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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775678/synaptic-transmission-and-excitability-during-hypoxia-with-inflammation-and-reoxygenation-in-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#1
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sook Jin Son, Joon Ho Choi, Jong-Cheol Rah
Although a number of experimental and clinical studies have shown that hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses, the combinatorial effect of the two insults on basic neural function has not been thoroughly investigated. Previous studies have predominantly suggested that hypoxia reduces network activity; however, several studies suggest the opposite effect. Of note, inflammation is known to increase neural activity. In the current study, we examined the effects of limited oxygen in combination with an inflammatory stimulus, as well as the effects of reoxygenation, on synaptic transmission and excitability...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775479/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-and-rehabilitative-training-following-cervical-spinal-injury-alters-neuronal-hypoxia-and-plasticity-associated-protein-expression
#2
Atiq Hassan, Breanna M Arnold, Sally Caine, Behzad M Toosi, Valerie M K Verge, Gillian D Muir
One of the most promising approaches to improve recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the augmentation of spontaneously occurring plasticity in uninjured neural pathways. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH, brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) initiates plasticity in respiratory systems and has been shown to improve recovery in respiratory and non-respiratory spinal systems after SCI in experimental animals and humans. Although the mechanism by which AIH elicits its effects after SCI are not well understood, AIH is known to alter protein expression in spinal neurons in uninjured animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774826/patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury-can-recover-to-a-favourable-long-term-functional-and-quality-of-life-outcome
#3
Marleen Maria van Eijck, Joukje van der Naalt, Mariska de Jongh, Guus G Schoonman, Annemarie Wilhelma Oldenbeuving, Jo Peluso, Jolanda de Vries, Gerwin Roks
Functional outcome and quality of life are difficult to predict in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The primary aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to assess the long-term functional outcome in patients with DAI and to identify prognostic factors. Secondly, health-related quality of life (HRQL) at long-term follow-up was assessed. Patients aged ≥16 with TBI and DAI (admitted 2008-2014) were included. Clinical and imaging data were collected. The primary outcome parameter was the Glasgow Coma Scale Extended (GOSE) at long-term follow-up...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774532/the-fetus-at-the-tipping-point-modifying-the-outcome-of-fetal-asphyxia
#4
Simerdeep K Dhillon, Christopher A Lear, Robert Galinsky, Guido Wassink, Joanne O Davidson, Sandra Juul, Nicola J Robertson, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Brain injury around birth is associated with nearly half of all cases of cerebral palsy. Although brain injury is multifactorial, particularly after preterm birth, acute hypoxia-ischaemia is a major contributor to injury. It is now well established that the severity of injury after HI is determined by a dynamic balance between injurious and protective processes. In addition, mothers who are at risk of premature delivery have high rates of diabetes and antepartum infection/inflammation and are almost universally given treatments such as antenatal glucocorticoids and magnesium sulphate to reduce the risk of death and complications after preterm birth...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774196/common-carotid-artery-dissection-in-multiple-extracranial-injury-a-case-report
#5
Jin Sang Kil, Mi Kyung Lee, Ki Seong Eom
Traumatic common carotid artery dissection (CCAD) is rare. To our knowledge, only 14 case reports have described traumatic CCAD previously. Here, we report a case of CCAD in a patient with severe trauma. A 50-year-old man was lying on the road after drinking alcohol when a car drove over him. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple rib fractures with hemopneumothorax, lung contusion, flail chest, large amount of hematoma with bladder rupture, and fractures on the C6 spinous process, sacral ala, iliac bone, and pubic ramus...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774195/development-of-delayed-acute-subdural-hematoma-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#6
Soon O Hong, Dong Soo Kang, Min Ho Kong, Se Youn Jang, Jung Hee Kim, Kwan Young Song
We report a case involving the development of a delayed acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) after trauma, with the absence of any abnormal radiological and clinical findings at initial examination. A 54-year-old male visited the emergency department after a minor trauma. The patient only complained of mild headache after head injury. He presented no abnormal findings on neurological examination, and brain computed tomography (CT) did not show any intracranial lesion or skull fractures. However, he developed seizure with disorientation eight hours after trauma, and ASDH with midline shift was found during a follow-up CT...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773299/diffusion-mri-in-acute-nervous-system-injury
#7
Matthew D Budde, Nathan P Skinner
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and related techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are uniquely sensitive to the microstructure of the brain and spinal cord. In the acute aftermath of nervous system injury, for example, DWI reveals changes caused by injury that remains invisible on other MRI contrasts such as T2 -weighted imaging. This ability has led to a demonstrated clinical utility in cerebral ischemia. However, despite strong promise in preclinical models and research settings, DWI has not been as readily adopted for other acute injuries such as traumatic spinal cord, brain, or peripheral nerve injury...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772244/gender-difference-in-the-effect-of-progesterone-on-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mouse
#8
Shuyu Dong, Qian Zhang, Delian Kong, Chao Zhou, Jie Zhou, Jingjing Han, Yan Zhou, Guoliang Jin, Xiaodong Hua, Jun Wang, Fang Hua
This study was to investigate the effects of progesterone (PROG) on neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (NHI) brain injury, the differences in effects between genders, and the underlying mechanisms. NHI brain injury was established in both male and female neonatal mice induced by occlusion of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia. The mice were treated with PROG or vehicle. Fluoro-Jade B staining (F-JB), long term behavior testing, and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) were applied to evaluate neuronal death, neurological function, and brain damage...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771702/pathogenesis-of-cerebral-edema-in-patients-with-acute-renal-and-liver-failure-and-the-role-of-the-nephrologist-in-the-management
#9
Tamim Hamdi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe and complex illness and one of the most daunting conditions managed in the ICU. Because the renal care is intertwined with multiple disciplines, the aim of this review is to examine the multifactorial pathogenesis of cerebral edema in ALF, covering basic established facts as well as recent advances in our understanding of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Acetaminophen remains the most common cause of ALF in the United States and many European countries...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771445/tirofiban-combined-with-rt-pa-intraarterial-thrombolysis-improves-the-recanalization-rate-of-acute-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rabbits
#10
Y-J Yu, W Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of tirofiban combined with recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) selective intra-arterial thrombolysis on acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Japanese white rabbits weighing 2.5-3.0 kg were selected, and the acute cerebral infarction model was established via autologous thromboembolism of middle cerebral artery. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: tirofiban group (Ti group, 5 μg/kg, n=15), rt-PA group (rt-PA group, 2 mg/kg, n=15), tirofiban + rt-PA group (Ti + rt-PA group, 3 μg/kg Ti + 1 mg/kg rt-PA, n=15), and control group (Co group, n=15)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771142/the-development-of-a-mouse-model-of-mtbi-induced-post-traumatic-migraine-and-identification-of-the-delta-opioid-receptor-as-a-novel-therapeutic-target
#11
Laura S Moye, Madeline L Novack, Alycia F Tipton, Harish Krishnan, Subhash C Pandey, Amynah Aa Pradhan
Background Post-traumatic headache is the most common and long-lasting impairment observed following mild traumatic brain injury, and frequently has migraine-like characteristics. The mechanisms underlying progression from mild traumatic brain injury to post-traumatic headache are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of post-traumatic headache and identify mechanisms and novel targets associated with this disorder. Methods We combined the closed head weight-drop method and the nitroglycerin chronic migraine model...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770889/autoregulation-in-the-neuro-icu
#12
REVIEW
Anson Wang, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Nils H Petersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the concept of cerebral autoregulation, to detail several bedside techniques for measuring and assessing autoregulation, and to outline the impact of impaired autoregulation on clinical and functional outcomes in acute brain injury. Furthermore, we will review several autoregulation studies in select forms of acute brain injuries, discuss the potential for its use in patient management in the ICU, and suggest further avenues for research...
May 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770166/free-radical-damage-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-an-obstacle-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-after-revascularization-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Ming-Shuo Sun, Hang Jin, Xin Sun, Shuo Huang, Fu-Liang Zhang, Zhen-Ni Guo, Yi Yang
Acute ischemic stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy are the main revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke. However, ischemia-reperfusion injury after revascularization therapy can result in worsening outcomes. Among all possible pathological mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury, free radical damage (mainly oxidative/nitrosative stress injury) has been found to play a key role in the process...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769541/modchimera-a-novel-murine-closed-head-model-of-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
A D Sauerbeck, C Fanizzi, J H Kim, M Gangolli, P V Bayly, C L Wellington, D L Brody, T T Kummer
Traumatic brain injury is a major source of global disability and mortality. Preclinical TBI models are a crucial component of therapeutic investigation. We report a tunable, monitored model of murine non-surgical, diffuse closed-head injury-modCHIMERA-characterized by impact as well as linear and rotational acceleration. modCHIMERA is based on the Closed-Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration (CHIMERA) platform. We tested this model at 2 energy levels: 1.7 and 2.1 Joules-substantially higher than previously reported for this system...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768967/interleukin-1-receptor-1-deletion-in-focal-and-diffuse-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#15
Joon Yong Chung, Nicolas Krapp, Limin Wu, Sevda Lule, Lauren McAllister, William Edmiston Iii, Samantha Martin, Emily Levy, Tanya Songtachalert, John Sherwood, Erin Buckley, Bharat Sanders, Saef Izzy, Suzanne Hickman, Shuzhen Guo, Josephine Lok, Joseph El Khoury, Eng Lo, David Kaplan, Michael Whalen
Important differences in the biology of focal and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) subtypes may result in unique pathophysiological responses to shared molecular mechanisms. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling has been tested as a potential therapeutic target in preclinical models of cerebral contusion and diffuse TBI, and in a phase II clinical trial, but no published studies have examined IL-1 signaling in an impact/acceleration closed head injury (CHI) model. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of IL-1 receptor-1 (IL-1R1 KO) would be beneficial in focal (contusion) and CHI in mice...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768876/protection-by-neostigmine-and-atropine-against-brain-and-liver-injury-induced-by-acute-malathion-exposure
#16
Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman R Youness, Reham Shehab ElNemr Esmail, Nadia A Mohammed, Yasser A Khadrawy, Amany A Sleem, Amany Mamdouh Abdulaziz
We examined the effect of treatment with neostigmine alone or with atropine on brain oxidative stress and on brain and liver tissue damage following acute malathion toxicity. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with malathion 150 mg/kg along with neostigmine (200 or 400 μg/kg) or neostigmine (200 μg/kg) + atropine (1 mg/kg) and euthanized 4 h later. Results indicated that compared with the saline group, malathion resulted in (i) higher brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (46.4% and 86.2%); (ii) decreased brain reduced glutathione (GSH) (67...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768334/a-case-report-of-b-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-with-brain-metastases-clinical-and-pathological-significance-of-head-trauma-misdiagnosis
#17
Jian Shi, Jale Manzo, Yiwu Zhou, Peter Agovino, Song Wu
INTRODUCTION: B lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) is a rare type of lymphoma that originates from precursor lymphocytes. B-BLB in adults with brain metastases is extremely rare as the disease mainly affects children and adults. Therefore, such a seldom-seen case can easily trigger a dispute regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.This paper reports the case of a 22-year-old man hospitalized for a head injury that resulted from a physical altercation. Upon admission to the hospital, the patient was diagnosed with a diffuse axonal injury (DAI)...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768254/neuroprotection-against-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-and-bdnf-trkb-pathway
#18
Shiying Sheng, Jingzhong Huang, Yi Ren, Feng Zhi, Xuansong Tian, Guoqiang Wen, Guanghong Ding, Terry C Xia, Fei Hua, Ying Xia
The delta-opioid receptor (DOR) is one of three classic opioid receptors in the opioid system. It was traditionally thought to be primarily involved in modulating the transmission of messages along pain signaling pathway. Although there were scattered studies on its other neural functions, inconsistent results and contradicting conclusions were found in past literatures, especially in terms of DOR's role in a hypoxic/ischemic brain. Taking inspiration from the finding that the turtle brain exhibits a higher DOR density and greater tolerance to hypoxic/ischemic insult than the mammalian brain, we clarified DOR's specific role in the brain against hypoxic/ischemic injury and reconciled previous controversies in this aspect...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766131/does-intracranial-pressure-management-hurt-more-than-it-helps-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Charles A Adams, Deborah M Stein, Jonathan J Morrison, Thomas M Scalea
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death after traumatic injury. Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is particularly associated with poor TBI outcomes, prompting clinicians to monitor this parameter, using it to guide therapies aimed at reducing pressures. Despite this approach being recommended by several bodies such as the Brain Trauma Foundation and the American College of Surgeons, the evidence demonstrating that ICP-guided therapy improves outcome is limited. The topic was debated at the 36th Annual Point/Counterpoint Acute Care Surgery Conference and the following article summarizes the discussants points of view along with a summary of the evidence...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765933/a-pilot-study-of-inhaled-co-therapy-in-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-carboxyhemoglobin-concentrations-and-brain-volumes
#20
Martha Douglas-Escobar, Monique Mendes, Candace Rossignol, Nikolay Bliznyuk, Ariana Faraji, Abdullah S Ahmad, Sylvain Doré, Michael D Weiss
Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to start evaluating the efficacy and the safety (i.e., carboxyhemoglobin concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)) as a putative neuroprotective therapy in neonates. Study Design: Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CO at a concentration of either 200 or 250 ppm for a period of 1 h. The pups were then sacrificed at 0, 10, 20, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after exposure to either concentration of CO, and blood was collected for analysis of carboxyhemoglobin. Following the safety study, 7-day-old pups underwent a unilateral carotid ligation...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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