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Counter current

Minh D Pham, Paul A Agius, Lorena Romero, Peter McGlynn, David Anderson, Suzanne M Crowe, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing increases patient accessibility to assessment of antiretroviral therapy eligibility. This review evaluates field performance in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) of currently available POC CD4 technologies. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were searched for field studies published between January 2005 and January 2015 of six POC CD4 platforms: PointCare NOW™, Alere Pima™ CD4, Daktari™ CD4 Counter, CyFlow® CD4 miniPOC, BD FACSPresto™, and MyT4™ CD4...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Masaki Matsushita, Kenichi Mishima, Ryusaku Esaki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh
OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Javier Díez
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) promote diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilation in early chronic heart failure (CHF), countering renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overstimulation. Despite dramatic increases in circulating NP concentrations as CHF progresses, their effects become blunted. Increases in diuresis, natriuresis, and vasodilation after administration of exogenous atrial (ANP) or brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides are attenuated in patients with advanced CHF compared with controls...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Artak E Kostanyan
The closed-loop recycling counter-current chromatography (CLR CCC) is performed in several consecutive separation stages. First, the loop is opened, and within a specified time the solution of solutes in the mobile phase is continuously fed to the column. After the solutes loading is finished, the loop is closed, and the first separation stage starts. After a certain number of cycles the first fraction of solutes is eluted, the loop is closed, and the second separation stage starts, and so on. In this study, simple equations are presented allowing the simulation of such separation processes...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Shanshan Wang, Chao Han, Sisi Wang, Lijuan Bai, Shanshan Li, Jianguang Luo, Lingyi Kong
Cu(II) complexed amino acid ionic liquid, Cu(II)-[1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium][L-Pro] (Cu(II)-[BMIm][L-Pro]), was successfully adopted as chiral ligand to improve the enantioseparation efficiency in high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). For the enantioseparation of intractable naringenin (NRG) racemic mixtures, Cu(II)-[BMIm][L-Pro] coupled with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was successfully applied as dual chiral selectors in HSCCC. The influence of important parameters, including the concentration of the chiral selectors, the pH value, and the temperature were investigated...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Shuting Zhang, Lingxi Li, Yan Cui, Lanxin Luo, Yuanyuan Li, Peiyu Zhou, Baoshan Sun
Separation of plant proanthocyanidins remains a major challenge for scientists due to the structural diversity and complexity. In this work, a new and effective method was developed for preparative separation of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) according to degree of polymerization (DP) by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Under the optimized HSCCC conditions, GSPs could be separated into seven distinct fractions (F1-F7) with mean degree of polymerization in increasing order, from 1.44 to 6...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Hagai Cohen, Shaked Ein Eli, Morten Jõgi, Matthew E Suss
Carbon-based suspension electrodes are currently intensively investigated for emerging electrochemical systems, such as flow batteries, flow capacitors, and capacitive deionization cells. The main limitation of such electrodes is their low electric conductivity, which is typically orders of magnitude lower than that of traditional static carbon electrodes. Two main categories of suspension electrodes exist: 1) slurry electrodes where particles are not significantly affected by gravity, and 2) fluidized bed electrodes where particles are affected by gravity...
October 20, 2016: ChemSusChem
Steven J Kleene, Nancy K Kleene
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common life-threatening monogenic renal disease. ADPKD results from mutations in either of two proteins: polycystin-1 (also known as PC1 or PKD1) or transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily P, member 2 (TRPP2, also known as polycystin-2, PC2, or PKD2). Each of these proteins is expressed in the primary cilium that extends from many renal epithelial cells. Existing evidence suggests that the cilium can promote renal cystogenesis, while PC1 and TRPP2 counter this cystogenic effect...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Juan Huang, Meiling Yang, Lu Lu, Xiaoming Zhang
RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism that utilizes small RNAs (sRNAs) to direct the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Plants utilizing RNA silencing machinery to defend pathogen infection was first identified in plant-virus interaction and later was observed in distinct plant-pathogen interactions. RNA silencing is not only responsible for suppressing RNA accumulation and movement of virus and viroid, but also facilitates plant immune responses against bacterial, oomycete, and fungal infection...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jing Wang, Meizhu Zheng, Lina Chen, Zhiqiang Liu, Yuchi Zhang, Chun-Ming Liu, Shu Liu
Hydroxyl radicals are the most reactive free radical of human body, a strong contributor to tissue damage. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was applied to screen and identify hydroxyl radical scavengers from the total flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba leaves, and high-performance counter current chromatography was used to separate and isolate the active compounds. Furthermore, molecular devices was used to determine hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the obtained hydroxyl radical scavengers and other flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba leaves...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Joanne Paton, Sam Glasser, Richard Collings, Jon Marsden
BACKGROUND: Over 1 in 3 older people with diabetes sustain a fall each year. Postural instability has been identified as independent risk factor for falls within people with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN). People with DPN, at increased risk of falls, are routinely required to wear offloading insoles, yet the impact of these insoles on postural stability and postural control is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a standard offloading insole and its constituent parts on the balance in people with DPN...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Laura Deckx, An Im De Sutter, Linda Guo, Nabiel A Mir, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Many treatments for the common cold exist and are sold over-the-counter. Nevertheless, evidence on the effectiveness and safety of nasal decongestants is limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, and short- and long-term safety, of nasal decongestants used in monotherapy to alleviate symptoms of the common cold in adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 6, June 2016), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1946 to July 2016), Embase (2010 to 15 July 2016), CINAHL (1981 to 15 July 2016), LILACS (1982 to July 2016), Web of Science (1955 to July 2016) and clinical trials registers...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Chengcheng Gong, Tao Chen, Huifeng Chen, Shanshan Zhang, Xinzhu Wang, Weiqing Wang, Jing Sun, Yulin Li, Zhixin Liao
In this paper, we report an efficient method by high-speed counter-current chromatography for the first separation of four aromatic acids and two analogues with similar structures and polarities from Clematis akebioides. Firstly, the ethyl acetate extract was treated by silica gel column chromatography to enrich the target compounds. And then the fraction with target compounds were purified by high-speed counter-counter chromatography using a two-phase solvent system consisting of chloroform/acetonitrile/water (10:6:4, v/v)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Isabel Rossen, Mark J Hurlstone, Carmen Lawrence
Childhood vaccination is widely considered to be one of the most successful public health interventions. Yet, the effective delivery of vaccination depends upon public willingness to vaccinate. Recently, many countries have faced problems with vaccine hesitancy, where a growing number of parents perceive vaccination to be unsafe or unnecessary, leading some to delay or refuse vaccines for their children. Effective intervention strategies for countering this problem are currently sorely lacking, however. Here, we propose that this may be because existing strategies are grounded more in intuition than insights from psychology...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kristen Jijelava, Hongvan Le, Jack Parker, Jeffrey Yee
BACKGROUND: Ocular chemical injuries due to accidental exposure or application of cyanoacrylate, commonly known as "superglue," have increased over the past 30 years. However, current treatment options to relieve eyelid adhesions due to cyanoacrylate applications are difficult to successfully execute and can require sedation or general anesthesia. Here we describe a simple technique to release eyelid adhesions due to cyanoacrylate, or other adhesive agents, that can be successfully performed at bedside without sedation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Eva Rasmussen-Barr, Ulrike Held, Wilhelmus Ja Grooten, Pepijn Ddm Roelofs, Bart W Koes, Maurits W van Tulder, Maria M Wertli
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently prescribed drugs for the treatment of sciatica. A previous Cochrane review on the efficacy of NSAIDs summarised findings for acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. This is an update of the original review (2008) focusing on people suffering from sciatica. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of NSAIDs in pain reduction, overall improvement, and reported side effects in people with sciatica...
October 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
E Goldobin, R Menditto, D Koelle, R Kleiner
We propose simple models for the current-voltage characteristics of typical Josephson ratchets. We consider the case of a ratchet working against a constant applied counter force and derive analytical expressions for the key characteristics of such a ratchet: rectification curve, stopping force, input and output powers, and rectification efficiency. Optimization of the ratchet performance is discussed.
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Piotr Kowalski, Ilona Olędzka, Alina Plenis, Tomasz Bączek
An indirect UV detection method based on capillary electrophoresis was developed and validated to determinate 12. metal cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition metal, and ammonium. In this paper a new electrolyte system (pH 4.22) contained 20 mM benzimidazole (as co-ion), 75 mM acetic acid (as a counter-ion) as well as 0.6 mM 18-crown-6 ether was applied. The metal ions were completely separated within 8 min under hydrodynamic mode injection with a running voltage of 20 kV at 25 ± 0.1°C. Additional use of the dynamic double coating method enabled to get an excellent repeatability of migration times and quantitative parameters for all analytes...
October 14, 2016: Electrophoresis
Thomas E Kraft, Monique R Heitmeier, Marina Putanko, Rachel L Edwards, Ma Xenia G Ilagan, Maria A Payne, Joseph M Autry, David D Thomas, Audrey R Odom, Paul W Hruz
The glucose transporter PfHT is essential to the survival of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and has been shown to be a druggable target with high potential for pharmacological intervention. Identification of compounds against novel drug targets is crucial to combating resistance against current therapeutics. Here, we describe the development of a cell-based assay system readily adaptable to high-throughput screening that directly measures compound effects on PfHT-mediated glucose transport. Intracellular glucose concentrations are detected using a genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based glucose-sensor...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Zoë M McLaren, Kathryn Schnippel, Alana Sharp
OBJECTIVE: Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care...
2016: PloS One
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