keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cortical

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749606/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-increased-rostral-middle-frontal-gyrus-cortical-thickness-a-family-based-and-discordant-sibling-investigation
#1
L J Michalski, C H Demers, D A A Baranger, D M Barch, M P Harms, G C Burgess, R Bogdan
BACKGROUND: Elevated stress perception and depression commonly co-occur, suggesting that they share a common neurobiology. Cortical thickness of the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), a region critical for executive function, has been associated with depression- and stress-related phenotypes. Here, we examined whether RMFG cortical thickness is associated with these phenotypes in a large family-based community sample. METHODS: RMFG cortical thickness was estimated using FreeSurfer among participants (n=879) who completed the ongoing Human Connectome Project...
July 27, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749594/seizure-activity-per-se-does-not-induce-tissue-damage-markers-in-human-neocortical-focal-epilepsy
#2
Laura Rossini, Rita Garbelli, Vadym Gnatkovsky, Giuseppe Didato, Flavio Villani, Roberto Spreafico, Francesco Deleo, Giorgio Lo Russo, Giovanni Tringali, Francesca Gozzo, Laura Tassi, Marco de Curtis
Objective The contribute of recurring seizures to the progression of epileptogenesis is debated. Seizure-induced brain damage is not conclusively demonstrated both in humans and in animal models of epilepsy. We evaluated the expression of brain injury biomarkers on post-surgical brain tissue obtained from 20 patients with frequent seizures and a long history of drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Methods The expression patterns of specific glial, neuronal and inflammatory molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the core of type II focal cortical dysplasias (FCD-II), at the FCD boundary (perilesion) and in the adjacent normal-appearing area included in the epileptogenic region...
July 27, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749356/improving-alzheimeres-disease-classification-by-combining-multiple-measures
#3
Jin Liu, Jianxin Wang, Zhenjun Tang, Bin Hu, Fang-Xiang Wu, Yi Pan
Several anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been identified. Cortical gray matter volume, cortical thickness, and subcortical volume have been used successfully to assist the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) including its early warning and developing stages, e.g., mild cognitive impairment (MCI) including MCI converted to AD (MCIc) and MCI not converted to AD (MCInc). Currently, these anatomical MRI measures have mainly been used separately. Thus, the full potential of anatomical MRI scans for AD diagnosis might not yet have been used optimally...
July 25, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749249/an-autopsy-verified-case-of-steroid-responsive-encephalopathy-with-convulsion-and-a-false-positive-result-from-the-real-time-quaking-induced-conversion-assay
#4
Yuichi Hayashi, Yasushi Iwasaki, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Takahiko Asano, Maya Mimuro, Akio Kimura, Katsuya Satoh, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida, Takashi Inuzuka
We report an autopsy-verified case of steroid-responsive encephalopathy with convulsion and a false-positive result from the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC) assay. A 61-year-old Japanese man presented with acute onset of consciousness disturbance, and convulsions, but without a past medical or family history of progressive dementia, epilepsy, or prion disease. Brain diffusion and fluid-attenuated inverted recovery MR images revealed edematous cortical hyper-intensity, which diminished after the acute phase...
July 27, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748537/differences-in-brain-morphology-and-working-memory-capacity-across-childhood
#5
Joe Bathelt, Susan E Gathercole, Amy Johnson, Duncan E Astle
Working memory (WM) skills are closely associated with learning progress in key areas such as reading and mathematics across childhood. As yet, however, little is known about how the brain systems underpinning WM develop over this critical developmental period. The current study investigated whether and how structural brain correlates of components of the working memory system change over development. Verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory were assessed in 153 children between 5.58 and 15.92 years, and latent components of the working memory system were derived...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748469/protocols-and-applications-of-cellular-metabolomics-in-safety-studies-using-precision-cut-tissue-slices-and-carbon-13-nmr
#6
Gabriel Baverel, Maha El Hage, Guy Martin
Numerous xenobiotics are toxic to human and animal cells by interacting with their metabolism, but the precise metabolic step affected and the biochemical mechanism behind such a toxicity remain often unknown. In an attempt to reduce the ignorance in this field, we have developed a new approach called cellular metabolomics. This approach, developed in vitro, provides a panoramic view not only of the pathways involved in the metabolism of physiological substrates of any normal or pathological human or animal cell but also of the beneficial and adverse effects of xenobiotics on these metabolic pathways...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748393/the-validate29-mri-based-multi-channel-atlas-of-the-squirrel-monkey-brain
#7
Kurt G Schilling, Yurui Gao, Iwona Stepniewska, Tung-Lin Wu, Feng Wang, Bennett A Landman, John C Gore, Li Min Chen, Adam W Anderson
We describe the development of the first digital atlas of the normal squirrel monkey brain and present the resulting product, VALiDATe29. The VALiDATe29 atlas is based on multiple types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast acquired on 29 squirrel monkeys, and is created using unbiased, nonlinear registration techniques, resulting in a population-averaged stereotaxic coordinate system. The atlas consists of multiple anatomical templates (proton density, T1, and T2* weighted), diffusion MRI templates (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), and ex vivo templates (fractional anisotropy and a structural MRI)...
July 26, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748124/practice-makes-efficient-cortical-alpha-oscillations-are-associated-with-improved-golf-putting-performance
#8
Germano Gallicchio, Andrew Cooke, Christopher Ring
Practice of a motor skill results in improved performance and decreased movement awareness. The psychomotor efficiency hypothesis proposes that the development of motor expertise through practice is accompanied by physiological refinements whereby irrelevant processes are suppressed and relevant processes are enhanced. The present study employed a test-retest design to evaluate the presence of greater neurophysiological efficiency with practice and mediation analyses to identify the factors accounting for performance improvements, in a golf putting task...
February 2017: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747881/frequency-unspecific-effects-of-%C3%AE-tacs-related-to-a-visuospatial-working-memory-task
#9
Maria-Lisa Kleinert, Caroline Szymanski, Viktor Müller
Working memory (WM) is crucial for intelligent cognitive functioning, and synchronization phenomena in the fronto-parietal network have been suggested as an underlying neural mechanism. In an attempt to provide causal evidence for this assumption, we applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at theta frequency over fronto-parietal sites during a visuospatial match-to-sample (MtS) task. Depending on the stimulation protocol, i.e., in-phase, anti-phase or sham, we anticipated a differential impact of tACS on behavioral WM performance as well as on the EEG (electroencephalography) during resting state before and after stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747875/effects-of-high-definition-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-applied-simultaneously-to-both-primary-motor-cortices-on-bimanual-sensorimotor-performance
#10
Nils H Pixa, Fabian Steinberg, Michael Doppelmayr
Many daily activities, such as tying one's shoe laces, opening a jar of jam or performing a free throw in basketball, require the skillful coordinated use of both hands. Even though the non-invasive method of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been repeatedly shown to improve unimanual motor performance, little is known about its effects on bimanual motor performance. More knowledge about how tDCS may improve bimanual behavior would be relevant to motor recovery, e.g., in persons with bilateral impairment of hand function...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747874/the-functioning-of-a-cortex-without-layers
#11
REVIEW
Julien Guy, Jochen F Staiger
A major hallmark of cortical organization is the existence of a variable number of layers, i.e., sheets of neurons stacked on top of each other, in which neurons have certain commonalities. However, even for the neocortex, variable numbers of layers have been described and it is just a convention to distinguish six layers from each other. Whether cortical layers are a structural epiphenomenon caused by developmental dynamics or represent a functionally important modularization of cortical computation is still unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747523/-18-f-flortaucipir-pet-mri-correlations-in-non-amnestic-and-amnestic-variants-of-alzheimer-disease
#12
Ilya M Nasrallah, Yin Jie Chen, Meng-Kang Hsieh, Jeffrey S Philips, Kylie Ternes, Grace Stockbower, Yvette Sheline, Corey T McMillan, Murray Grossman, David A Wolk
Non-amnestic Alzheimer disease (AD) variants, including posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), differ in distributions of tau aggregates and neurodegeneration compared to amnestic AD. We evaluated whether (18)F-flortaucipir (also called (18)F-AV-1451) Positron Emission Tomography (PET), targeting tau aggregates, detects these differences and compared this to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of gray matter (GM) atrophy. Methods: 5 PCA, 4 lvPPA, 6 age-matched AD, and 6 control subjects underwent (18)F-flortaucipir PET and MRI...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747490/allosteric-auto-inhibition-and-activation-of-the-nedd4-family-e3-ligase-itch
#13
Kang Zhu, Zelin Shan, Xing Chen, Yuqun Cai, Lei Cui, Weiyi Yao, Zhen Wang, Pan Shi, Changlin Tian, Jizhong Lou, Yunli Xie, Wenyu Wen
The Nedd4 family E3 ligases are key regulators of cell growth and proliferation and are often misregulated in human cancers and other diseases. The ligase activities of Nedd4 E3s are tightly controlled via auto-inhibition. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Nedd4 E3 auto-inhibition and activation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the WW domains proceeding the catalytic HECT domain play an inhibitory role by binding directly to HECT in the Nedd4 E3 family member Itch. Our structural and biochemical analyses of Itch reveal that the WW2 domain and a following linker allosterically lock HECT in an inactive state inhibiting E2-E3 transthiolation...
July 26, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747485/developmental-vitamin-d-deficiency-affects-spatial-learning-in-wistar-rats
#14
Anwar N Al-Harbi, Khalid M Khan, Abdur Rahman
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a global problem. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in brain development and function. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with poor cognitive function in adults, but the effect of developmental vitamin D deficiency (DVDD) on cognitive function and brain development in children has not been well established.Objective: We explored the effects of DVDD on cognitive functions and brain morphology of rat pups.Methods: Wistar rat pups born to control and vitamin D-deficient dams were divided into 4 groups: control (C), deficient during gestation (dG), deficient during lactation (dL), and deficient during gestation and lactation (dGL)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747466/network-activity-influences-the-subthreshold-and-spiking-visual-responses-of-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-three-layer-turtle-cortex
#15
Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Ralf Wessel
A primary goal of systems neuroscience is to understand cortical function, which typically involves studying spontaneous and stimulus-modulated cortical activity. Mounting evidence suggests a strong and complex relationship exists between the ongoing and stimulus-modulated cortical state. To date, most work in this area has been based on spiking in populations of neurons. While advantageous in many respects, this approach is limited in scope; it records the activity of a minority of neurons, and gives no direct indication of the underlying subthreshold dynamics...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747260/functional-connectivity-of-the-left-dlpfc-to-striatum-predicts-treatment-response-of-depression-to-tms
#16
Michael Avissar, Fon Powell, Irena Ilieva, Matteo Respino, Faith M Gunning, Conor Liston, Marc J Dubin
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive, safe, and efficacious treatment for depression. TMS has been shown to normalize abnormal functional connectivity of cortico-cortical circuits in depression and baseline functional connectivity of these circuits predicts treatment response. Less is known about the relationship between functional connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and treatment response. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether baseline functional connectivity of distinct frontostriatal circuits predicted response to TMS...
July 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747072/regulation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-of-macrophages-by-cd44-reactive-oxygen-species-and-acid-sphingomyelinase
#17
Cao Li, Yuqing Wu, Veronique Orian-Rousseau, Yang Zhang, Erich Gulbins, Heike Grassme
AIMS: Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in sepsis, pneumonia, and wound infections. Acid sphingomyelinase (Asm)-deficient mice are highly susceptible to pulmonary S. aureus infections. Here, we investigated the role of CD44 as a molecule that mediates important aspects of the infection of macrophages with S. aureus. RESULTS: We showed that CD44 activation by S. aureus stimulated Asm via the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in ceramide release, clustering of CD44 in ceramide-enriched membrane platforms, CD44/Asm-dependent activation of Rho family GTPases, translocation of phospho-ezrin/radixin/moesin to the plasma-membrane, and a rapid rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton with cortical actin polymerization...
July 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746863/cortical-interneurons-differentially-regulate-the-effects-of-acoustic-context
#18
Elizabeth A K Phillips, Christoph E Schreiner, Andrea R Hasenstaub
Both behavioral and neural responses to sounds are generally modified by the acoustic context in which they are encountered. As an example, in the auditory cortex, preceding sounds can powerfully suppress responses to later, spectrally similar sounds-a phenomenon called forward suppression (FWS). Whether cortical inhibitory networks shape such suppression or whether it is wholly regulated by common mechanisms such as synaptic depression or spike frequency adaptation is controversial. Here, we show that optogenetically suppressing somatostatin-positive (Sst+) interneurons weakens forward suppression, often revealing facilitation in neurons that are normally forward-suppressed...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746841/the-antidepressant-effect-of-melatonin-and-fluoxetine-in-diabetic-rats-is-associated-with-a-reduction-of-the-oxidative-stress-in-the-prefrontal-and-hippocampal-cortices
#19
Redouane Rebai, Luc Jasmin, Abdennacer Boudah
In the past few years possible mechanisms that link diabetes and depression have been found. One of these mechanisms is the increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity in the hippocampal and prefrontal cortices, which are brain areas involved in mood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an antidepressant and of an antioxidant on behavior and oxidative activity in brains of diabetic rats. Rats rendered diabetic after a treatment with streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg) were treated with fluoxetine (15mg/kg), melatonin (10mg/kg), or vehicle for 4 weeks...
July 23, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746815/higher-order-areas-of-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#20
Lindsey L Glickfeld, Shawn R Olsen
The brain has evolved to transform sensory information in the environment into neural representations that can be used for perception and action. Higher-order sensory cortical areas, with their increasingly complex receptive fields and integrative properties, are thought to be critical nodes for this function. This is especially true in the primate visual cortex, in which functionally specialized areas are engaged in parallel streams to support diverse computations. Recent anatomical and physiological studies of the mouse visual cortex have revealed a similarly complex network of specialized higher-order areas...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
keyword
keyword
81250
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"