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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454010/how-economic-recessions-and-unemployment-affect-illegal-drug-use-a-systematic-realist-literature-review
#1
Gera E Nagelhout, Karin Hummel, Moniek C M de Goeij, Hein de Vries, Eileen Kaner, Paul Lemmens
BACKGROUND: Economic recessions may influence illegal drug use via different mechanisms, for example increased use due to more psychological distress or decreased use due to lower incomes and purchasing power. This paper reviews the literature on how economic recessions and unemployment affect the use of illegal drugs among adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic realist literature review, which is an explanatory method that aims to understand underlying mechanisms that connect an event to an outcome in a specific context...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441546/isolation-of-new-polyacetylenes-from-the-roots-of-eurycoma-longifolia-via-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography
#2
Minglong Wang, Huijuan Zou, Qibin Chen, Jianguo Cao, Haji Akber Aisa, Guozheng Huang
Eurycoma longifolia is a tropical plant of diverse applications in folk medicine, which occurs in Southeast Asia. In this study, pre-purified fraction (0.86g) of the crude extracts from the roots of E. longifolia, was subjected to preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMWat) at a volume ratio of 5:2:5:2 (v/v). Longifolione A (1, 19mg, purity 96.0%) and longifolione C (3, 317mg, purity 96.2%), together with longifolione B (2, purity 77...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436059/high-performance-respiration-based-biocell-using-artificial-nanochannel-regulation
#3
Qianqian Zhang, Xiulin Li, Yang Chen, Qian Zhang, Huixue Liu, Jin Zhai, Xiaoda Yang
Based on electron and proton transfer events occurring in biological respiration, a mitochondria-based biocell is constructed by combining with artificial nanochannels. In this biocell, mitochondria transfer electrons to the working electrode and pump protons into the electrolyte through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The nanochannels provide passages for protons to transport along the transmembrane concentration gradient to consume electrons on the counter electrode, forming a continuous and stable current...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428392/ecosystem-management-as-a-wicked-problem
#4
REVIEW
Ruth DeFries, Harini Nagendra
Ecosystems are self-regulating systems that provide societies with food, water, timber, and other resources. As demands for resources increase, management decisions are replacing self-regulating properties. Counter to previous technical approaches that applied simple formulas to estimate sustainable yields of single species, current research recognizes the inherent complexity of ecosystems and the inability to foresee all consequences of interventions across different spatial, temporal, and administrative scales...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427616/intensification-of-biodiesel-production-using-dual-frequency-counter-current-pulsed-ultrasound
#5
Xiulian Yin, Xuejuan Zhang, Miaomiao Wan, Xiuli Duan, Qinghong You, Jinfeng Zhang, Songlin Li
Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate intensified by dual-frequency counter-current pulsed ultrasound and the kinetics were studied. Results indicated that the biodiesel conversions enhanced by single-frequency were lower than those enhanced by dual-frequency. For dual-frequency, the biodiesel conversion of SMM was higher than those of SQM. The biodiesel conversion of the combination of 20/28kHz is the highest. The effects of 20/28kHz SMM on biodiesel production were studied and optimal conditions were: methanol to triglyceride molar ratio 8:1, catalyst content 1...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427287/downstream-protein-separation-by-surfactant-precipitation-a-review
#6
Fadzlie Wong Faizal Wong, Arbakariya B Ariff, David C Stuckey
In a conventional protein downstream processing (DSP) scheme, chromatography is the single most expensive step. Despite being highly effective, it often has a low process throughput due to its semibatch nature, sometimes with nonreproducible results and relatively complex process development. Hence, more work is required to develop alternative purification methods that are more cost-effective, but exhibiting nearly comparable performance. In recent years, surfactant precipitation has been heralded as a promising new method for primary protein recovery that meets these criteria and is a simple and cost-effective method that purifies and concentrates...
April 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426040/enhancement-of-the-hole-conducting-effect-of-nio-by-a-n2-blow-drying-method-in-printable-perovskite-solar-cells-with-low-temperature-carbon-as-the-counter-electrode
#7
T A Nirmal Peiris, Ajay K Baranwal, Hiroyuki Kanda, Shota Fukumoto, Shusaku Kanaya, Ludmila Cojocaru, Takeru Bessho, Tsutomu Miyasaka, Hiroshi Segawa, Seigo Ito
In this article, we demonstrate for the first time a mesoscopic printable perovskite solar cell (PSC) using NiO as the hole transporting material and low-temperature processed carbon as the counter electrode. A single deposition method assisted by N2 blow drying was used for the deposition of MAPbI3 on a TiO2/ZrO2/NiO screen-printed electrode. As the final step a low-temperature processing (i.e. 75 °C) carbon counter layer was fabricated on MAPbI3 by a blade coating method. It is found that the capping layer thickness of MAPbI3 has a significant effect on the device efficiency, especially when NiO is introduced as a hole transporting material into the structure...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416338/separation-and-purification-of-polyphenols-from-red-wine-extracts-using-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography
#8
Yuanyuan Li, Lingxi Li, Yan Cui, Shuting Zhang, Baoshan Sun
Polyphenols are important compounds of red wine owing to their contribution to sensory properties and antioxidant activities. In this study, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with semi-preparative HPLC was used for large-scale separation and purification of polyphenols from red wine extracts. With the solvent system of hexane-ethyl acetate-water (1-50-50), various oligomeric procyanidins including monomer catechin, epicatechin, dimers B1, B2; phenolic acids including coutaric acid, caftaric acid and other type of polyphenols were largely separated within 370min and most of these compounds presented high yields (0...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410232/vacquinol-1-inducible-cell-death-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-is-counter-regulated-by-trpm7-activity-induced-by-exogenous-atp
#9
Philip Sander, Haouraa Mostafa, Ayman Soboh, Julian M Schneider, Andrej Pala, Ann-Kathrin Baron, Barbara Moepps, C Rainer Wirtz, Michael Georgieff, E Marion Schneider
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most malignant brain tumors in humans and have a very poor prognosis. New therapeutic options are urgently needed. A novel drug, Vacquinol-1 (Vac), a quinolone derivative, displays promising properties by inducing rapid cell death in GBM but not in non-transformed tissues. Features of this type of cell death are compatible with a process termed methuosis. Here we tested Vac on a highly malignant glioma cell line observed by long-term video microscopy. Human dental-pulp stem cells (DPSCs) served as controls...
March 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407532/rational-approach-to-solvent-system-selection-for-liquid-liquid-extraction-assisted-sample-pretreatment-in-counter-current-chromatography
#10
Jiajia Wang, Dongyu Gu, Miao Wang, Xinfeng Guo, Haoquan Li, Yue Dong, Hong Guo, Yi Wang, Mengqi Fan, Yi Yang
A rational liquid-liquid extraction approach was established to pre-treat samples for high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). n-Hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:5:4:5, v/v) and (1:5:1:5, v/v) were selected as solvent systems for liquid-liquid extraction by systematically screening K of target compounds to remove low- and high-polarity impurities in the sample, respectively. After liquid-liquid extraction was performed, 1.4g of crude sample II was obtained from 18.5g of crude sample I which was extracted from the flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402571/neural-correlates-of-emotion-acceptance-versus-worry-or-suppression-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#11
Kristen K Ellard, David H Barlow, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, John D E Gabrieli, Thilo Deckersbach
Recent emotion dysregulation models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) propose chronic worry in GAD functions as a maladaptive attempt to regulate anxiety related to uncertain or unpredictable outcomes. Emotion acceptance is an adaptive emotion regulation strategy increasingly incorporated into newer cognitive-behavioral (CBT) approaches to GAD to counter chronic worry. The current study explores the mechanisms of emotion acceptance as an alternate emotion regulation strategy to worry or emotion suppression using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401501/the-sibsize-revolution-and-social-disparities-in-children-s-family-contexts-in-the-united-states-1940-2012
#12
Tony Fahey
This article points to a sharp decline in children's sibling numbers (sibsize) that occurred in the United States since the 1970s and was large enough among children with lower socioeconomic status (SES) (particularly black children) to amount to a revolution in their family circumstances. It interprets sibsize decline as a source of social convergence in children's family contexts that ran counter to trends toward social divergence caused by the rise of lone parenthood. The article is based on new estimates of differences in children's sibsize and lone parenthood by race and maternal education generated from public-use samples from the Census of Population and Current Population Survey (CPS), focusing especially on the period 1940-2012...
April 11, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399482/functionalized-polymer-iron-oxide-hybrid-nanofibers-electrospun-filtration-devices-for-metal-oxyanion-removal
#13
Katherine T Peter, Adam J Johns, Nosang V Myung, David M Cwiertny
Via a single-pot electrospinning synthesis, we developed a functionalized polymer-metal oxide nanofiber filter for point of use (POU) water treatment of metal oxyanions (e.g., arsenate and chromate). Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) functionalization was accomplished by inclusion of surface-active, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB)] that provide strong base ion exchange sites. Embedded iron oxide [ferrihydrite (Fh)] nanoparticles were used for their established role as metal sorbents...
April 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399319/factors-associated-with-potentially-inappropriate-medication-use-in-rural-community-dwelling-older-adults
#14
Marcia Y Shade, Ann M Berger, Claudia Chaperon, Gleb Haynatzki, Linda Sobeski, Bernice Yates
Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use is a serious public health problem in older adults because it may lead to adverse events. The purpose of the current study was to explore PIM use in rural, community-dwelling older adults. Participants (N = 138) underwent one-on-one medication reviews. Approximately one half (49%) of the sample used prescribed and over-the-counter (OTC) PIM. Prescribed and OTC nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (33%) and anticholinergic medications (28%) were the most frequently used PIM...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#15
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398023/clinical-profile-of-women-with-vva-who-are-not-candidates-for-local-vaginal-oestrogen-therapy
#16
Rossella E Nappi, Filippo Murina, Giuseppina Perrone, Paola Villa, Nicoletta Biglia
Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic medical condition in postmenopausal women, which is predominantly due to a permanent cessation of ovarian oestrogen production. Current available treatment options for VVA are over-the-counter (OTC) symptomatic relief products or local oestrogen therapy (LET) aiming to treat this underlying atrophic condition. Recent surveys indicated that these products decrease sexual spontaneity, are messy and indiscrete. Ospemifene is an oral daily drug, which has proven to treat vaginal dryness and dyspareunia effectively...
April 10, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397700/narcotic-bowel-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Adam D Farmer, Jayne Gallagher, Caroline Bruckner-Holt, Qasim Aziz
Narcotic bowel syndrome is characterised by worsening abdominal pain in the context of escalating or continuous opioid therapy. Although narcotic bowel syndrome is rarely diagnosed, given the current epidemic of opioid use, it is likely to be under-recognised. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of narcotic bowel syndrome are incompletely understood; however, opioid-induced hyperalgesia is likely to be a central facet. The putative mechanisms of hyperalgesia include activation of bimodal opioid regulatory systems, counter-regulatory mechanisms, neuroinflammation, opioid facilitation, and interactions of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor with opioids at the level of the spinal cord...
May 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387237/decoding-network-structure-in-on-chip-integrated-flow-cells-with-synchronization-of-electrochemical-oscillators
#18
Yanxin Jia, István Z Kiss
The analysis of network interactions among dynamical units and the impact of the coupling on self-organized structures is a challenging task with implications in many biological and engineered systems. We explore the coupling topology that arises through the potential drops in a flow channel in a lab-on-chip device that accommodates chemical reactions on electrode arrays. The networks are revealed by analysis of the synchronization patterns with the use of an oscillatory chemical reaction (nickel electrodissolution) and are further confirmed by direct decoding using phase model analysis...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386667/dynamic-modeling-of-temperature-change-in-outdoor-operated-tubular-photobioreactors
#19
Dominic Deo Androga, Basar Uyar, Harun Koku, Inci Eroglu
In this study, a one-dimensional transient model was developed to analyze the temperature variation of tubular photobioreactors operated outdoors and the validity of the model was tested by comparing the predictions of the model with the experimental data. The model included the effects of convection and radiative heat exchange on the reactor temperature throughout the day. The temperatures in the reactors increased with increasing solar radiation and air temperatures, and the predicted reactor temperatures corresponded well to the measured experimental values...
April 6, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383934/negative-affect-in-at-risk-youth-outcome-expectancies-mediate-relations-with-both-regular-and-electronic-cigarette-use
#20
Stephen Miller, James Pike, Alan W Stacy, Bin Xie, Susan L Ames
Despite the general trend of declining use of traditional cigarettes among young adults in the United States, alternative high school students continue to smoke cigarettes and electronic cigarettes at rates much higher than do students attending regular high schools. Challenging life circumstances leading to elevated levels of negative affect may account for increased smoking behavior in this population. Further, a belief in the negative affect-reducing qualities of nicotine may mediate this effect. The current study tested the hypothesis that negative reinforcing outcome expectancies mediate the relationship between negative affect on smoking susceptibility in nonusers, smoking frequency in users, and smoking experimentation in the overall sample...
April 6, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
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