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Tropical infectious diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820685/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-immigrants
#1
María Pérez-Rueda, Michele Hernández-Cabrera, Adela Francés-Urmeneta, Alfonso Angel-Moreno, Elena Pisos-Álamo, Nieves Jaén-Sánchez, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Jose-Luis Pérez-Arellano
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) includes a group of potentially serious inflammatory processes that may be present in HIV-infected patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Paradoxical IRIS is a worsening of symptoms, after an overwhelming response to a previously diagnosed opportunistic infection (OI); unmasking IRIS reveals a previously occult OI. The main objective of the study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data of HIV-infected immigrants, stratified according to high- or low-income countries of origin, who developed IRIS and to compare them with native-born Spanish patients...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819494/functioning-and-disability-in-recent-research-from-cameroon-a-narrative-synthesis
#2
Minal Ray, Lorena Wallace, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Lynn Cockburn
INTRODUCTION: People living with disabilities in Cameroon face many barriers to daily functioning and social participation. However, there is limited research on disabilities and their impact. We sought to examine the research related to disability from Cameroon. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, bibliometric analysis, and narrative synthesis of research related to disability, functioning, and social participation from Cameroon published during 2005-2014...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808479/a-multiscale-model-for-the-world-s-first-parasitic-disease-targeted-for-eradication-guinea-worm-disease
#3
Rendani Netshikweta, Winston Garira
Guinea worm disease (GWD) is both a neglected tropical disease and an environmentally driven infectious disease. Environmentally driven infectious diseases remain one of the biggest health threats for human welfare in developing countries and the threat is increased by the looming danger of climate change. In this paper we present a multiscale model of GWD that integrates the within-host scale and the between-host scale. The model is used to concurrently examine the interactions between the three organisms that are implicated in natural cases of GWD transmission, the copepod vector, the human host, and the protozoan worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis), and identify their epidemiological roles...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799498/structure-based-approaches-targeting-parasite-cysteine-proteases
#4
Rafael Pinto Vieira, Viviane Corrêa Santos, Rafaela Salgado Ferreira
Cysteine proteases are essential hydrolytic enzymes present in the majority of organisms, including viruses and unicellular parasites. Despite the high sequence identity displayed among these proteins, specific structural features across different species grant distinct functions to these biomolecules, frequently related to pathological conditions. Consequently, their relevance as promising targets for potential specific inhibitors has been highlighted and occasionally validated in recent decades. In this review, we discuss the recent outcomes on structure-based campaigns aiming the discovery of new inhibitor prototypes against cruzain and falcipain, as alternative therapeutic tools for Chagas disease and malaria treatments, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797115/ranking-93-health-interventions-for-low-and-middle-income-countries-by-cost-effectiveness
#5
Susan Horton, Hellen Gelband, Dean Jamison, Carol Levin, Rachel Nugent, David Watkins
BACKGROUND: Cost-effectiveness rankings of health interventions are useful inputs for national healthcare planning and budgeting. Previous comprehensive rankings for low- and middle- income countries were undertaken in 2005 and 2006, accompanying the development of strategies for the Millennium Development Goals. We update the rankings using studies published since 2000, as strategies are being considered for the Sustainable Development Goals. METHODS: Expert systematic searches of the literature were undertaken for a broad range of health interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793022/kidney-involvement-in-malaria-an-update
#6
Geraldo Bezerra da Silva, José Reginaldo Pinto, Elvino José Guardão Barros, Geysa Maria Nogueira Farias, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
Malaria is an infectious disease of great importance for Public Health, as it is the most prevalent endemic disease in the world, affecting millions of people living in tropical areas of the globe. Kidney involvement is relatively frequent in infections by P. falciparum and P. malariae, but has also been described in the infection by P. vivax. Kidney complications in malaria mainly occur due to hemodynamic dysfunction and immune response. Liver complications leading to hepatomegaly, jaundice and hepatic dysfunction can also contribute to the occurrence of acute kidney injury...
2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792519/dominance-and-leadership-in-research-activities-collaboration-between-countries-of-differing-human-development-is-reflected-through-authorship-order-and-designation-as-corresponding-authors-in-scientific-publications
#7
Gregorio González-Alcaide, Jinseo Park, Charles Huamaní, José M Ramos
INTRODUCTION: Scientific collaboration is an important mechanism that enables the integration of the least developed countries into research activities. In the present study, we use the order of author signatures and addresses for correspondence in scientific publications as variables to analyze the interactions between countries of very high (VHHD), high (HHD), medium (MHD), and low human development (LHD). METHODOLOGY: We identified all documents published between 2011 and 2015 in journals included in the Science Citation Index-Expanded categories' of Tropical Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Parasitology, and Pediatrics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792090/distinct-activation-mechanisms-trigger-the-trypanocidal-activity-of-dna-damaging-prodrugs
#8
Emma Louise Meredith, Ambika Kumar, Aya Konno, Joanna Szular, Sam Alsford, Karin Seifert, David Horn, Shane R Wilkinson
Quinone-based compounds have been exploited to treat infectious diseases and cancer, with such chemicals often functioning as inhibitors of key metabolic pathways or as prodrugs. Here, we screened an aziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone (ABQ) library against the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, and cutaneous leishmaniasis, identifying several potent structures that exhibited EC50 values of <100 nM. However, these compounds also displayed significant toxicity towards mammalian cells indicating that they are not suitable therapies for systemic infections...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780191/significant-inhibition-of-tembusu-virus-envelope-and-ns5-gene-using-an-adenovirus-mediated-short-hairpin-rna-delivery-system
#9
Hongzhi Wang, Qiang Feng, Lei Wei, Liling Zhuo, Hao Chen, Youxiang Diao, Yi Tang
Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, which was first isolated in the tropics during the 1970s. Recently, a disease characterized by ovarian haemorrhage and neurological symptoms was observed in ducks in China, which threatens poultry production. However, there is no suitable vaccination strategy or effective antiviral drugs to combat TMUV infections. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a new anti-TMUV therapy. In this study, we report an efficient short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivery strategy for the inhibition of TMUV production using an adenovirus vector system...
August 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768730/detection-of-plasmodium-spp-infection-by-the-illumigene%C3%A2-malaria-assay-compared-to-reference-microscopy-and-real-time-pcr
#10
Candace Rypien, Barbara Chow, Wilson Chan, Deirdre Church, Dylan R Pillai
Malaria is one of the leading causes of infectious disease in returning travelers from the tropics. Diagnosis of malaria is typically performed by examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin peripheral blood smears, which is time-consuming, labor-intensive and requires high levels of proficiency. Alternatively, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a new molecular method, which is rapid, sensitive, and requires less capital equipment and technological training. We conducted a retrospective study comparing two formats of a commercial LAMP assay (Meridian illumigene® Malaria [M] and Malaria Plus [MP]) versus reference microscopy on archived blood specimens (n=140) obtained from unique returning travelers suspected of having malaria...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750103/bacterial-diversity-in-buruli-ulcer-skin-lesions-challenges-in-the-clinical-microbiome-analysis-of-a-skin-disease
#11
Chloé Van Leuvenhaege, Koen Vandelannoote, Dissou Affolabi, Françoise Portaels, Ghislain Sopoh, Bouke C de Jong, Miriam Eddyani, Conor J Meehan
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans and considered the third most prevalent mycobacterial disease in humans. Secondary bacterial infections in open BU lesions are the main cause of pain, delayed healing and systemic illness, resulting in prolonged hospital stay. Thus, understanding the diversity of bacteria, termed the microbiome, in these open lesions is important for proper treatment. However, adequately studying the human microbiome in a clinical setting can prove difficult when investigating a neglected tropical skin disease due to its rarity and the setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743489/lipid-profiling-of-the-filarial-nematodes-onchocerca-volvulus-onchocerca-ochengi-and-litomosoides-sigmodontis-reveals-the-accumulation-of-nematode-specific-ether-phospholipids-in-the-host
#12
Vera Wewer, Benjamin L Makepeace, Vincent N Tanya, Helga Peisker, Kenneth Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Peter Dörmann
Onchocerciasis, a neglected tropical disease prevalent in western and central Africa, is a major health problem and has been targeted for elimination. The causative agent for this disease is the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Onchocerca ochengi and Litomosoides sigmodontis, infectious agents of cattle and rodents, respectively, serve as model organisms to study filarial nematode infections. Biomarkers to determine infection without the use of painful skin biopsies and microscopic identification of larval worms are needed and their discovery is facilitated by an improved knowledge of parasite-specific metabolites...
July 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733254/pre-travel-advice-at-a-crossroad-medical-preparedness-of-travellers-to-south-and-southeast-asia-the-hamburg-airport-survey
#13
Thierry Rolling, Melina Mühlenpfordt, Marylyn M Addo, Jakob P Cramer, Christof D Vinnemeier
BACKGROUND: Specific travel-related recommendations exist for the prevention or self-treatment of infectious diseases contracted by travellers to the tropics. In the current study, we assessed the medical preparedness per these recommendations, focusing on whether travellers carried antidiarrheal and antimalarial medication with them stratified by type of pre-travel advice. METHODS: We surveyed travellers departing from Hamburg International Airport to South or Southeast Asia, using a questionnaire on demographic, medical and travel characteristics...
July 18, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730326/infectious-diseases-causing-autonomic-dysfunction
#14
REVIEW
Francisco Javier Carod Artal
OBJECTIVES: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase. RESULTS: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Autonomic dysfunction is relatively common in HIV-infected patients and heart rate variability is reduced even in early stages of infection...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721965/the-rise-of-global-health-diplomacy-an-interdisciplinary-concept-linking-health-and-international-relations
#15
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714879/the-influence-of-spatial-configuration-of-residential-area-and-vector-populations-on-dengue-incidence-patterns-in-an-individual-level-transmission-model
#16
Jeon-Young Kang, Jared Aldstadt
Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Many individual-level simulation models have been developed to test hypotheses about dengue virus transmission. Often these efforts assume that human host and mosquito vector populations are randomly or uniformly distributed in the environment. Although, the movement of mosquitoes is affected by spatial configuration of buildings and mosquito populations are highly clustered in key buildings, little research has focused on the influence of the local built environment in dengue transmission models...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701159/bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-a-tertiary-infectious-diseases-hospital-in-northern-vietnam-aetiology-drug-resistance-and-treatment-outcome
#17
Vu Quoc Dat, Hieu Ngoc Vu, Hung Nguyen The, Hoa Thi Nguyen, Long Bao Hoang, Dung Vu Tien Viet, Chi Linh Bui, Kinh Van Nguyen, Trung Vu Nguyen, Dao Tuyet Trinh, Alessandro Torre, H Rogier van Doorn, Behzad Nadjm, Heiman F L Wertheim
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. However their aetiology, antimicrobial susceptibilities and associated outcomes differ between developed and developing countries. Systematic data from Vietnam are scarce. Here we present aetiologic data on BSI in adults admitted to a large tertiary referral hospital for infectious diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases between January 2011 and December 2013...
July 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686630/caspase-6-mediates-resistance-against-burkholderia-pseudomallei-infection-and-influences-the-expression-of-detrimental-cytokines
#18
Alexander Bartel, André Göhler, Verena Hopf, Katrin Breitbach
Caspase-6 is a member of the executioner caspases and known to play a role in innate and adaptive immune processes. However, its role in infectious diseases has rarely been addressed yet. We here examined the impact of caspase-6 in an in vivo infection model using the Gram-negative rod Burkholderia pseudomallei, causing the infectious disease melioidosis that is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Caspase-6-/- and C57BL/6 wild type mice were challenged with B. pseudomallei for comparing mortality, bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokine expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672783/vitamin-d-and-infectious-diseases-simple-bystander-or-contributing-factor
#19
REVIEW
Pedro Henrique França Gois, Daniela Ferreira, Simon Olenski, Antonio Carlos Seguro
Vitamin D (VD) is a fat-soluble steroid essential for life in higher animals. It is technically a pro-hormone present in few food types and produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. In recent decades, several studies have suggested that VD contributes to diverse processes extending far beyond mineral homeostasis. The machinery for VD production and its receptor have been reported in multiple tissues, where they have a pivotal role in modulating the immune system. Similarly, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major global public healthcare burden...
June 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650648/indian-ocean-dipole-and-cryptosporidiosis-in-australia-short-term-and-nonlinear-associations
#20
Aparna Lal, Masahiro Hashizume, Simon Hales
The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is a global climate phenomenon that influences the spread of human infectious diseases through climate extremes including droughts and floods. The Dipole Mode Index (DMI), which measures the strength of the IOD, is one of the main indicators of rainfall variability across Australia. Using an ecological, time-series approach we examined the short-term and nonlinear relationship between the DMI and weekly cryptosporidiosis reported from 2001 to 2012 across the temperate, subtropical, and tropical climate zones in Australia, controlling for season, long-term trends, and cryptosporidiosis counts from the past week...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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