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Qiang Cai, Baoye He, Karl-Heinz Kogel, Hailing Jin
In plants, small RNA (sRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is critical for regulating host immunity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, viruses, and pests. Similarly, sRNAs from pathogens and pests also play an important role in modulating their virulence. Strikingly, recent evidence supports that some sRNAs can travel between interacting organisms and induce gene silencing in the counter party, a mechanism termed cross-kingdom RNAi. Exploiting this new knowledge, host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) by transgenic expression of pathogen gene-targeting double-stranded (ds)RNA has the potential to become an important disease-control method...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Boon Phiaw Kho, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Ching Jou Lim, Fahad Saleem
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this research were to determine extra-organisational challenges (e.g. market competition, governing policies) faced by community pharmacies in Sarawak, the coping strategies employed to deal with these challenges and explore potential legislative changes that can attenuate the intensity of these challenges. METHODS: Survey questionnaires (n = 184) were posted to all eligible community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaire included sections on participants' demographic data, extra-organisational challenges faced, coping strategies employed and proposals to improve community pharmacy legislations...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Carine Smith
The modern lifestyle is characterised by various factors that cause accelerating ageing by the upregulation of oxidative stress and inflammation-two processes that are inextricably linked in an endless circle of self-propagation. Inflammation in particular is commonly accepted as aetiological factor in many chronic disease states, such as obesity, diabetes and depression. In terms of disease prevention or treatment, interventions aimed at changing dietary and/or exercise habits have had limited success in practise, mostly due to poor long-term compliance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Yingqiu Mao, Bi-Xiao Wang, Chunxu Zhao, Guangquan Wang, Ruichun Wang, Honghai Wang, Fei Zhou, Jimin Nie, Qing Chen, Yong Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Jun Zhang, Teng-Yun Chen, Jian-Wei Pan
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum mechanics. The desire to reduce costs and increase robustness in real-world applications has motivated the study of coexistence between QKD and intense classical data traffic in a single fiber. Previous works on coexistence in metropolitan areas have used wavelength-division multiplexing, however, coexistence in backbone fiber networks remains a great experimental challenge, as Tbps data of up to 20 dBm optical power is transferred, and much more noise is generated for QKD...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Tom M McLellan, Lyndon A Riviere, Kelly W Williams, Dennis McGurk, Harris R Lieberman
OBJECTIVES: Combat deployments are characterized by high operational demands with limited opportunities for sleep leading to fatigue and degraded cognitive and operational performance. Caffeine in moderate doses is recognized as an effective intervention for physical and cognitive decrements associated with sleep loss. METHODS: This report is based on data collected by two separate, independently conducted surveys administered in Afghanistan in 2011-2012. It assessed caffeine use and sleep disruption among U...
March 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Brad Wright, Samantha Mestan, Monica Ahrens, Edward Bottei
OBJECTIVE: To describe current trends in nonopioid substance exposures and associated outcomes among teenagers nationwide. STUDY DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, we used 2010-2015 data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System and Poisson tests to document trends in the rate of calls to poison control centers involving adolescents stratified by sex, exposures by substance category, proportion of intentional exposures, and severity of exposures...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Matic Grom, Mirijam Kozorog, Simon Caserman, Andrej Pohar, Blaž Likozar
Protein A-based affinity chromatography is a highly-efficient separation method to capture, purify and isolate biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAb) - an important medical product of biopharmaceutical industrial manufacturing. It is considered the most expensive step in purification downstream operations; therefore, its performance optimization offers a great cost saving in the overall production expenditure. The biochemical mixture-separating specific interaction experiments with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture harvest, containing glycosylated extracellular immunoglobulins (Ig), were made using five different state-of-the-art commercial resins...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
John Jensen, Niels Christian Kyvsgaard, Antonio Battisti, Keith Edward Baptiste
At great economic cost, important steps have been taken over the last many decades to reduce and control emissions of heavy metals in order to protect the environment and public health. Monitoring has confirmed the success of these policies with progressive declines of heavy metals in for example air, sewage sludge and environmental samples. For zinc, such improvements may nevertheless be counter-acted by its widely usage as a feed additive and veterinary medicinal product to piglets in the post-weaning period resulting in reduced occurrence of diarrhea and improvement of daily weight gain...
March 5, 2018: Environment International
Tamara M Rosner, Raúl López-Benítez, Maria C D'Angelo, David Thomson, Bruce Milliken
The present study examines the effect of immediate repetition on recognition memory. In a series of 4 experiments, the study phase task was to name aloud a word that was immediately preceded by either the same word (repeated trials) or a different word (not-repeated trials). Across experiments, performance in the study phase demonstrated the anticipated benefit in naming times for repeated trials. More important, performance in the test phase revealed greater sensitivity for not-repeated than repeated trials...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
Shanmuganathan Venkatesan, Elmer Surya Darlim, Ming-Hsiang Tsai, Hsisheng Teng, Yuh-Lang Lee
A graphene oxide sponge (GOS) is utilized the first time as a nanofiller (NF) in poly ethylene oxide (PEO) and poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based printable electrolytes (PEs) for quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSCs). The effects of the various concentrations of GOS NFs on the ion diffusivity and conductivity of electrolytes and the performance of the QS-DSSCs are studied. The results show that the presence of GOS NFs significantly increases the diffusivity and conductivity of the PEs. The introduction of 1...
March 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marilena Crescente, Laura Menke, Melissa V Chan, Paul C Armstrong, Timothy D Warner
Platelets are important players in thrombosis and haemostasis with their function being modulated by mediators in the blood and the vascular wall. Among these, eicosanoids can both stimulate or inhibit platelet reactivity. Platelet cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 generated thromboxane (TX) A2 is the primary prostanoid that stimulates platelet aggregation; its action is counter-balanced by prostaglandin (PG)I2 (prostacyclin), a product of vascular COX. PGD2 , PGE2 , 12- hydroxyeicosatraenoic acid (HETE) or 15-HETE, are other prostanoid modulators of platelet activity, but some also play a role in carcinogenesis...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Dong Wu, Ruoqi Ma, Huawei Wei, Kai Yang, Bing Xie
Around 350 million tons of solid waste is disposed of in landfills every year globally, with millions of cubic meters of landfill leachates released into neighboring environment. However, to date, little is known about the variations of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in on-site leachate treatment systems and its development in leachate-receiving water environment. Here, we quantified 7 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), 3 types of culturable antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and 6 subtypes of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the effluents from a combined leachate treatment process, including biological treatment (MBR), physical separation (UF), ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and advanced oxidation process (AOP)...
March 1, 2018: Environment International
Oded Langer
Controversies persist over the most efficacious pharmacologic treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus. For purposes of accuracy in this article, the individual American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice Bulletin and American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care positions on each issue are quoted and then deliberated with evidence of counter claims presented in point/counterpoint. This is a review of all the relevant evidence for the most holistic picture possible. The main issues are (1) which diabetic drugs cross the placenta, (2) the quality of evidence and data source validity, (3) the rationale for the designation of glucose control as the primary outcome in gestational diabetes mellitus, and (4) which drugs (metformin, glyburide, or insulin) are most effective in improving secondary outcomes...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jinzhe He, Peng Fan, Simin Feng, Ping Shao, Peilong Sun
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to separate and purify two isoflavones for the first time from Hericium erinaceum ( H. erinaceum ) mycelium using a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:2:3:2, v / v / v / v ). These two isoflavones were identified as genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, C15 H10 O₅) and daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone, C15 H10 O₄), using infrared spectroscopy (IR), electro-spary ionisation mass (ESI-MS), ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and13 C-NMR spectra...
March 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Michael Lam, Jonathan M Loree, Allan Anderson Pereira Lima, Yun Shin Chun, Scott Kopetz
Current trial design is challenged by the advancement of technologies that have enabled deeper understanding of the molecular drivers of colorectal cancer (CRC). The speed of trial testing and the ability to test larger volumes of promising novel agents in the face of smaller populations identified by molecular profiling are challenges posed to clinical studies. Master protocols that utilize umbrella designs are equipped to deal with potential biomarker and matched treatments simultaneously. Although complex in nature, they increase trial efficiency by utilizing shared screening platforms, test multiple treatments together, and simplify regulatory submission and reporting under a common protocol...
February 27, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Ishmael Ayim, Haile Ma, Evans Adingba Alenyorege, Zeshan Ali, Prince Ofori Donkor
The effect of ultrasound pretreatment using Single Frequency Counter Current Ultrasound (SFCCU) on the enzymolysis of tea residue protein (TRP) extracted with sodium hydroxide was investigated. The concentration of TRP hydrolysate, enzymolysis kinetics and thermodynamic parameters after SFCCU pretreatment were determined and compared with traditional enzymolysis. The results indicated that both ultrasound assisted and traditional enzymolysis conformed to first-order kinetics within the limits of the studied parameters...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Prantik Kundu, Brenda E Benson, Dana Rosen, Sophia Frangou, Ellen Leibenluft, Wen-Ming Luh, Peter A Bandettini, Daniel S Pine, Monique Ernst
Age-related changes in human functional neuroanatomy are poorly understood. This is partly due to the limits to interpretation of standard fMRI. These limits relate to age-related variation in noise levels across subjects, and the frequent need for standard adult parcellations in developmental studies. Here we used an emerging MRI approach called multi-echo (ME)-fMRI to characterize functional brain changes with age. ME-fMRI acquires blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals while also quantifying T2* signal decay...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Pranav Gupta, Yun-Kai Zhang, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Yi-Jun Wang, Kimberly W Lu, Timothy Hall, Richard Peng, Dong-Hua Yang, Ni Xie, Zhe-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The overexpression of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters has known to be one of the major obstacles impeding the success of chemotherapy in drug resistant cancers. In this study, we evaluated voruciclib, a CDK 4/6 inhibitor, for its chemo-sensitizing activity in ABCB1- and ABCG2- overexpressing cells. METHODS: Cytotoxicity and reversal effect of voruciclib was determined by MTT assay. The intracellular accumulation and efflux of ABCB1 and ABCG2 substrates were measured by scintillation counter...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xuehui Liu, Rongrong Zhou, Bingbing Shen, Lin Chen, Qingyijun Zhou, Dan Wan, Shuihan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Lonicera macranthoides is a Chinese herb that contains a large number of bioactive spanions possessing important pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumour activity. However, detailed information about their anti-tumor activity and bioactive compounds is limited. METHODS: In order to evaluate the scientific basis, the method of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS) has been developed to separate, purify and analyze saponins from Lonicera macranthoides...
February 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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