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate-(4β→8, 2β→O→7)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate dimer (A-type EGCG dimer) were 4...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128777/a-systematic-review-of-heart-failure-dyadic-self-care-interventions-focusing-on-intervention-components-contexts-and-outcomes
#8
REVIEW
Harleah G Buck, Anna Stromberg, Misook L Chung, Kristine A Donovan, Karen Harkness, Allison M Howard, Naoko Kato, Randall Polo, Lorraine S Evangelista
BACKGROUND: Having support from an informal carer is important for heart failure patients. Carers have the potential to improve patient self-care. At the same time, it should be acknowledged that caregiving could affect the carer negatively and cause emotional reactions of burden and stress. Dyadic (patient and informal carer) heart failure self-care interventions seek to improve patient self-care such as adherence to medical treatment, exercise training, symptom monitoring and symptom management when needed...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125226/loperamide-cardiotoxicity-a-brief-review
#9
REVIEW
Tamer Akel, Soad Bekheit
Loperamide is a popular antidiarrheal medication that has been used for many years. It is currently gaining more attention among healthcare professionals due to its increasing potential for side effects. At present, it is considered safe enough to be sold over the counter. In contrast with other opioid agonists, loperamide is a peripherally acting μ-receptor agonist exerting its effects mainly on the myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal longitudinal muscle layer. It decreases peristalsis and fluid secretion resulting in longer gastrointestinal transit time...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122535/limited-output-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-lotes-2017-engineering-principles-regulatory-statutes-and-industry-standards-for-wellness-over-the-counter-or-prescription-devices-with-low-risk
#10
Marom Bikson, Bhaskar Paneri, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Bashar W Badran, Robin Azzam, Devin Adair, Abhishek Datta, Xiao Hui Fang, Brett Wingeier, Daniel Chao, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Kiwon Lee, Helena Knotkova, Adam J Woods, David Hagedorn, Doug Jeffery, James Giordano, William J Tyler
We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated...
October 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112836/developing-ionic-liquid-forms-of-picloram-with-reduced-negative-effects-on-the-aquatic-environment
#11
Gang Tang, Baitao Wang, Guanglong Ding, Wenbing Zhang, You Liang, Chen Fan, Hongqiang Dong, Jiale Yang, Dandan Kong, Yongsong Cao
As a widely used herbicide, picloram has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment due to its high leaching potential and low adsorption by soil. To reduce aquatic environmental risk of this herbicide caused by leaching and runoff, five herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) based on picloram were prepared by pairing isopropylamine, octylamine, octadecylamine, 1-methylimidazole, 4-methylmorpholine respectively. Their physicochemical properties including water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, surface activity, leaching, as well as soil adsorption were compared...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110286/the-better-understanding-and-recognition-of-the-disconnects-experiences-and-needs-of-patients-with-chronic-idiopathic-constipation-burden-cic-study-results-of-an-online-questionnaire
#12
Lucinda A Harris, John Horn, Michele Kissous-Hunt, Leslie Magnus, Eamonn M M Quigley
INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature comparing the experiences and attitudes of patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) to those of healthcare professionals (HCPs) treating CIC patients. The BURDEN-CIC study was conducted to better understand the experiences and ongoing needs of CIC patients and to assess their alignment versus disconnection with the perceptions and needs of HCPs who treat CIC patients. METHODS: The BURDEN-CIC study was an author-developed, online questionnaire that used KnowledgePanel(®) to survey individuals with CIC (n = 1223)...
November 6, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100721/two-determinations-of-the-ge-68-half-life
#13
Denis E Bergeron, Jeffrey T Cessna, Brian E Zimmerman
In nuclear medicine, (68)Ge is used to generate (68)Ga for imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) and sealed sources containing (68)Ge/(68)Ga in equilibrium have been adopted as long-lived calibration surrogates for the more common PET nuclide, (18)F. We prepared several (68)Ge sources for measurement on a NaI(Tl) well counter and a pressurized ionization chamber, following their decay for 110 weeks (≈ 2.8 half-lives). We determined values for the (68)Ge half-life of T1/2 = 271.14(15) d and T1/2 = 271...
October 20, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090656/trick-or-treat-microbial-pathogens-evolved-apoplastic-effectors-modulating-plant-susceptibility-to-infection
#14
Yan Wang, Yuanchao Wang
The apoplastic space between the plant cell wall and the plasma membrane constitutes a major battleground for plant-pathogen interactions. To survive in harsh conditions in the plant apoplast, pathogens must cope with various immune responses. During infection, plant pathogens secrete an arsenal of effector proteins into the apoplast milieu, some of which are detected by the plant surveillance system and, thus, activate plant innate immunity. Effectors that evade plant perception act in modulating plant apoplast immunity to favor successful pathogen infection...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089530/highly-n-doped-microporous-carbon-nanospheres-with-high-energy-storage-and-conversion-efficiency
#15
Cheolho Kim, Kiwon Kim, Jun Hyuk Moon
Porous carbon spheres (CSs) have distinct advantages in energy storage and conversion applications. We report the preparation of highly monodisperse N-doped microporous CSs through the carbonization of polystyrene-based polymer spheres and subsequent activation. The N-doped microporous CSs have a remarkably high N-doping content, over 10%, and high BET surface area of 884.9 m(2) g(-1). We characterize the synergistic effects of the micropores and N doping on the energy storage performance of a supercapacitor electrode consisting of the CSs and on the performance in an electrocatalytic reaction of a CS counter electrode in a photovoltaic cell...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079387/management-of-allergic-rhinitis-a-review-for-the-community-pharmacist
#16
REVIEW
J Russell May, William K Dolen
PURPOSE: Allergic rhinitis is a highly prevalent disease affecting the quality of life of millions of North Americans. The management of allergic rhinitis includes allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, and immunotherapy. Current pharmacologic options include oral and intranasal antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, oral and intranasal decongestants, oral and intranasal anticholinergics, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Second-generation oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstays of treatment, with practice guidelines recommending intranasal corticosteroids as first-line treatment for moderate to severe allergic rhinitis...
October 24, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078985/definition-and-dynamic-control-of-a-continuous-chromatography-process-independent-of-cell-culture-titer-and-impurities
#17
Rebecca A Chmielowski, Linda Mathiasson, Hans Blom, Daniel Go, Hanno Ehring, Heera Khan, Hong Li, Collette Cutler, Karol Lacki, Nihal Tugcu, David Roush
Advances in cell culture technology have enabled the production of antibody titers upwards of 30g/L. These highly productive cell culture systems can potentially lead to productivity bottlenecks in downstream purification due to lower column loadings, especially in the primary capture chromatography step. Alternative chromatography solutions to help remedy this bottleneck include the utilization of continuous processing systems such as periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC). Recent studies have provided methods to optimize and improve the design of PCC for cell culture titers up to about 3g/L...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078837/eosinophilic-lung-disease
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan C Weissler
Eosinophils are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Recent advances in eosinophil biology have now produced clinically applicable therapies that seek to counter eosinophilia in blood and lungs. This article reviews the basic biology of eosinophils and their role in mediating T-helper 2 cell responses. The current status of anticytokine therapy for eosinophilic lung disease is discussed. A clinical approach to eosinophilic lung disease based on symptoms and radiography is generated. The clinical significance of persistent eosinophilia in lung transplant patients and patients with asthma will receive special emphasis...
October 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076611/-i-can-see-it-and-i-can-feel-it-but-i-can-t-put-my-finger-on-it-a-foucauldian-discourse-analysis-of-experiences-of-relating-on-psychiatric-inpatient-units
#19
John Cheetham, Sue Holttum, Neil Springham, Kate Butt
OBJECTIVES: Research has shown interpersonal relationships influence experiences of inpatient psychiatric services. This study explored inpatient staff and service users' talk about relating, and consequences on available/limited social actions. DESIGN: A Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to analyse transcribed semi-structured interviews and focus groups with current inpatient staff members and members of a service-user involvement group. METHOD: Two focus groups (service users n = 10; staff n = 6) and five interviews (service users n = 2; staff n = 3) were held, with participants responding to questions regarding the discursive object of 'experiences of relating on inpatient wards'...
October 27, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071789/online-hyphenation-of-extraction-sephadex-lh-20-column-chromatography-and-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography-a-highly-efficient-strategy-for-the-preparative-separation-of-andrographolide-from-andrographis-paniculata-in-a-single-step
#20
Ying-Qi Zhang, Shan-Shan Wang, Chao Han, Jin-Fang Xu, Jian-Guang Luo, Ling-Yi Kong
A novel isolation strategy, on-line hyphenation of ultrasonic extraction, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography, was developed for pure compounds extraction and purification. Andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata was achieved only in a single step purification protocol via the present strategy. The crude powder was ultrasonic extracted and extraction was pumped into Sephadex LH-20 column directly to cut the non-target fractions followed by the second dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography, hyphenated by a six-port valve equipped at the post-end of Sephadex LH-20 column, for the final purification...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
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