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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921447/structure-pharmacology-and-roles-in-physiology-of-the-p2y12-receptor
#1
Ivar von Kügelgen
P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for extracellular nucleotides. The platelet ADP-receptor which has been denominated P2Y12 receptor is an important target in pharmacotherapy. The receptor couples to Gαi2 mediating an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation and additional downstream events including the activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Rap1b proteins. The nucleoside analogue ticagrelor and active metabolites of the thienopyridine compounds ticlopidine, clopidogrel and prasugrel block P2Y12 receptors and, thereby, inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation...
September 12, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920532/the-impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-later-life-effects-on-normal-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
Grace Sophia Griesbach, Brent E Masel, Richard Edward Helvie, Mark Ashley
The acute and chronic effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been widely described; however, there is limited knowledge on how a TBI sustained during early or mid adulthood will influence aging. Epidemiological studies have explored whether TBI poses a risk for dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. We will discuss the influence of TBI and resulting medical comorbidities such as endocrine, sleep and inflammatory disturbances on age-related grey and white matter changes and cognitive decline...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918666/treatment-options-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-children-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-prospects
#3
Lisa A DelSignore, Robert C Tasker
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) afflicts many children and adults worldwide, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Recent therapeutic advances have focused on both surgical and medical treatment options, but none have been proven to reduce overall morbidity and mortality in this population. Areas covered: Several emerging therapies are addressed that focus on treating related secondary injuries and other clinical sequelae post-TBI during the acute injury phase (defined by authors as up to four weeks post-injury)...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918531/penetrating-orbital-trauma-leading-to-trans-orbital-brain-herniation
#4
Siddharth Vankipuram, Chittij Srivastava, B K Ojha, Sushant Sahoo
INTRODUCTION: Development of a posttraumatic herniation of brain parenchyma through the orbit is a rare complication of orbital roof fracture. Mostly, the injury is due to a direct impact to the frontal region resulting in orbital roof fracture with dural defect and herniation of cerebrospinal fluid or brain parenchyma. These patients present with acute or gradually progressive proptosis with impending risk of loss of vision and mandate surgical decompression of optic nerve with watertight closure of the dural defect...
September 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917714/mitochondria-in-the-nervous-system-from-health-to-disease-part-i
#5
EDITORIAL
Brian M Polster, Maria Teresa Carrì, Philip M Beart
In Part I of this Special Issue on "Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease", the editors bring together contributions from experts in brain mitochondrial research to provide an up-to-date overview of mitochondrial functioning in physiology and pathology. The issue provides cutting edge reviews on classical areas of mitochondrial biology that include energy substrate utilization, calcium handling, mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum communication, and cell death regulation. Additional reviews and original research articles touch upon key mitochondrial defects seen across multiple neurodegenerative conditions, including fragmentation, loss of respiratory capacity, calcium overload, elevated reactive oxygen species generation, perturbed NAD(+) metabolism, altered protein acetylation, and compromised mitophagy...
September 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917705/long-term-retention-of-ecm-hydrogel-after-implantation-into-a-sub-acute-stroke-cavity-reduces-lesion-volume
#6
Harmanvir Ghuman, Madeline Gerwig, Francesca J Nicholls, Jessie Liu, Julia Donnelly, Stephen F Badylak, Michel Modo
Salvaging or functional replacement of damaged tissue caused by stroke in the brain remains a major therapeutic challenge. In situ gelation and retention of a hydrogel bioscaffold composed of 8 mg/mL extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce a robust invasion of cells within 24 hours and potentially promote a structural remodeling to replace lost tissue. Herein, we demonstrate a long-term retention of ECM hydrogel within the lesion cavity. A decrease of approximately 32% of ECM volume is observed over 12 weeks...
September 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916442/acute-stress-promotes-post-injury-brain-regeneration-in-fish
#7
Michael S Sinyakov, Amihai Haimovich, Ramy R Avtalion
The central nervous system and the immune system, the two major players in homeostasis, operate in the ongoing bidirectional interaction. Stress is the third player that exerts strong effect on these two 'supersystems'; yet, its impact is studied much less. In this work employing carp model, we studied the influence of preliminary stress on neural and immune networks involved in post-injury brain regeneration. The relevant in-vivo models of air-exposure stress and precisely directed cerebellum injury have been developed...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915969/hyperglycemia-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-is-it-time-to-re-evaluate-our-understanding
#8
Rwoof Reshi, Chris Streib, Mustapha Ezzeddine, Michelle Biros, Benjamin Miller, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, David Anderson, Agnieszka Ardelt
Among 700,000 new and recurrent ischemic stroke patients per year, forty percent are hyperglycemic on admission. In-vitro, hyperglycemia is toxic to neurons. Acute ischemic stroke patients who are hyperglycemic on admission experience higher morbidity and mortality. Results of multiple trials have provided no evidence supporting benefit in achieving normoglycemia. On the contrary, there is some evidence that tight glycemic control in acute brain injury is associated with poor outcome. Current consensus derived guidelines from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association recommend an upper limit of blood glucose of 140-180mg/dl, as there is no evidence to support strict control...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913711/emergency-neurological-life-support-resuscitation-following-cardiac-arrest
#9
Jonathan Elmer, Kees H Polderman
Cardiac arrest is the most common cause of death in North America. An organized bundle of neurocritical care interventions can improve chances of survival and neurological recovery in patients who are successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Therefore, resuscitation following cardiac arrest was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. Key aspects of successful early post-arrest management include: prevention of secondary brain injury; identification of treatable causes of arrest in need of emergent intervention; and, delayed neurological prognostication...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913634/emergency-neurological-life-support-intracranial-hypertension-and-herniation
#10
Rhonda Cadena, Michael Shoykhet, Jonathan J Ratcliff
Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are "brain codes," signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with intracranial hypertension and/or herniation...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912978/anoxic-brain-injury-presenting-as-pseudosubarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-the-medical-intensive-care-unit
#11
O'Dene Lewis, Samina Afreen, Supo Folaranmi, Marie Fidelia-Lambert, Vishal Poddar, Alicia Thomas
Anoxic encephalopathy is frequently encountered in the medical intensive care unit (ICU). Cerebral edema as a result of anoxic brain injury can result in increased attenuation in the basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces on computerized tomography (CT) scans of the head. These findings can mimic those seen in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and are referred to as pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage (pseudo-SAH). Pseudo-SAH is a diagnosis critical care physicians should be aware of as they treat and evaluate their patients with presumed SAH, which is a medical emergency...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912687/alterations-in-properties-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-following-pilocarpine-induced-acute-seizures-in-wistar-rats
#12
Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Julia L Ergina, Kirill A Kryukov, Ekaterina A Veniaminova, Olga E Zubareva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in humans, and is often developed after an initial precipitating brain injury. This form of epilepsy is frequently resistant to pharmacological treatment; therefore, the prevention of TLE is the prospective approach to TLE therapy. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rats replicates some of the main features of TLE in human, including the pathogenic mechanisms of cell damage and epileptogenesis after a primary brain injury. In the present study, we investigated changes in the properties of glutamatergic transmission during the first 3 days after pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in Wistar rats (PILO-rats)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911910/point-should-cvvh-always-be-the-preferred-mode-of-rrt-for-the-patient-with-acute-brain-injury-yes
#13
EDITORIAL
Marcey Osgood, Susanne Muehlschlegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911909/counterpoint-should-cvvh-always-be-the-preferred-mode-of-rrt-for-the-patient-with-acute-brain-injury-no
#14
EDITORIAL
Matthew A Niemi, Jeffrey S Stoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905273/early-to-long-term-alterations-of-cns-barriers-after-traumatic-brain-injury-considerations-for-drug-development
#15
Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Aleksandra Ichkova, Sighild Lemarchant, Jerome Badaut
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability, particularly amongst the young and the elderly. The functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) are strongly impaired after TBI, thus affecting brain homeostasis. Following the primary mechanical injury that characterizes TBI, a secondary injury develops over time, including events such as edema formation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and alterations in paracelullar and transcellular transport...
September 13, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904926/toxic-brain-injury-with-nitrobenzene-poisoning
#16
Akshay Kumar, Chintan Bhavsar, Praveen Aggarwal, Nayer Jamshed
Acute methemoglobinemia secondary to nitrobenzene ingestion is a rare but well-known clinical entity. It is extremely important to identify such patients as rapid and effective management with methylene blue and other supportive measures will often save these lives. We present a rare and unfortunate case of a girl who developed acute toxic brain injury following nitrobenzene ingestion and succumbed.
July 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903847/dengue-hemorrhagic-fever-arare-cause-of-acute-liver-failure
#17
Aisha Nazeer, Ayesha Aslam Rai, Nasir Hassan Luck, Abbas Ali Yousuf Tasneem
Acute liver failure (ALF) is an acute medical emergency which carries high mortality without liver transplantation. Various hepatotropic viruses, drug induced liver injury, auto immune hepatitis, and metabolic liver diseases are the commonly implicated etiologic agents. Liver involvement in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is quite common, but acute liver failure is its rare complication. Neurological complications are also commonly seen in DHF. Ateenage girl presented with high grade fever and subconjunctival hemorrhage, and later developed jaundice due to acute liver failure...
August 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900826/comparative-examination-of-temporal-glyoxalase-1-variations-following-perforant-pathway-transection-excitotoxicity-and-controlled-cortical-impact-injury
#18
Philipp Pieroh, Daniel-Christoph Wagner, Beat Alessandri, Mojgan Dabbagh Nazari, Angela Ehrlich, Chalid Ghadban, Constance Hobusch, Gerd Birkenmeier, Faramarz Dehghani
Following acute neuronal lesions, metabolic imbalance occurs, the rate of glycolysis increases, and methylglyoxal (MGO) forms, finally leading to metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. The glyoxalase system is the main detoxification system for MGO and is impaired following excitotoxicity and stroke. However, it is not known yet whether alterations of the glyoxalase system are also characteristic for other neuronal damage models. Neuronal damage was induced in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures by transection of perforant pathway (PPT; 5 min to 72 h) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 50 μM for 4 h) or in vivo after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury (2 h to 14 days)...
September 12, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899758/chronic-global-analysis-of-vascular-permeability-and-cerebral-blood-flow-after-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat-a-long-term-mri-study
#19
Lian Li, Michael Chopp, Guangliang Ding, Qingjiang Li, Asim Mahmood, Quan Jiang
Vascular permeability and hemodynamic alteration in response to the transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) were longitudinally investigated in non directly injured and normal-appearing cerebral tissue using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male Wistar rats (300-350g, n=30) subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI were intravenously injected with 1 ml of saline (at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=5/group) or with hMSCs in suspension (∼3x10(6) hMSCs, at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=10/group)...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898132/staged-residential-post-acute-rehabilitation-for-adults-following-acquired-brain-injury-a-comparison-of-functional-gains-rated-on-the-uk-functional-assessment-measure-uk-fim-fam-and-the-mayo-portland-adaptability-inventory-mpai-4
#20
Diana Jackson, Karla Seaman, Kristylee Sharp, Rachel Singer, Janet Wagland, Lynne Turner-Stokes
OBJECTIVE: To compare the UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM) and Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) as measures of functional change in patients with brain injury receiving a staged residential post-acute community-based rehabilitation programme. RESEARCH DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study of consecutive admissions (N = 42) over 3 years. METHODS: Patients were assessed at admission and discharge/annual review. We examined groups according to stage of independence on admission: Maximum support (stages 1 and 2: N = 17); moderate/maximum self-care/household support (stage 3: N = 15); minimal self-care and moderate household/community support (stages 4-6: N = 10)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
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