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Tropical infectious diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238918/treatment-of-acute-hepatitis-c-recommendations-from-an-expert-panel-of-the-italian-society-of-infectious-and-tropical-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni B Gaeta, Massimo Puoti, Nicola Coppola, Teresa Santantonio, Raffaele Bruno, Antonio Chirianni, Massimo Galli
AIM: This paper is aimed at providing practical recommendations for the management of acute hepatitis C (AHC). METHODS: This is an expert position paper based on the literature revision. Final recommendations were graded by level of evidence and strength of the recommendations. RESULTS: Treatment of AHC with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) is safe and effective; it overcomes the limitations of INF-based treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment with DAA should be offered when available...
December 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237707/buruli-ulcer-a-prototype-for-ecosystem-related-infection-caused-by-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#2
REVIEW
Dezemon Zingue, Amar Bouam, Roger B D Tian, Michel Drancourt
Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. ulcerans-specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Skin contamination combined with any type of puncture, including insect bites, is the most plausible route of transmission, and skin temperature of <30°C significantly correlates with the topography of lesions...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183395/serotyping-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-of-vibrio-and-shigella-isolates-from-diarrheal-patients-visiting-a-tropical-and-infectious-diseases-hospital-in-central-nepal
#3
Sujan Maharjan, Binod Rayamajhee, Anima Shreshtha, Jyoti Acharya
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal diseases are the major infectious disease in developing countries like Nepal. Lack of proper sanitation and antimicrobial resistance gained by microbes have challenged to address diarrheal diseases in resource-limited countries. Early diagnosis of disease and proper antibiotic treatment can significantly reduce the disease burden. This study was designed to determine the recent antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. to assure the proper antibiotic treatment...
November 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166500/final-diagnosis-of-86-cases-included-in-differential-diagnosis-of-american-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-in-a-brazilian-sample-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#4
Fernanda Tirelli, Sebastian Vernal, Ana Maria Roselino
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is distributed worldwide, including Brazil. Its several clinical forms need to be distinguished from other dermatoses. Clinical similarities and lack of a gold standard diagnostic tool make leishmaniasis-like lesions a challenging diagnosis. OBJECTIVES.: To report the final diagnosis of patients primarily suspected of having American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). METHODS.: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of medical records of 437 patients with clinical suspicion of ATL, registered in electronic hospital system between 1980 and 2013...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162320/controlled-human-infections-a-report-from-the-controlled-human-infection-models-workshop-leiden-university-medical-centre-4-6-may-2016
#5
Meta Roestenberg, Annie Mo, Peter G Kremsner, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
The principle of deliberately infecting humans with infectious agents in a controlled setting, so-called controlled human infections (CHI), is not novel. Many CHI models have a long history and were established decades ago such as the intentional exposure to yellow fever and dengue performed in the 1900's (Reed, 1902) [2]. In these times bioethics and scientific reasoning were in their infancy. Nowadays, clinical trials are highly regulated and CHI are executed worldwide. Controlled human malaria infections and influenza infections are the two most frequently practiced...
November 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160199/marmosets-callithrix-jacchus-as-a-non-human-primate-model-for-evaluation-of-candidate-dengue-vaccines-induction-and-maintenance-of-specific-protective-immunity-against-challenges-with-clinical-isolates
#6
Meng Ling Moi, Yasushi Ami, Nor Azila Muhammad Azami, Kenji Shirai, Sutee Yoksan, Yuriko Suzaki, Kazutaka Kitaura, Chang-Kweng Lim, Masayuki Saijo, Ryuji Suzuki, Tomohiko Takasaki, Ichiro Kurane
Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious diseases in tropical regions and approximately half of the world population is at risk of infection. Vaccines would offer an effective control measure against this disease. We previously reported on the utility of marmosets as an animal model for studying primary and secondary dengue infections. Infected marmosets consistently develop viraemia and antibody kinetics that reflect those of patients with dengue. Thus, it is important to determine the utility of marmosets as an animal model for demonstrating vaccine efficacy...
November 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158987/lowland-extirpation-of-anuran-populations-on-a-tropical-mountain
#7
Marconi Campos-Cerqueira, T Mitchell Aide
Background: Climate change and infectious diseases threaten animal and plant species, even in natural and protected areas. To cope with these changes, species may acclimate, adapt, move or decline. Here, we test for shifts in anuran distributions in the Luquillo Mountains (LM), a tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico by comparing species distributions from historical (1931-1989)and current data (2015/2016). Methods: Historical data, which included different methodologies, were gathered through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and published literature, and the current data were collected using acoustic recorders along three elevational transects...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157660/encephalitis-and-myelitis-in-tropical-countries-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Gisele Sampaio Silva, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin R Amin
Tropical diseases are those that occur primarily or solely in the tropics, and as such include infectious diseases that are particularly prevalent in hot, humid conditions. The incidence of encephalitis in tropical countries is reported to be as high as 6.34/100,000/year. The term encephalitis implies inflammation of the brain and includes the presence of encephalopathy with two and more of the following features: fever, seizures and/or focal neurological findings; a cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis; electroencephalographic findings or abnormal neuroimaging suggestive of encephalitis...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151362/elimination-of-schistosomiasis-the-tools-required
#9
REVIEW
Robert Bergquist, Xiao-Nong Zhou, David Rollinson, Jutta Reinhard-Rupp, Katharina Klohe
BACKGROUND: Historically, the target in the schistosomiasis control has shifted from infection to morbidity, then back to infection, but now as a public health problem, before moving on to transmission control. Currently, all endemic countries are encouraged to increase control efforts and move towards elimination as required by the World Health Organization (WHO) roadmap for the global control of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and the WHA65.21 resolution issued by the World Health Assembly...
November 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133029/host-genetics-and-dengue-fever
#10
REVIEW
Caroline Xavier-Carvalho, Cynthia Chester Cardoso, Fernanda de Souza Kehdy, Antonio Guilherme Pacheco, Milton Ozório Moraes
Dengue is a major worldwide problem in tropical and subtropical areas; it is caused by four different viral serotypes, and it can manifest as asymptomatic, mild, or severe. Many factors interact to determine the severity of the disease, including the genetic profile of the infected patient. However, the mechanisms that lead to severe disease and eventually death have not been determined, and a great challenge is the early identification of patients who are more likely to progress to a worse health condition...
November 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116586/correction-to-acquisition-of-tn6018-3-cs-regions-increases-colistin-mics-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-harboring-new-variants-of-abars
#11
Mohammad Savari, Alireza Ekrami, Saeed Shoja, Abbas Bahador
The published online version of this article contained a mistake. The correct affiliation of Alireza Ekrami should have been "Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran" . The authors regret this error.
November 7, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100256/radiological-diagnoses-in-the-context-of-emigration-infectious-diseases
#12
Marija Stoijkovic, Jan Müller, Thomas Junghanss, Tim Frederik Weber
Background Globalization and emigration impact on the spectrum of diseases challenging health care systems. Medical practitioners have to particularly prepare for infectious diseases. Methods The database of a health care center specialized on tropical medicine was screened for patients with history of migration and one of the following diagnoses: Cystic echinococcosis, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, visceral leishmaniosis, and neurocysticercosis. Representative casuistics were prepared from select case histories...
November 3, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095820/-omic-investigations-of-protozoa-and-worms-for-a-deeper-understanding-of-the-human-gut-parasitome
#13
REVIEW
Valeria Marzano, Livia Mancinelli, Giorgia Bracaglia, Federica Del Chierico, Pamela Vernocchi, Francesco Di Girolamo, Stefano Garrone, Hyppolite Tchidjou Kuekou, Patrizia D'Argenio, Bruno Dallapiccola, Andrea Urbani, Lorenza Putignani
The human gut has been continuously exposed to a broad spectrum of intestinal organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites (protozoa and worms), over millions of years of coevolution, and plays a central role in human health. The modern lifestyles of Western countries, such as the adoption of highly hygienic habits, the extensive use of antimicrobial drugs, and increasing globalisation, have dramatically altered the composition of the gut milieu, especially in terms of its eukaryotic "citizens...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066781/global-hotspots-and-correlates-of-emerging-zoonotic-diseases
#14
Toph Allen, Kris A Murray, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Stephen S Morse, Carlo Rondinini, Moreno Di Marco, Nathan Breit, Kevin J Olival, Peter Daszak
Zoonoses originating from wildlife represent a significant threat to global health, security and economic growth, and combatting their emergence is a public health priority. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their emergence remains rudimentary. Here we update a global database of emerging infectious disease (EID) events, create a novel measure of reporting effort, and fit boosted regression tree models to analyze the demographic, environmental and biological correlates of their occurrence...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030319/coordination-of-different-ligands-to-copper-ii-and-cobalt-iii-metal-centers-enhances-zika-virus-and-dengue-virus-loads-in-both-arthropod-cells-and-human-keratinocytes
#15
Shovan Dutta, Michael J Celestine, Supreet Khanal, Alexis Huddleston, Colin Simms, Jessa Faye Arca, Amlan Mitra, Loree Heller, Piotr J Kraj, Michel Ledizet, John F Anderson, Girish Neelakanta, Alvin A Holder, Hameeda Sultana
Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz...
January 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985768/immune-thrombocytopenia-with-multi-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-as-a-rare-presentation-of-scrub-typhus-a-case-report
#16
Abraham M Ittyachen, Saramma P Abraham, Smitha Krishnamoorthy, Anuroopa Vijayan, Jayamohan Kokkat
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is endemic to a part of the world known as the "tsutsugamushi triangle". Humans are accidental hosts in this zoonotic disease. About a third of patients admitted with scrub typhus have evidence of multi-organ dysfunction. Multi-organ dysfunction secondary to scrub typhus carries a high mortality rate. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 65-year old lady who was admitted in a Tertiary Care Center in the state of Kerala in India, with 7 day history of fever, myalgia and reduced urine output...
October 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971766/ornithine-decarboxylase-inhibition-a-strategy-to-combat-various-diseases
#17
Priyanshu R Rai, Rakesh R Somani, Pooja S Kandpile
Ornithine decarboxylase is the first enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. It is the rate-limiting enzyme which is included in the change of ornithine to putrescine which is the first polyamine. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) are natural and synthetic compounds which contains two or more amino group. Polyamines are highly implicated in cellular functions such as cell-growth & multiplication, DNA stabilization, gene transcription and translation, ion-channel activity, etc. Elevated levels of polyamines were found in highly proliferating tumour cells...
September 27, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969414/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-refugees-in-italy
#18
L G De Filippis, I Trombetta, T Novella, M Alampi
The objective of the research is to determine 25[OH]D serum levels in refugees in Italy. In the following research we have taken into consideration the results of the monitoring of Vitamin D levels in 46 refugees of the Italian Service for protection of refugees and asylum seekers (SPRAR) system. The indicator of overall vitamin D status used was the circulating serum level of 25(OH)D. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel. In the refugees tested, the mean level of 25(OH)D resulted 9.18 ng/mL. The standard deviation was 4...
September 21, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966914/laryngeal-paracoccidioidomycosis-presenting-as-solitary-true-vocal-fold-disease
#19
Walter de Araujo Eyer-Silva, Annelise Callmann Santana, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes de Azevedo, Juliana Li Ting Matos Sun Barreto, Marina Apolloni Neumann, Izana Junqueira de Castro, Rodrigo Panno Basílio-de-Oliveira, Luciana Ferreira de Araujo, Nathane Zanineli Ré, Felipe Marques de Oliveira, Caio José de Araujo Simas, Marcos André de Sarvat, Fernando Raphael de Almeida Ferry
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis or P. lutzii. It is a neglected tropical infectious disease that poses a major public health burden in endemic areas of Latin America. Mucosae of the upper digestive and respiratory tracts are commonly involved and many patients have disease at multiple mucosal sites, with or without lung involvement. Mucosal PCM presenting as solitary true vocal fold disease is relatively rare. We present the case of a 67-year-old Brazilian forest guard who presented with a 6-month history of hoarseness and globus pharyngeus due to a solitary left true vocal fold infiltration and vegetation diagnosed as PCM...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965490/study-roadmap-for-high-throughput-development-of-easy-to-use-and-affordable-biomarkers-as-diagnostics-for-tropical-diseases-a-focus-on-malaria-and-schistosomiasis
#20
Kokouvi Kassegne, Ting Zhang, Shen-Bo Chen, Bin Xu, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Wang-Ping Deng, Eniola Michael Abe, Hai-Mo Shen, Wei Hu, Takele Geressu Guyo, Solomon Nwaka, Jun-Hu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Interventions are currently being used against 'infectious diseases of poverty', which remain highly debilitating and deadly in most endemic countries, especially malaria, schistosomiasis, echinococcosis and African sleeping sickness. However, major limitations of current 'traditional' methods for diagnosis are neither simple nor convenient for population surveillance, and showed low sensitivity and specificity. Access to novel technologies for the development of adequate and reliable tools are expressly needed...
October 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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