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Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michael D Guthrie, Donald L Gilbert, David A Huddleston, Ernest V Pedapati, Paul S Horn, Stewart H Mostofsky, Steve W Wu
We describe the development of a reproducible, child-friendly motor response inhibition task suitable for online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) characterization of primary motor cortex (M1) excitability and inhibition. Motor response inhibition prevents unwanted actions and is abnormal in several neuropsychiatric conditions. TMS is a non-invasive technology that can quantify M1 excitability and inhibition using single- and paired-pulse protocols and can be precisely timed to study cortical physiology with high temporal resolution...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tesfaye W Tefera, Karin Borges
Although alterations in energy metabolism are known in ALS, the specific mechanisms leading to energy deficit are not understood. We measured metabolite levels derived from injected [1-13 C]glucose and [1,2-13 C]acetate (i.p.) in cerebral cortex and spinal cord extracts of wild type and hSOD1G93A mice at onset and mid disease stages using high-pressure liquid chromatography,1 H and13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of spinal and cortical CNS total lactate, [3-13 C]lactate, total alanine and [3-13 C]alanine, but not cortical glucose and [1-13 C]glucose, were reduced mostly at mid stage indicating impaired glycolysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Marta Sánchez-Soto, Verònica Casadó-Anguera, Hideaki Yano, Brian Joseph Bender, Ning-Sheng Cai, Estefanía Moreno, Enric I Canela, Antoni Cortés, Jens Meiler, Vicent Casadó, Sergi Ferré
The poor norepinephrine innervation and high density of Gi/o-coupled α2A - and α2C -adrenoceptors in the striatum and the dense striatal dopamine innervation have prompted the possibility that dopamine could be an effective adrenoceptor ligand. Nevertheless, the reported adrenoceptor agonistic properties of dopamine are still inconclusive. In this study, we analyzed the binding of norepinephrine, dopamine, and several compounds reported as selective dopamine D2 -like receptor ligands, such as the D3 receptor agonist 7-OH-PIPAT and the D4 receptor agonist RO-105824, to α2 -adrenoceptors in cortical and striatal tissue, which express α2A -adrenoceptors and both α2A - and α2C -adrenoceptors, respectively...
March 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Yu-Ru Guo, Hsiu-Chuan Lee, Yun-Chun Lo, Shao-Chuan Yu, Shih-Yi Huang
Nutritional deficit of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is closely related to cognitive impairment and depression in later life. Cognitive impairment and depression lead to comorbidities, such as metabolic syndrome, in elderly people. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 PUFAs on cognition and depressive-like behavior in an accelerated senescence rat model with prediabetic status. Rats were cotreated with d-gal and sucrose solution for 7 months and then fed fish-oil- or flaxseed-oil-rich diets for 3 months...
March 19, 2018: Food & Function
J Michely, L J Volz, F Hoffstaedter, M Tittgemeyer, S B Eickhoff, G R Fink, C Grefkes
Older individuals typically display stronger regional brain activity than younger subjects during motor performance. However, knowledge regarding age-related changes of motor network interactions between brain regions remains scarce. We here investigated the impact of ageing on the interaction of cortical areas during movement selection and initiation using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). We found that age-related psychomotor slowing was accompanied by increases in both regional activity and effective connectivity, especially for 'core' motor coupling targeting primary motor cortex (M1)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Joseph T Gamboa, Edward C Shin, Neil P Pathare, Patrick J McGahan, James L Chen
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are an unfortunate and devastating injury in the athletic patient. Surgical reconstruction of the ACL with a taut graft construct is necessary to restore knee stability and help expedite the patient's return to an active lifestyle. Arthroscopy-assisted ACL reconstruction can be a technically involved procedure, where strong fixation limits graft motion to allow sufficient healing within the tibial and femoral tunnels at the bone-tendon interfaces. Loss of tension in a graft can cause symptomatic anterior or rotatory instability and potential retear of the ACL graft...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Philippe Collin, Alexandre Lädermann
Anteroinferior glenohumeral instability can be treated by variants of the Bankart repair, remplissage , and the Latarjet procedure, although all options remain associated with complications, including recurrence, stiffness, persistent pain, apprehension, and dislocation arthropathy. The authors therefore thought of a concept of dynamic anterior stabilization to treat anteroinferior glenohumeral instability by transferring the long head of the biceps within a subscapularis split to the anterior glenoid margin, thereby creating a "sling effect" by using a conservative technique...
January 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Saul N Friedman, Ryan Margau, Lawrence Friedman
The diagnosis of acute calcific periarthritis is traditionally confirmed from a radiograph demonstrating periarticular calcifications in the affected area. Care must be taken when using ultrasound as the presentation of periarticular calcification is easily mistaken for a cortical avulsion fracture, requiring a radiograph to distinguish between the 2 differential diagnoses. We present the correlated ultrasound and radiographic findings of the hand of a 37-year-old man who was suffering from a dull ache in his thumb followed by acute severe pain 1 week later, and make the diagnosis of acute calcific periarthritis of the first metacarpophalangeal joint...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Julian Conrad, Rainer Boegle, Matthias Ertl, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Objective: Vestibular signals are involved in higher cortical functions like spatial orientation and its disorders. Vestibular dysfunction contributes, for example, to spatial neglect which can be transiently improved by caloric stimulation. The exact roles and mechanisms of the vestibular and visual systems for the recovery of neglect are not yet known. Methods: Resting-state functional connectivity (fc) magnetic resonance imaging was recorded in a patient with hemispatial neglect during the acute phase and after recovery 6 months later following a right middle cerebral artery infarction before and after caloric vestibular stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Pia Lau, Andreas Wollbrink, Robert Wunderlich, Alva Engell, Alwina Löhe, Markus Junghöfer, Christo Pantev
Tinnitus is a prevalent phenomenon and bothersome for people affected by it. Its occurrence and maintenance have a clear neuroscientific tie and one aspect are differences in the neuronal oscillatory pattern, especially in auditory cortical areas. As studies in this field come to different results, the aim of this study was to analyze a large number of participants to achieve more stable results. Furthermore, we expanded our analysis to two variables of potential influence, namely being a novice to neuroscientific measurements and the exclusion of psychological comorbidities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Mei-Yin Lin, Shiou-Han Yang
Age-related deficiency in the top-down modulation of cognitive inhibition has been extensively documented, whereas the effects of age on a bottom-up or automatic operation of inhibitory function were less investigated. It is unknown that whether the older adults (OA)' reduced behavioral performance and neural responses are due to the insufficient bottom-up processes. Compared to behavioral assessments which have been widely used to examine the top-down control of response inhibition, electrophysiological recordings are more suitable to probe the early-stage processes of automatic inhibitory function...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Julia U Henschke, Frank W Ohl, Eike Budinger
During aging, human response times (RTs) to unisensory and crossmodal stimuli decrease. However, the elderly benefit more from crossmodal stimulus representations than younger people. The underlying short-latency multisensory integration process is mediated by direct crossmodal connections at the level of primary sensory cortices. We investigate the age-related changes of these connections using a rodent model (Mongolian gerbil), retrograde tracer injections into the primary auditory (A1), somatosensory (S1), and visual cortex (V1), and immunohistochemistry for markers of apoptosis (Caspase-3), axonal plasticity (Growth associated protein 43, GAP 43), and a calcium-binding protein (Parvalbumin, PV)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Quanying Liu, Marco Ganzetti, Nicole Wenderoth, Dante Mantini
Resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain were recently detected using high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG). This was done by using an advanced analysis workflow to estimate neural signals in the cortex and to assess functional connectivity (FC) between distant cortical regions. FC analyses were conducted either using temporal (tICA) or spatial independent component analysis (sICA). Notably, EEG-RSNs obtained with sICA were very similar to RSNs retrieved with sICA from functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Rodrigo F O Pena, Sebastian Vellmer, Davide Bernardi, Antonio C Roque, Benjamin Lindner
Recurrent networks of spiking neurons can be in an asynchronous state characterized by low or absent cross-correlations and spike statistics which resemble those of cortical neurons. Although spatial correlations are negligible in this state, neurons can show pronounced temporal correlations in their spike trains that can be quantified by the autocorrelation function or the spike-train power spectrum. Depending on cellular and network parameters, correlations display diverse patterns (ranging from simple refractory-period effects and stochastic oscillations to slow fluctuations) and it is generally not well-understood how these dependencies come about...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Frederic Pouille, Nathan E Schoppa
Recent studies have provided evidence that corticofugal feedback (CFF) from the olfactory cortex to the olfactory bulb (OB) can significantly impact the state of excitation of output mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) and also modulate neural synchrony. Interpreting these effects however has been complicated by the large number of cell targets of CFF axons in the bulb. Within the granule cell layer (GCL) alone, CFF axons target both GABAergic granule cells (GCs) as well as GABAergic deep short-axon cells (dSACs) that inhibit GCs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Oscar J Avella Gonzalez, John K Tsotsos
Attention modulates neural selectivity and optimizes the allocation of cortical resources during visual tasks. A large number of experimental studies in primates and humans provide ample evidence. As an underlying principle of visual attention, some theoretical models suggested the existence of a gain element that enhances contrast of the attended stimuli. In contrast, the Selective Tuning model of attention (ST) proposes an attentional mechanism based on suppression of irrelevant signals. In this paper, we present an updated characterization of the ST-neuron proposed by the Selective Tuning model, and suggest that the inclusion of adaptation currents (Ih) to ST-neurons may explain the temporal profiles of the firing rates recorded in single V4 cells during attentional tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yuntao Ji, Meixia Cao, Jia Liu, Yanfei Chen, Xiaoli Li, Jing Zhao, Changqing Qu
Aim: Adipogenesis is characterized by a strong interdependence between cell shape, cytoskeletal organization, and the onset of adipogenic gene expression. Here we investigated the role of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in adipogenesis. Result: High RhoA activity in the cell line C3H10T1/2 were generated (Named RhoA14V cells). Treatment of RhoA14V cells with Shield 1 following their differentiation into adipocytes resulted in the appearance of thick cortical actin filaments, and increased mRNA expression levels of RhoA, ROCK, p-MYPT1 and p-MLC, while PPARγ mRNA decreased...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Daniel Pensold, Geraldine Zimmer
The correct establishment of inhibitory circuits is crucial for cortical functionality and defects during the development of γ-aminobutyric acid-expressing cortical interneurons contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A critical developmental step is the migration of cortical interneurons from their site of origin within the subpallium to the cerebral cortex, orchestrated by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. In addition to genetic networks, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are suggested to drive stage-specific gene expression underlying developmental processes...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Tanzila Mukhtar, Verdon Taylor
The cerebral cortex is composed of billions of morphologically and functionally distinct neurons. These neurons are produced and organized in a regimental fashion during development. The ability of neurons to encode and elicit complex cognitive and motor functions depends on their precise molecular processes, identity, and connectivity established during development. Elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate development of the neocortex has been a challenge for many years. The cerebral cortical neuronal subtypes are classified based on morphology, function, intrinsic synaptic properties, location, connectivity, and marker gene expression...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
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