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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087845/waking-eeg-cortical-markers-of-chronic-pain-and-sleepiness
#1
Danny Camfferman, G Lorimer Moseley, Kevin Gertz, Mark W Pettet, Mark P Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Spectral power analyses of EEG recordings are reported to distinguish the cortical activity of individuals with chronic pain from those of controls. Further study of these spectral patterns may provide a greater understanding of the processes associated with chronic pain, in addition to providing potential biometric markers of chronic pain for use in both clinical and research settings. However, sleep deprived groups have demonstrated similar characteristics in their spectral power characteristics, particularly in alpha bandwidth power activity...
January 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087828/tdp-43-pathology-and-memory-impairment-in-elders-without-pathologic-diagnoses-of-ad-or-ftld
#2
Sukriti Nag, Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, Er-Yun Chen, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) pathology with memory, other cognitive domains, and dementia in community-dwelling elders without pathologic diagnoses of Alzheimer disease (AD) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). METHODS: Of 1,058 autopsied participants, 343 (32.4%) did not have pathologic diagnoses of AD or FTLD. Diagnosis of dementia was based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests, which were used to create summary measures of global cognition and of 5 cognitive domains...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087827/neuropsychological-outcome-following-frontal-lobectomy-for-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-adults
#3
Robyn M Busch, Darlene P Floden, Lisa Ferguson, Shamseldeen Mahmoud, Audrina Mullane, Stephen Jones, Lara Jehi, William Bingaman, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. METHODS: Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087826/comparison-of-brain-mri-findings-with-language-and-motor-function-in-the-dystroglycanopathies
#4
Brianna N Brun, Shelley R H Mockler, Katie M Laubscher, Carrie M Stephan, Anne M Wallace, Julia A Collison, M Bridget Zimmerman, William B Dobyns, Katherine D Mathews
OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of brain MRI findings in a cohort of individuals with dystroglycanopathies (DGs) and relate MRI results to function. METHODS: All available brain MRIs done for clinical indications on individuals enrolled in a DG natural history study (NCT00313677) were reviewed. Reports were reviewed when MRI was not available. MRIs were categorized as follows: (1) cortical, brainstem, and cerebellar malformations; (2) cortical and cerebellar malformations; or (3) normal...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#5
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087767/trial-by-trial-motor-cortical-correlates-of-a-rapidly-adapting-visuomotor-internal-model
#6
Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
: Accurate motor control is mediated by internal models of how neural activity generates movement. We examined neural correlates of an adapting internal model of visuomotor gain in motor cortex while two macaques performed a reaching task in which the gain scaling between the hand and a presented cursor was varied. Previous studies of cortical changes during visuomotor adaptation focused on preparatory and peri-movement epochs and analyzed trial-averaged neural data. Here, we recorded simultaneous neural population activity using multielectrode arrays and focused our analysis on neural differences in the period before the target appeared...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087762/a-delay-between-motor-cortex-lesions-and-neuronal-transplantation-enhances-graft-integration-and-improves-repair-and-recovery
#7
Sophie Péron, Marine Droguerre, Franck Debarbieux, Nissrine Ballout, Marianne Benoit-Marand, Maureen Francheteau, Sébastien Brot, Geneviève Rougon, Mohamed Jaber, Afsaneh Gaillard
We previously reported that embryonic motor cortical neurons transplanted immediately after lesions in the adult mouse motor cortex restored damaged motor cortical pathways. A critical barrier hindering application of transplantation strategies for a wide range of traumatic injuries is the determination of a suitable time window for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report that a one-week delay between the lesion and transplantation significantly enhances graft vascularization, survival and proliferation of grafted cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087386/androgens-and-androgen-receptor-signaling-contribute-to-ovarian-development-in-the-chicken-embryo
#8
Ryoma Tanaka, Hiroe Izumi, Asato Kuroiwa
Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling play important roles throughout development. In the chicken, AR signaling is involved in reproduction; however, its specific role is unclear. We show that AR signaling is involved in the normal development of the female embryonic gonads. The AR mRNA level was detected in male and female embryonic gonads by quantitative RT-PCR, and its expression was higher in females than in males at all developmental stages examined. In female embryos, the AR localized to nuclei of cells in the left gonad...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087334/the-short-and-long-term-proteomic-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-on-the-cortical-and-thalamic-synapses
#9
Attila Simor, Balázs András Györffy, Péter Gulyássy, Katalin Völgyi, Vilmos Tóth, Mihail Ivilinov Todorov, Viktor Kis, Zsolt Borhegyi, Zoltán Szabó, Tamás Janáky, László Drahos, Gábor Juhász, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences for the involvement of sleep in synaptic functions. Despite the wide scientific interest on the effects of sleep on the synapse, there is a lack of systematic investigation of sleep-related changes in the synaptic proteome. We isolated parietal cortical and thalamic synaptosomes of rats after 8 h of total SD by gentle handling and 16 h after the end of deprivation to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of SD on the synaptic proteome, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087280/increased-homocysteine-levels-impair-reference-memory-and-reduce-cortical-levels-of-acetylcholine-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#10
Kevin Dam, Martina Füchtemeier, Tracy D Farr, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Marco Foddis, Ulrich Dirnagl, Olga Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087234/interference-from-related-actions-in-spoken-word-production-behavioural-and-fmri-evidence
#11
Greig de Zubicaray, Douglas Fraser, Kori Ramajoo, Katie McMahon
Few investigations of lexical access in spoken word production have investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in action naming. These are likely to be more complex than the mechanisms involved in object naming, due to the ways in which conceptual features of action words are represented. The present study employed a blocked cyclic naming paradigm to examine whether related action contexts elicit a semantic interference effect akin to that observed with categorically related objects. Participants named pictures of intransitive actions to avoid a confound with object processing...
January 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087230/the-impact-of-obesity-on-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-and-renal-scarring-in-children-with-vesicoureteral-reflux
#12
H J Byun, J Y Ha, W Jung, B H Kim, C H Park, C I Kim
INTRODUCTION: It has become clear that obesity is associated with a variety of infectious diseases, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between obesity and the degree of febrile UTI (fUTI) and renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to stratify the results into obesity subcategories. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 186 patients were diagnosed with VUR between January 2002 and December 2008...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087142/ultrastructural-characteristics-of-the-mature-spermatozoon-of-the-digenean-sclerodistomum-italicum-stossich-1893-hemiuroidea-sclerodistomidae-intestinal-parasite-of-hypocanthus-amia-teleostei-carangidae
#13
Papa Ibnou Ndiaye, Yann Quilichini, Adji Mama Marigo, Cheikh Tidiane Bâ, Vasyl V Tkach, Bernard Marchand
The mature spermatozoon of Sclerodistomum italicum is filiform, tapered at both ends and shows the following features: 2 axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, mitochondrion, nucleus and parallel cortical microtubules. The specific features of the spermatozoon of S. italicum include the simultaneous presence of two types of extramembranous ornamentations, the presence of short cortical microtubules in the anterior part of the spermatozoon and the presence of only one bundle of cortical microtubules in the median part of the spermatozoon...
December 30, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086916/microglial-activation-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-18-f-feppa
#14
Christine Ghadery, Yuko Koshimori, Sarah Coakeley, Madeleine Harris, Pablo Rusjan, Jinhee Kim, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory processes including activated microglia have been reported to play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Increased expression of translocator protein (TSPO) has been observed after brain injury and inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand targeting TSPO allows for the quantification of neuroinflammation in vivo. METHODS: Based on the genotype of the rs6791 polymorphism in the TSPO gene, we included 25 mixed-affinity binders (MABs) (14 PD patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls (HC)) and 27 high-affinity binders (HABs) (16 PD patients and 11 age-matched HC) to assess regional differences in the second-generation radioligand [(18)F]-FEPPA between PD patients and HC...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086851/efficacy-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-itbs-and-10-hz-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-in-treatment-resistant-unipolar-depression-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Samuel Bulteau, Veronique Sébille, Guillemette Fayet, Veronique Thomas-Ollivier, Thibault Deschamps, Annabelle Bonnin-Rivalland, Edouard Laforgue, Anne Pichot, Pierre Valrivière, Elisabeth Auffray-Calvier, June Fortin, Yann Péréon, Jean-Marie Vanelle, Anne Sauvaget
BACKGROUND: The treatment of depression remains a challenge since at least 40% of patients do not respond to initial antidepressant therapy and 20% present chronic symptoms (more than 2 years despite standard treatment administered correctly). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective adjuvant therapy but still not ideal. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS), which has only been used recently in clinical practice, could have a faster and more intense effect compared to conventional protocols, including 10-Hz high-frequency rTMS (HF-rTMS)...
January 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081469/anti-osteoporotic-effects-of-an-antidepressant-tianeptine-on-ovariectomized-rats
#16
Osama A Alkhamees, Abdulaziz S Al-Roujayee, Hatem M Abuohashish, Mohammed M Ahmed
In the current investigation, the potential alleviating effects of tianeptine against bone loss induced in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was determined. Two weeks following a bilateral ovariectomy operation, tianeptine treatment (12.5 and 25mg/kg/twice/d) was initiated and continued for twenty-eight consecutive days. Changes in serum and urinary bone turnover biomarkers and osteoclastogenesis-inducing factors were estimated. The femoral bone mineral content was estimated using inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry...
January 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081451/how-specialized-are-writing-specific-brain-regions-an-fmri-study-of-writing-drawing-and-oral-spelling
#17
Samuel Planton, Marieke Longcamp, Patrice Péran, Jean-François Démonet, Mélanie Jucla
Several brain imaging studies identified brain regions that are consistently involved in writing tasks; the left premotor and superior parietal cortices have been associated with the peripheral components of writing performance as opposed to other regions that support the central, orthographic components. Based on a meta-analysis by Planton, Jucla, Roux, and Demonet (2013), we focused on five such writing areas and questioned the task-specificity and hemispheric lateralization profile of the brain response in an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment where 16 right-handed participants wrote down, spelled out orally object names, and drew shapes from object pictures...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081139/long-latency-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Carlos Trenado, Saskia Elben, Lena Friggemann, Sonja Gruhn, Stefan Jun Groiss, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Lars Wojtecki
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are a viable way to measure processing of somatosensory information. SSEPs have been described at the scalp and the cortical level by electroencephalographic, magnetoencephalographic and intracranial cortical recordings focusing on short-latency (SL; latency<40 ms) and long-latency (LL; latency>40 ms) SSEPs as well as by deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode studies targeting SL-SSEPs. Unfortunately, LL-SSEPs have not been addressed at the subcortical level aside from the fact that studies targeting the characteristics and generators of SSEPs have been neglected for the last ten years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081125/the-neural-representation-of-prospective-choice-during-spatial-planning-and-decisions
#19
Raphael Kaplan, John King, Raphael Koster, William D Penny, Neil Burgess, Karl J Friston
We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze) or two (deep maze) choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) that was also sensitive to (deactivated by) demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080973/changes-in-interoceptive-processes-following-brain-stimulation
#20
Olga Pollatos, Beate M Herbert, Sandra Mai, Thomas Kammer
The processing and perception of individual internal bodily signals (interoception) has been differentiated to comprise different levels and processes involved. The so-called heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) offers an additional possibility to examine automatic processing of cardiac signals. Knowledge on neural structures potentially supporting different facets of interoception is still sparse. One way to get insights into neuroanatomical function is to manipulate the activity of different brain structures...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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