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prono position

Nicholas Smith, Brandon Campbell, Lin Li, Chuan Li, Emil Alexov
BACKGROUND: With the progress of nanotechnology, one frequently has to model biological macromolecules simultaneously with nano-objects. However, the atomic structures of the nano objects are typically not available or they are solid state entities. Because of that, the researchers have to investigate such nano systems by generating models of the nano objects in a manner that the existing software be able to carry the simulations. In addition, it should allow generating composite objects with complex shape by combining basic geometrical figures and embedding biological macromolecules within the system...
2012: BMC Structural Biology
Andreas Finke, Markus Kuhlmann, Michael Florian Mette
In plants, a particular class of short interfering (si)RNAs can serve as a signal to induce cytosine methylation at homologous genomic regions. If the targeted DNA has promoter function, this RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) can result in transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). RNA-directed transcriptional gene silencing (RdTGS) of transgenes provides a versatile system for the study of epigenetic gene regulation. We used transcription of a nopaline synthase promoter (ProNOS)-inverted repeat (IR) to provide a RNA signal that triggers de novo cytosine methylation and TGS of a homologous ProNOS copy in trans...
August 2012: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Sylvain Hanneton, Svetlana Dedobbeler, Thomas Hoellinger, Agnes Roby-Brami
The study proposes a rigid-body biomechanical model of the trunk and whole upper limb including scapula and the test of this model with a kinematic method using a six-dimensional (6-D) electromagnetic motion capture (mocap) device. Large unconstrained natural trunk-assisted reaching movements were recorded in 7 healthy subjects. The 3-D positions of anatomical landmarks were measured and then compared to their estimation given by the biomechanical chain fed with joint angles (the direct kinematics). Thus, the prediction errors was attributed to the different joints and to the different simplifications introduced in the model...
August 2011: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Marc Soubeyrand, Clarisse Lafont, Renaud De Georges, Christian Dumontier
The antibrachial interosseous membrane (IOM) is taught over an average length of 10.6cm between the diaphyses of the radius and ulna bone. It looks like a stitch with fibers running from the ulna to the radius and from proximal to distal and fibers running from distal to proximal. The central band, which is the middle part of the fibers directed from distal to proximal has mechanical properties similar to those of a ligament and act as a ligamentous structure embedded in the larger membranous complex of the IOM...
December 2007: Chirurgie de la Main
C Giacomozzi, S Cesinaro, F Basile, G De Angelis, D Giansanti, G Maccioni, E Masci, A Panella, M Paolizzi, M Torre, P Valentini, V Macellari
The paper describes a measurement device for obtaining the kinematic characterisation and isometric loading of ankle joints under different working conditions. Non-invasive, in vivo experiments can be conducted with this experimental apparatus, the potential of which could be usefully exploited in basic biomedical research, prosthesis design, clinical applications, sports medicine and rehabilitation. The device determines the 3D movement of the foot with respect to the shank and evaluates the torques and moments around the three articular axes in relation to any desired angular position of the ankle complex...
July 2003: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Laurent Claudon
The aim of the present study was to develop a relationship to evaluate grip force using the electromyogram (EMG) in isometric anisotonic conditions. The EMGs of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and the extensor digitorum (ED) were recorded in 3 flexion-extension positions of the wrist (30 degrees flexion, 30 degrees extension, and 60 degrees extension) associated with 3 positions of the forearm (70 degrees pronation, prono-supination, and 70 degrees supination). For each position, the participants had to follow linear ramp targets (2 rates of increase and decrease) displayed on an oscilloscope...
2003: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
S Van Sint Jan, P Salvia, I Hilal, V Sholukha, M Rooze, G Clapworthy
The paper describes a method in which two data-collecting systems, medical imaging and electrogoniometry, are combined to allow the accurate and simultaneous modeling of both the spatial kinematics and the morphological surface of a particular joint. The joint of interest (JOI) is attached to a Plexiglas jig that includes four metallic markers defining a local reference system (R(GONIO)) for the kinematics data. Volumetric data of the JOI and the R(GONIO) markers are collected from medical imaging. The spatial location and orientation of the markers in the global reference system (R(CT)) of the medical-imaging environment are obtained by applying object-recognition and classification methods on the image dataset...
November 2002: Journal of Biomechanics
F Baldissera, G Bellani, P Cavallari, S Lalli
The effect of the forearm position, prone vs. supine, on the excitability of the H-reflex in flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle was tested in nine adult volunteers by comparing the recruitment profiles of the H and M waves. The H-reflex size, normalized to the maximal M response, was lower when the forearm was supine than when it was prone, with an average reduction of about 50% over most of the H-recruitment curve. In three wrist positions, intermediate between prone and supine, the amount of reflex attenuation was related to the prono-supination angle...
December 8, 2000: Neuroscience Letters
I A Kapandji
The Kapandji-Sauvé operation consists in the arthrodesis of the distal radioulnar joint surmounted with a segmentary resection of the lower ulna. This technique may be used not only in rheumatoid dislocations of the distal radioulnar joint instead of the resection of the distal end of the ulna (Moore-Darrach) but also in traumatic diseases such as dislocations, sprains, chronical instabilities of this joint and stiffness secondary to Colles fractures. Two techniques are described, following the original one proposed in 1936...
1986: Annales de Chirurgie de la Main: Organe Officiel des Sociétés de Chirurgie de la Main
J van Hoecke, C Pérot, F Goubel
The electrical activity of the biceps brachii and pronator teres muscles is studied through the prono-supination of the forearm in some anisometrical conditions (dynamic work) when the inertia of the mobile system and the elbow position are being varied. The subjects are required to perform pronation, supination and flexion movements, either isolated or combined. From the findings obtained when the integrated electrical activity (Q) is related to the mechanical work (W), one can conclude that a. the Q-W linear relationship seems to characterize the chief function of a muscle, b...
March 20, 1978: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
J van Hoecke, C Pérot, F Goubel
The electrical activity of the biceps brachii and pronator teres muscles is studied through the prono-supination of the forearm in some isometrical conditions (static work) with different loads and joint positions. If the pronator teres is always being active in pronation, this activity is a function of the load and of the wrist and elbow positions. The same phenomena can be observed for the biceps brachii but when in supination. From the curvilinear relationships between the integrated electrical activity and the load--observed on both muscles--some torque-angle relationships can be established for the biceps brachii which show that a bifunctional muscle seems to be characterized by a very and unique force-length relationship...
March 20, 1978: European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
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