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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645301/the-sternal-management-accelerated-recovery-trial-s-m-a-r-t-standard-restrictive-versus-an-intervention-of-modified-sternal-precautions-following-cardiac-surgery-via-median-sternotomy-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Md Ali Katijjahbe, Linda Denehy, Catherine L Granger, Alistair Royse, Colin Royse, Rebecca Bates, Sarah Logie, Sandy Clarke, Doa El-Ansary
BACKGROUND: The routine implementation of sternal precautions to prevent sternal complications that restrict the use of the upper limbs is currently worldwide practice following a median sternotomy. However, evidence is limited and drawn primarily from cadaver studies and orthopaedic research. Sternal precautions may delay recovery, prolong hospital discharge and be overly restrictive. Recent research has shown that upper limb exercise reduces post-operative sternal pain and results in minimal micromotion between the sternal edges as measured by ultrasound...
June 23, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645141/does-the-seed-bank-contribute-to-the-build-up-of-a-genetic-extinction-debt-in-the-grassland-perennial-campanula-rotundifolia
#2
Jan Plue, Katrien Vandepitte, Olivier Honnay, Sara A O Cousins
Background and Aims: Habitat fragmentation threatens global biodiversity. Many plant species persist in habitat fragments via persistent life cycle stages such as seed banks, generating a species extinction debt. Here, seed banks are hypothesized to cause a temporal delay in the expected loss of genetic variation, which can be referred to as a genetic extinction debt, as a possible mechanism behind species extinction debts. Methods: Fragmented grassland populations of Campanula rotundifolia were examined for evidence of a genetic extinction debt, investigating if the seed bank contributed to the extinction debt build-up...
June 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636942/extensive-proliferation-of-human-cancer-cells-with-ever-shorter-telomeres
#3
Rebecca A Dagg, Hilda A Pickett, Axel A Neumann, Christine E Napier, Jeremy D Henson, Erdahl T Teber, Jonathan W Arthur, C Patrick Reynolds, Jayne Murray, Michelle Haber, Alexander P Sobinoff, Loretta M S Lau, Roger R Reddel
Acquisition of replicative immortality is currently regarded as essential for malignant transformation. This is achieved by activating a telomere lengthening mechanism (TLM), either telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres, to counter normal telomere attrition. However, a substantial proportion of some cancer types, including glioblastomas, liposarcomas, retinoblastomas, and osteosarcomas, are reportedly TLM-negative. As serial samples of human tumors cannot usually be obtained to monitor telomere length changes, it has previously been impossible to determine whether tumors are truly TLM-deficient, there is a previously unrecognized TLM, or the assay results are false-negative...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636352/prevention-of-marine-biofouling-using-the-natural-allelopathic-compound-batatasin-iii-and-synthetic-analogues
#4
Lindon W K Moodie, Rozenn Trepos, Gunnar Cervin, Kari Anne Bråthen, Bente Lindgård, Rigmor Reiersen, Patrick Cahill, Henrik Pavia, Claire Hellio, Johan Svenson
The current study reports the first comprehensive evaluation of a class of allelopathic terrestrial natural products as antifoulants in a marine setting. To investigate the antifouling potential of the natural dihydrostilbene scaffold, a library of 22 synthetic dihydrostilbenes with varying substitution patterns, many of which occur naturally in terrestrial plants, were prepared and assessed for their antifouling capacity. The compounds were evaluated in an extensive screen against 16 fouling marine organisms...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635961/hypoxia-induced-mobilization-of-nhe6-to-the-plasma-membrane-triggers-endosome-hyperacidification-and-chemoresistance
#5
Fabrice Lucien, Pierre-Paul Pelletier, Roxane R Lavoie, Jean-Michel Lacroix, Sébastien Roy, Jean-Luc Parent, Dominique Arsenault, Kelly Harper, Claire M Dubois
The pH-dependent partitioning of chemotherapeutic drugs is a fundamental yet understudied drug distribution mechanism that may underlie the low success rates of current approaches to counter multidrug resistance (MDR). This mechanism is influenced by the hypoxic tumour microenvironment and results in selective trapping of weakly basic drugs into acidified compartments such as the extracellular environment. Here we report that hypoxia not only leads to acidification of the tumour microenvironment but also induces endosome hyperacidification...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629668/underestimating-the-size-of-the-problem-uk-anaesthesia-for-patients-with-obesity
#6
James Palmer, Mike Sury, Claire Nightingale, Jaideep Pandit, Tim Cook
We analysed data from 14,000 patients in the 2013 United Kingdom Anaesthesia Activity Survey of the Fifth National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland to examine anaesthetic, organisational and clinical practice for patients with obesity. We compared practice then with current guidance on management of this patient group. Obesity was reported in 22%, mainly Black, Afro-Caribbean and White Caucasian patients. There was minimal variation in surgical timing, anaesthetic seniority, induction location or day-case procedure rates...
June 16, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625446/a-novel-treatment-for-chronic-opioid-use-after-surgery
#7
Paul F White, Ofelia Loani Elvir-Lazo, Hector Hernandez
In a recent article from the Center for Disease Control, the authors addressed the current opioid epidemic in America and emphasized the importance of utilizing non-opioid analgesic alternatives to opioid medication for treating chronic pain. In cases where non-opioid analgesic drugs alone have failed to produce adequate pain relief, these authors suggested that non-pharmacologic therapies should also be considered. This Case Series describes a pilot study designed to evaluate a novel non-pharmacologic approach to treating long-standing (>1year) opioid dependency...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623705/counter-ion-transport-number-and-membrane-potential-in-working-membrane-systems
#8
Mette Birch Kristensen, Anders Bentien, Michele Tedesco, Jacopo Catalano
In this work we use the general space-charge (SC) theory for a combined transport model of fluid and ion through cylindrical nanopores to derive equations for the membrane potential and counter-ion transport numbers. We discuss this approach for ion exchange membranes assuming aqueous domains as interconnected network of cylindrical pores. The transport number calculations from the SC theory are compared with the corresponding ones from the uniform potential (UP) and Teorell-Meyer-Sievers (TMS) models in the case of both zero and non-zero concentration gradient across the membrane and with an applied current density...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622637/children-benefit-differently-from-night-and-day-time-sleep-in-motor-learning
#9
Jin H Yan
Motor skill acquisition occurs while practicing (on-line) and when asleep or awake (off-line). However, developmental questions still remain about whether children of various ages benefit similarly or differentially from night- and day-time sleeping. The likely circadian effects (time-of-day) and the possible between-test-interference (order effects) associated with children's off-line motor learning are currently unknown. Therefore, this study examines the contributions of over-night sleeping and mid-day napping to procedural skill learning...
June 13, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621307/bending-strain-engineering-in-quantum-spin-hall-system-for-controlling-spin-currents
#10
Bing Huang, Kyung-Hwan Jin, Bin Cui, Feng Zhai, Jiawei Mei, Feng Liu
Quantum spin Hall system can exhibit exotic spin transport phenomena, mediated by its topological edge states. Here the concept of bending strain engineering to tune the spin transport properties of a quantum spin Hall system is demonstrated. We show that bending strain can be used to control the spin orientation of counter-propagating edge states of a quantum spin system to generate a non-zero spin current. This physics mechanism can be applied to effectively tune the spin current and pure spin current decoupled from charge current in a quantum spin Hall system by control of its bending curvature...
June 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620259/standardization-of-dot-enzyme-linked-immmunosorbent-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-bovine-visceral-schistosomiasis
#11
Kommu Sudhakar, G S Sreenivasa Murthy, Gaddam Rajeshwari
AIM: Bovine visceral schistosomiasis has been reported as an important disease entity as it affects animal health, productivity, causes economic losses due to liver condemnation, and produces a high morbidity. This study was conducted to standardize an easy, reliable dot-enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of visceral schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma spindale and to know the prevalence rate in and around Hyderabad. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A dot-ELISA was standardized in the laboratory using whole worm antigen (WWA) and excretory-secretory antigen (ESA) of S...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619589/isolation-of-sutherlandins-a-b-c-and-d-from-sutherlandia-frutescens-l-r-br-by-counter-current-chromatography-using-spiral-tubing-support-rotors
#12
Cuiping Chen, William R Folk, Rodrigo Lazo-Portugal, Thomas M Finn, Martha Knight
Spiral countercurrent-chromatography has great potential for improving the capacity and efficiency of purification of secondary metabolites, and here we describe applications useful for the isolation of flavonoids from the widely used South African medicinal plant, Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br. In the spiral tubing support rotor, STS-4 for high-speed counter-current chromatography, several polar butanol aqueous solvent systems were selected using a logK plot, and the novel flavonol glycosides (sutherlandins A-D) were well separated by the optimized solvent system (ethyl acetate:n-butanol:acetic acid:water; 5:1:0...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617071/an-endothelial-link-between-the-benefits-of-physical-exercise-in-dementia
#13
Lianne J Trigiani, Edith Hamel
The current absence of a disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) highlights the necessity for investigating the benefits of non-pharmacological approaches such as physical exercise (PE). Although evidence exists to support an association between regular PE and higher scores on cognitive function tests, and a slower rate of cognitive decline, there is no clear consensus on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the advantages of PE. This review seeks to summarize the positive effects of PE in human and animal studies while highlighting the vascular link between these benefits...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611442/competing-factors-link-to-bone-health-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-takes-a-toll
#14
Shirin Kalyan, Millan S Patel, Elaine Kingwell, Hélène C F Côté, Danmei Liu, Jerilynn C Prior
Chronic inflammation predisposes to poor bone health. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience androgen excess, ovulatory disturbances, insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity and chronic inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the relationships among bone health parameters, chronic subclinical inflammation and anthropometric measures in premenopausal women with and without PCOS. In 61 premenopausal women, 22 women with PCOS and 39 controls, we assessed bone parameters (total hip bone mineral density [BMD] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and radius strength-strain index [SSI] by peripheral quantitative computed tomography), inflammation (C-reactive protein/albumin), oxidative stress (leukocyte telomere length, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine); hemoglobin A1c; anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, cross-sectional muscle area)...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608813/zika-virus-recent-advances-towards-the-development-of-vaccines-and-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Monica A McArthur
Zika is a rapidly emerging public health threat. Although clinical infection is frequently mild, significant neurological manifestations have been demonstrated in infants born to Zika virus (ZIKV) infected mothers. Due to the substantial ramifications of intrauterine infection, effective counter-measures are urgently needed. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines and therapeutics, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required...
June 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602159/micro-drinking-behaviours-and-consumption-of-wine-in-different-wine-glass-sizes-a-laboratory-study
#16
Z Zupan, R Pechey, D L Couturier, G J Hollands, T M Marteau
BACKGROUND: Tableware size may influence how much food and non-alcoholic drink is consumed. Preliminary evidence of the impact of glass size on purchasing of alcoholic drinks shows an increase in wine sales of almost 10% when the same portion of wine is served in a larger glass. The primary aim of the current study is to test if micro-drinking behaviours act as a mechanism that could underlie this effect, through an increase in drinking rate, sip duration and/or number of sips from a larger glass...
June 12, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596071/genetic-and-metabolic-engineering-approaches-for-the-production-and-delivery-of-l-asparaginases-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
Jalaja Vidya, Syed Sajitha, Mrudula Vasudevan Ushasree, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Aravind Madhavan, Ashok Pandey
L-asparaginase is one of the protein drugs for countering leukemia and lymphoma. A major challenge in the therapeutic potential of the enzyme is its immunogenicity, low-plasma half-life and glutaminase activity that are found to be the reasons for toxicities attributed to asparaginase therapy. For addressing these challenges, several research and developmental activities are going on throughout the world for an effective drug delivery for treatment of cancer. Hence there is an urgent need for the development of asparaginase with improved properties for efficient drug delivery...
May 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591871/-relevance-of-heat-health-actions-plans-for-preventive-public-health-in-germany
#18
Birgit Zielo, Andreas Matzarakis
Background Heat waves are among the extreme weather events and represent a growing health hazard for the population in Europe. According to the current climate studies, the probability of an increase and intensification of heat waves has been increasing for years. Particularly affected by exposure to unusually high heat are people whose organism is already weakened by age or illness. As the share of senior citizens in Germany continues to rise as a result of demographic change, the health effects of heat waves are gaining in importance...
June 7, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589595/high-speed-counter-current-chromatography-with-an-online-storage-technique-for-the-preparative-isolation-and-purification-of-dihydroflavonoids-from-sophora-alopecuroides-l
#19
Zhong-Lin Sun, Jian-Ming He, Jiang-Er Lan, Qing Mu
INTRODUCTION: High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) is an efficient and non-absorption separation technique, but limitations still exist in simultaneous isolation of complex structures of natural products. Moreover, particular methods are various for different kinds of natural products. OBJECTIVE: A novel HSCCC strategy combined with an online storage recycling elution (OSR-CCC) technique was developed for the quick separation of naturally occurring dihydroflavonoids from the extract of the herb Sophora alopecuroides L...
June 6, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589201/magnesia-stabilised-zirconia-solid-electrolyte-assisted-electrochemical-investigation-of-iron-ions-in-a-sio2-cao-mgo-al2o3-molten-slag-at-1723-k
#20
Yunming Gao, Chuanghuang Yang, Canlei Zhang, Qingwei Qin, George Z Chen
Production of metallic iron through molten oxide electrolysis using inert electrodes is an alternative route for fast ironmaking without CO2 emissions. The fact that many inorganic oxides melt at ultrahigh temperatures (>1500 K) challenges conventional electro-analytical techniques used in aqueous, organic and molten salt electrolytes. However, in order to design a feasible and effective electrolytic process, it is necessary to best understand the electrochemical properties of iron ions in molten oxide electrolytes...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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