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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352740/coordinates-for-the-somatosensory-homunculus
#1
Marc H Schieber
In the text surrounding their drawing of the simiusculus (little monkey), Clinton Woolsey and colleagues wrote (Woolsey et al. 1952), "It must be emphasized, however, that this diagram is an inadequate representation of the localization pattern, since in a line drawing one cannot indicate the successive overlap which is so characteristic a feature of cortical representation, not only in the motor but also in the sensory areas." This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352721/hyperconnective-and-hypoconnective-cortical-and-subcortical-functional-networks-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#2
Johannes Rosskopf, Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Albert C Ludolph, Jan Kassubek
INTRODUCTION: In multiple system atrophy (MSA), the organization of the functional brain connectivity within cortical and subcortical networks and its clinical correlates remains to be investigated. METHODS: Whole-brain based 'resting-state' fMRI data were obtained from 22 MSA patients (11 MSA-C, 11 MSA-P) and 22 matched healthy controls, together with standardized clinical assessment and video-oculographic recordings (EyeLink®). RESULTS: MSA patients vs...
January 12, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352668/the-effect-of-single-and-repeated-prefrontal-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-cortical-reactivity-and-working-memory
#3
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Paul B Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: With an increasing interest in the use of theta burst stimulation (TBS) as a cognitive enhancer and a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders, there is a need to identify optimal parameters of TBS in the prefrontal cortex. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study examined the effect of two blocks of prefrontal intermittent TBS (iTBS) on cortical reactivity and working memory performance, compared to one block of iTBS and sham stimulation. We hypothesized that greater cortical effects would be obtained with two blocks of iTBS...
January 8, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352448/mesenchymal-stem-cell-deformability-and-implications-for-microvascular-sequestration
#4
Herbert H Lipowsky, Daniel T Bowers, Britany L Banik, Justin L Brown
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in regenerative medicine, particularly in light of prospects for targeted delivery by intra-arterial injection. However, little is known about the mechanics of MSC sequestration in the microvasculature and the yield pressure (PY), above which MSCs will pass through microvessels of a given diameter. The objectives of the current study were to delineate the dependency of PY on cell size and the heterogeneity of cell mechanical properties and diameters (DCELL) of cultured MSCs...
January 19, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352390/a-spatial-registration-toolbox-for-structural-mr-imaging-of-the-aging-brain
#5
Marco Ganzetti, Quanying Liu, Dante Mantini
During aging the brain undergoes a series of structural changes, in size, shape as well as tissue composition. In particular, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement are often present in the brain of elderly individuals. This poses serious challenges in the spatial registration of structural MR images. In this study, we addressed this open issue by proposing an enhanced framework for MR registration and segmentation. Our solution was compared with other approaches based on the tools available in SPM12, a widely used software package...
January 19, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352389/detailed-t1-weighted-profiles-from-the-human-cortex-measured-in-vivo-at-3-tesla-mri
#6
Bart Ferguson, Natalia Petridou, Alessio Fracasso, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rachel M Brouwer, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, René S Kahn, René C W Mandl
Studies into cortical thickness in psychiatric diseases based on T1-weighted MRI frequently report on aberrations in the cerebral cortex. Due to limitations in image resolution for studies conducted at conventional MRI field strengths (e.g. 3 Tesla (T)) this information cannot be used to establish which of the cortical layers may be implicated. Here we propose a new analysis method that computes one high-resolution average cortical profile per brain region extracting myeloarchitectural information from T1-weighted MRI scans that are routinely acquired at a conventional field strength...
January 19, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352267/differential-susceptibility-of-striatal-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons-to-caspase-6
#7
Anastasia Noël, Libin Zhou, Bénédicte Foveau, P Jesper Sjöström, Andréa C LeBlanc
Active cysteinyl protease Caspase-6 is associated with early Alzheimer and Huntington diseases. Higher entorhinal cortex and hippocampal Caspase-6 levels correlate with lower cognitive performance in aged humans. Caspase-6 induces axonal degeneration in human primary neuron cultures and causes inflammation and neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus, and age-dependent memory impairment. To assess whether Caspase-6 causes damage to another neuronal system, a transgenic knock-in mouse overexpressing a self-activated form of Caspase-6 five-fold in the striatum, the area affected in Huntington disease, and 2...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352174/mechanical-phenotyping-of-k562-cells-by-the-micropipette-aspiration-technique-allows-identifying-mechanical-changes-induced-by-drugs
#8
Alessandro Di Cerbo, Valentina Rubino, Francesca Morelli, Giuseppina Ruggiero, Rosaria Landi, Gianandrea Guidetti, Sergio Canello, Giuseppe Terrazzano, Andrea Alessandrini
Mechanical properties of living cells can be used as reliable markers of their state, such as the presence of a pathological state or their differentiation phase. The mechanical behavior of cells depends on the organization of their cytoskeletal network and the main contribution typically comes from the actomyosin contractile system, in both suspended and adherent cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a pharmaceutical formulation (OTC - Ossitetraciclina liquida 20%) used as antibiotic, on the mechanical properties of K562 cells by using the Micropipette Aspiration Technique (MAT)...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352155/conflict-sensitive-neurons-gate-interocular-suppression-in-human-visual-cortex
#9
Sucharit Katyal, Mark Vergeer, Sheng He, Bin He, Stephen A Engel
Neural suppression plays an important role in cortical function, including sensory, memory, and motor systems. It remains, however, relatively poorly understood. A paradigmatic case arises when conflicting images are presented to the two eyes. These images can compete for awareness, and one is usually strongly suppressed. The mechanisms that resolve such interocular conflict remain unclear. Suppression could arise solely from "winner-take-all" competition between neurons responsive to each eye. Alternatively, suppression could also depend upon neurons detecting interocular conflict...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352154/resting-state-brain-networks-in-the-prairie-vole
#10
Juan J Ortiz, Wendy Portillo, Raul G Paredes, Larry J Young, Sarael Alcauter
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352095/electrophysiologic-testing-aids-diagnosis-and-subtyping-of-myoclonus
#11
Rodi Zutt, Jan W Elting, Jonathan C van Zijl, J Han van der Hoeven, Christiaan M Roosendaal, Jeannette M Gelauff, Kathryn J Peall, Marina A J Tijssen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of electrophysiologic testing in the diagnosis and anatomical classification of myoclonus. METHODS: Participants with a clinical diagnosis of myoclonus were prospectively recruited, each undergoing a videotaped clinical examination and battery of electrophysiologic tests. The diagnosis of myoclonus and its subtype was reviewed after 6 months in the context of the electrophysiologic findings and specialist review of the videotaped clinical examination...
January 19, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352028/the-mysteries-of-remote-memory
#12
REVIEW
Zimbul Albo, Johannes Gräff
Long-lasting memories form the basis of our identity as individuals and lie central in shaping future behaviours that guide survival. Surprisingly, however, our current knowledge of how such memories are stored in the brain and retrieved, as well as the dynamics of the circuits involved, remains scarce despite seminal technical and experimental breakthroughs in recent years. Traditionally, it has been proposed that, over time, information initially learnt in the hippocampus is stored in distributed cortical networks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352027/the-thalamus-in-drug-addiction-from-rodents-to-humans
#13
REVIEW
Anna S Huang, Jameson A Mitchell, Suzanne N Haber, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
Impairments in response inhibition and salience attribution (iRISA) have been proposed to underlie the clinical symptoms of drug addiction as mediated by cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical networks. The bulk of evidence supporting the iRISA model comes from neuroimaging research that has focused on cortical and striatal influences with less emphasis on the role of the thalamus. Here, we highlight the importance of the thalamus in drug addiction, focusing on animal literature findings on thalamic nuclei in the context of drug-seeking, structural and functional changes of the thalamus as measured by imaging studies in human drug addiction, particularly during drug cue and non-drug reward processing, and response inhibition tasks...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352023/monoamine-abnormalities-in-the-sapap3-knockout-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-related-behaviour
#14
Jesse Wood, Zoe LaPalombara, Susanne E Ahmari
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of illness-related disability, but the neural mechanisms underlying OCD symptoms are unclear. One potential mechanism of OCD pathology is monoamine dysregulation. Because of the difficulty of studying monoamine signalling in patients, animal models offer a viable alternative to understanding this aspect of OCD pathophysiology. We used HPLC to characterize post-mortem monoamine levels in lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial OFC, medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral striatum of SAPAP-3 knockout (KO) mice, a well-validated model of compulsive-like behaviours in OCD...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351997/spatiotemporal-organization-of-exocytosis-emerges-during-neuronal-shape-change
#15
Fabio L Urbina, Shawn M Gomez, Stephanie L Gupton
Neurite elongation and branching in developing neurons requires plasmalemma expansion, hypothesized to occur primarily via exocytosis. We posited that exocytosis in developing neurons and nonneuronal cells would exhibit distinct spatiotemporal organization. We exploited total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to image vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-pHluorin-mediated exocytosis in mouse embryonic cortical neurons and interphase melanoma cells, and developed computer-vision software and statistical tools to uncover spatiotemporal aspects of exocytosis...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351872/low-cortical-iron-and-high-entorhinal-cortex-volume-promote-cognitive-functioning-in-the-oldest-old
#16
Jiri M G van Bergen, Xu Li, Frances C Quevenco, Anton F Gietl, Valerie Treyer, Sandra E Leh, Rafael Meyer, Alfred Buck, Philipp A Kaufmann, Roger M Nitsch, Peter C M van Zijl, Christoph Hock, Paul G Unschuld
The aging brain is characterized by an increased presence of neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies. However, there is substantial variation regarding the relationship between an individual's pathological burden and resulting cognitive impairment. To identify correlates of preserved cognitive functioning at highest age, the relationship between β-amyloid plaque load, presence of small vessel cerebrovascular disease (SVCD), iron-burden, and brain atrophy was investigated. Eighty cognitively unimpaired participants (44 oldest-old, aged 85-96 years; 36 younger-old, aged 55-80 years) were scanned by integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging for assessing beta regional amyloid plaque load (18F-flutemetamol), white matter hyperintensities as an indicator of SVCD (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-magnetic resonance imaging), and iron load (quantitative susceptibility mapping)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351579/lack-of-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-mecp2-affects-cell-fate-refinement-during-embryonic-cortical-development
#17
Clementina Cobolli Gigli, Linda Scaramuzza, Marco De Simone, Riccardo L Rossi, Davide Pozzi, Massimiliano Pagani, Nicoletta Landsberger, Francesco Bedogni
During differentiation, neurons progressively restrict their fate repressing the expression of specific genes. Here we describe the involvement in such developmental steps of the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), an epigenetic factor that participates to chromatin folding and transcriptional regulation. We previously reported that, due to transcriptional impairments, the maturation of Mecp2 null neurons is delayed. To evaluate whether this could stem from altered progenitors proliferation and differentiation, we investigated whether lack of Mecp2 affects these features both in vitro and in vivo...
January 17, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351359/cyr61-ccn1-regulates-sclerostin-levels-and-bone-maintenance
#18
Gexin Zhao, Bau-Lin Huang, Diana Rigueur, Weiguang Wang, Chimay Bhoot, Kemberly R Charles, Jongseung Baek, Subburaman Mohan, Jie Jiang, Karen M Lyons
CYR61/CCN1 is a matricellular protein that resides in the extracellular matrix, but serves regulatory rather than structural roles. CYR61/CCN1 is found in mineralized tissues and has been shown to influence bone healing in vivo and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In this study we generated Cyr61 bone specific knockout mice to examine the physiological role of CYR61/CCN1 in bone development and maintenance in vivo. Extensive analysis of Cyr61 conditional knockout mice showed a significant decrease in both trabecular and cortical bone mass as compared to WT littermate...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350775/randomized-trial-of-transcranial-dc-stimulation-for-post-stroke-dysphagia
#19
Sonja Suntrup-Krueger, Corinna Ringmaier, Paul Muhle, Andreas Wollbrink, Andre Kemmling, Uta Hanning, Inga Claus, Tobias Warnecke, Inga Teismann, Christo Pantev, Rainer Dziewas
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is able to enhance dysphagia rehabilitation following stroke. Besides relating clinical effects with neuroplastic changes in cortical swallowing processing we aimed to identify factors influencing treatment success. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized study 60 acute dysphagic stroke patients received contralesional anodal (1 mA, 20 min) or sham tDCS on four consecutive days. Swallowing function was thoroughly assessed before and after the intervention using the validated Fiberoptic Endoscopic Dysphagia Severity Scale (FEDSS) and clinical assessment...
January 19, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350601/brain-tissue-a%C3%AE-42-levels-are-linked-to-shunt-response-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#20
Sami Abu Hamdeh, Johan Virhammar, Dag Sehlin, Irina Alafuzoff, Kristina Giuliana Cesarini, Niklas Marklund
OBJECTIVE The authors conducted a study to test if the cortical brain tissue levels of soluble amyloid beta (Aβ) reflect the propensity of cortical Aβ aggregate formation and may be an additional factor predicting surgical outcome following idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) treatment. METHODS Highly selective ELISAs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) were used to quantify soluble Aβ40, Aβ42, and neurotoxic Aβ oligomers/protofibrils, associated with Aβ aggregation, in cortical biopsy samples obtained in patients with iNPH (n = 20), sampled during ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
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