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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645172/the-biogenesis-pathway-of-trna-derived-pirnas-in-bombyx-germ-cells
#1
Shozo Honda, Takuya Kawamura, Phillipe Loher, Keisuke Morichika, Isidore Rigoutsos, Yohei Kirino
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) function in translational machinery and further serves as a source of short non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). tRNA-derived ncRNAs show differential expression profiles and play roles in many biological processes beyond translation. Molecular mechanisms that shape and regulate their expression profiles are largely unknown. Here, we report the mechanism of biogenesis for tRNA-derived Piwi-interacting RNAs (td-piRNAs) expressed in Bombyx BmN4 cells. In the cells, two cytoplasmic tRNA species, tRNAAspGUC and tRNAHisGUG, served as major sources for td-piRNAs, which were derived from the 5΄-part of the respective tRNAs...
June 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645153/defective-mitochondrial-rna-processing-due-to-pnpt1-variants-causes-leigh-syndrome
#2
Sanna Matilainen, Christopher J Carroll, Uwe Richter, Liliya Euro, Max Pohjanpelto, Anders Paetau, Pirjo Isohanni, Anu Suomalainen
Leigh syndrome is a severe infantile encephalopathy with an exceptionally variable genetic background. We studied the exome of a child manifesting with Leigh syndrome at one month of age and progressing to death by the age of 2.4 years, and identified novel compound heterozygous variants in PNPT1, encoding the polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase). Expression of the wild type PNPT1 in the subject's myoblasts functionally complemented the defects, and the pathogenicity was further supported by structural predictions and protein and RNA analyses...
June 22, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645089/drug-resistance-mechanism-of-l10f-l10f-n88s-and-l90m-mutations-in-crf01_ae-hiv-1-protease-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-binding-free-energy-calculations
#3
C S Vasavi, Ramasamy Tamizhselvi, Punnagai Munusami
HIV-1 protease plays a crucial role in viral replication and maturation, which makes it one of the most attractive targets for anti-retroviral therapy. The majority of HIV infections in developing countries are due to non-B subtype. Subtype AE is spreading rapidly and infecting huge population worldwide. The mutations in the active site of subtype AE directly impair the interactions with the inhibitor. The non-active site mutations influence the binding of the inhibitor indirectly and their resistance mechanism is not well understood...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644974/immature-human-dcs-efficiently-translocate-endocytosed-antigens-into-the-cytosol-for-proteasomal-processing
#4
Renato B Baleeiro, Peter Walden
Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen is essential for induction of CD8 effector T cell responses and a hallmark of dendritic cells (DCs). The mode of antigen processing in this context is controversial and some models imply translocation of the antigen from the endosomes into the cytosol. To test this hypothesis we made use of the pro-apoptotic properties of cytochrome c when in the cytosol, and confirmed that it indeed triggered apoptosis of human immature DCs but only at high concentrations. Proteasome inhibitors reduced the required concentration of cytochrome c thousand-fold, indicating that protein translocated into the cytosol is rapidly degraded by proteasomes...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644971/simultaneous-silencing-of-ghfad2-1-and-ghfatb-enhances-the-quality-of-cottonseed-oil-with-high-oleic-acid
#5
Feng Liu, Yan-Peng Zhao, Hua-Guo Zhu, Qian-Hao Zhu, Jie Sun
Cottonseed oil has become an important source of edible oil due to its significant cost advantage. However, there is a growing concern over its fatty acid composition and nutritional value. In Gossypium hirsutum, GhFAD2-1 and GhFATB encoding the microsomal oleate desaturase and palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, respectively, play critical roles in regulating the proportions of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cottonseed lipids. In this study, RNAi technology was used to simultaneously inhibit the expression levels of GhFAD2-1 and GhFATB to improve the quality of cottonseed oil by increasing oleic acid content...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644902/sirt6-alters-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#6
Eitan Okun, Daniel Marton, Daniel Cohen, Kathleen Griffioen, Yariv Kanfi, Tomer Illouz, Ravit Madar, Haim Y Cohen
Sirtuins are pleiotropic NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases involved in metabolism, DNA damage repair, inflammation and stress resistance. SIRT6, a member of the sirtuin family, regulates the process of normal aging and increases the lifespan of male mice over-expressing Sirt6 by 15%. Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus of adult mammals, involves several complex stages including stem cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and network integration. During aging, the number of newly generated neurons continuously declines, and this is correlated with a decline in neuronal plasticity and cognitive behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644867/host-derived-apolipoproteins-play-comparable-roles-with-viral-secretory-proteins-erns-and-ns1-in-the-infectious-particle-formation-of-flaviviridae
#7
Takasuke Fukuhara, Tomokazu Tamura, Chikako Ono, Mai Shiokawa, Hiroyuki Mori, Kentaro Uemura, Satomi Yamamoto, Takeshi Kurihara, Toru Okamoto, Ryosuke Suzuki, Kentaro Yoshii, Takeshi Kurosu, Manabu Igarashi, Hiroshi Aoki, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Amphipathic α-helices of exchangeable apolipoproteins have shown to play crucial roles in the formation of infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles through the interaction with viral particles. Among the Flaviviridae members, pestivirus and flavivirus possess a viral structural protein Erns or a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) as secretory glycoproteins, respectively, while Hepacivirus including HCV has no secretory glycoprotein. In case of pestivirus replication, the C-terminal long amphipathic α-helices of Erns are important for anchoring to viral membrane...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644708/the-arabidopsis-mind-mutation-causes-aberrant-ftsz1-ring-placement-and-moderate-heterogeneity-of-chloroplasts-in-the-leaf-epidermis
#8
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Shun Sasaki, Takeshi Nakano, Yasuo Niwa, Shigeo Yoshida, Tomoko Abe, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Symmetric division of leaf mesophyll chloroplasts requires MinD and MinE, which work together to suppress division other than at the mid-chloroplast. arc11 is a MinD loss-of-function mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. In arc11 plants, asymmetric chloroplast division, as well as its delay or arrest, results in extreme size polymorphism of chloroplasts in mature mesophyll cells. The current study examined chloroplast phenotypes in the epidermis of arc11 leaves. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed that epidermal chloroplasts in mature leaves exhibited moderate heterogeneity in size...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644530/long-term-outcome-of-anorexia-nervosa-results-from-a-large-clinical-longitudinal-study
#9
Manfred Maximilian Fichter, Norbert Quadflieg, Ross D Crosby, Sonja Koch
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the long-term outcome of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a very large sample of inpatients (N = 1,693) and identification of predictors for poor outcome. METHOD: Over 25 years (mean 10 years), consecutively admitted inpatients of a specialized hospital were followed. A subsample of 112 patients with 20-year follow-up was defined. Bivariate comparisons and logistic regression analysis identified risk factors of poor outcome. RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI) increased during the follow-up period...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644517/quantitative-insights-into-the-fast-pyrolysis-of-extracted-cellulose-hemicelluloses-and-lignin
#10
Marion Carrier, Michael Windt, Bernhard Ziegler, Jörn Appelt, Bodo Saake, Dietrich Meier, Anthony Bridgwater
The transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into bio-based commodity chemicals is technically possible. Among thermochemical processes, fast pyrolysis, a relatively mature technology that has now reached the commercial level, produces a high yield of an organic-rich liquid stream. Despite the recent efforts in elucidating the degradation paths of biomass pyrolysis, the selectivity and recovery rates of bio-compounds remain low. In an attempt to clarify the general degradation scheme of biomass fast pyrolysis and provide a quantitative insight, this study has combined the use of fast pyrolysis micro-reactors, spectrometric techniques and mixtures of unlabelled and Carbon-13 enriched materials...
June 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644396/runx1-plays-an-important-role-in-mediating-bmp9-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-line-c3h10t1-2-murine-multi-lineage-cells-lines-c2c12-and-mefs
#11
Caixia Ji, Xiaohua Liu, Li Xu, Tingting Yu, Chaoqun Dong, Jinyong Luo
As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is highly capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation. However, the underlying mechanism involved remains largely unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that RUNX1 (runt-related transcription factor 1) is essential in osteoblast/chondrocyte maturation. In this study, we investigated the function of RUNX1 in BMP9-induced osteogenic of murine mesenchymal stem cell line (C3H10T1/2) and murine multi-lineage cell lines (C2C12 and MEFs). Our data showed that BMP9 promoted the endogenous expression of RUNX1 in C3H10T1/2, C2C12 and MEFs...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644129/anti-cd47-antibodies-induce-phagocytosis-of-live-malignant-b-cells-by-macrophages-via-the-fc-domain-resulting-in-cell-death-by-phagoptosis
#12
Lucy E Métayer, Anna Vilalta, G A Amos Burke, Guy C Brown
When expressed on the surface of cells, CD47 inhibits phagocytosis of these cells by phagocytes. Most human cancers overexpress CD47, and antibodies to CD47 have shown a remarkable ability to clear a range of cancers in animal models. However, the mechanism by which these antibodies cause cancer cell death is unclear. We find that CD47 is expressed on the surface of three B-cell lines from human malignancies: 697 (pre-B-ALL lymphoblasts), Ramos and DG-75 (both mature B-cells, Burkitt's lymphoma), and anti-CD47 antibodies greatly increase the phagocytosis of all three cell line by macrophages...
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643946/activated-proline-rich-tyrosine-kinase-2-regulates-meiotic-spindle-assembly-in-the-mouse-oocyte
#13
Xiao-Qian Meng, Bing Cui, Dong Cheng, Hui Lyu, Li-Gang Jiang, Ke-Gang Zheng, Shu-Zhen Liu, Jie Pan, Cong Zhang, Jing Bai, Jun Zhou
Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), a member of the protein tyrosine kinase family, plays an important role in various cellular processes. PYK2 can be phosphorylated on tyrosine 402 by diverse stimuli at the cell surface, and recent studies have shown that this activated form of PYK2 is enriched in oocytes and required for fertilization. However, the subcellular localization and functions of activated PYK2 in oocytes remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that the localization of p-PYK2 undergoes dynamic changes during in vitro maturation of mouse oocytes...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643928/calvarial-bone-development-and-suture-closure-in-dicer-deficient-mice
#14
P Atsawasuwan, M Ouibaidin, B Dalal, H Khan, A Mohammed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether lack of Dicer during calvaria development would lead to dysmorphology of calvaria and suture closure in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A conditional Dicer deficient under Osx promoter mouse was employed in this study. The 4- and 10-week-old conditional Dicer-deficient mice control littermates and Osx-cre transgenic mice were studied for calvarial bone morphology and suture closure. Dry skull, microcomputed tomography (μCT), histological and gene expression studies were investigated to evaluate the effect of Dicer deficiency on calvarial bone morphology and their related genes during calvaria development...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643917/estrogen-receptor-alpha-mediates-mandibular-condylar-cartilage-growth-in-male-mice
#15
J L Robinson, V Gupta, P Soria, E Clanaman, S Gurbarg, M Xu, J Chen, S Wadhwa
OBJECTIVES: In the appendicular skeleton, estrogen via ERα signalling has been shown to mediate endochondral growth plate fusion in both males and females. However, the role of ERα in mediating growth of the mandibular condylar cartilage is unknown. Thus, this study focuses on the characterization of the mandibular condylar cartilage phenotype in young and adult male ERαKO mice. SETTING: Columbia University Medical Center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: WT and ERαKO C57BL/6 male mice were sacrificed at 49 days or 9 months for phenotypic analysis...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643914/the-use-of-cell-culture-platforms-to-identify-novel-markers-of-bone-and-dentin-resorption
#16
W J Rody, O Krokhin, V Spicer, C A Chamberlain, M Chamberlain, K P McHugh, S M Wallet, A K Emory, J D Crull, L S Holliday
OBJECTIVES: 1) To test the hypothesis that there would be proteomic differences in the composition of exosomes isolated from osteoclasts and odontoclasts and 2) to determine the clinical usefulness of these in vitro biomarker candidates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse bone marrow-derived precursors were cultured on either dentin or bone slices and allowed to mature and begin resorption. Exosomes were isolated from cell culture media and characterized by mass spectrometry...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643872/circulating-microrna-as-candidates-for-early-embryonic-viability-in-cattle
#17
K G Pohler, J A Green, L A Moley, S Gunewardena, W T Hung, R R Payton, X Hong, L K Christenson, T W Geary, M F Smith
Blood-borne extracellular vesicles (i.e. exosomes and microvesicles) carrying microRNAs (miRNAs) could make excellent biomarkers of disease and different physiologic states, including pregnancy status. We tested the hypothesis that circulating extracellular vesicle-derived miRNAs might differentiate the pregnancy status of cows that had maintained pregnancy to Day 30 from non-pregnant cows or from those that exhibited embryonic mortality between Days 17-30 of gestation. Cows were randomly assigned for artificial insemination with fertile semen (n= 36) or dead semen (n = 8; control group) on Day 0 (day of estrus)...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643870/type-iii-metacaspases-calcium-dependent-activity-proposes-new-function-for-the-p10-domain
#18
Marina Klemenčič, Christiane Funk
Metacaspases are a subgroup of caspase homologues represented in bacteria, algae and plants. Although type I and type II metacaspases are present in plants, recently discovered and uncharacterized type III metacaspases can only be found in algae which have undergone secondary endosymbiosis. We analysed the expression levels of all 13 caspase homologues in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta in vivo and biochemically characterized its only type III metacaspase, GtMC2, in vitro. Type III metacaspase GtMC2 was shown to be an endopeptidase with a preference for basic amino acids in the P1 position, which exhibited specific N-terminal proteolytic cleavage for full catalytic efficiency...
June 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643847/ncr1-deficiency-diminishes-the-generation-of-protective-murine-cytomegalovirus-antibodies-by-limiting-follicular-helper-t-cell-maturation
#19
Antonija Miletic, Maja Lenartic, Branka Popovic, Ilija Brizic, Tihana Trsan, Karmela Miklic, Ofer Mandelboim, Astrid Krmpotic, Stipan Jonjic
NKp46/NCR1 is an activating NK-cell receptor implicated in the control of various viral and bacterial infections. Recent findings also suggest that it plays a role in shaping the adaptive immune response to pathogens. Using NCR1-deficient (NCR1(gfp/gfp) ) mice we provide evidence for the role of NCR1 in antibody response to mouse cytomegalovirus infection (MCMV). The absence of NCR1 resulted in impaired maturation, function and NK-cell migration to regional lymph nodes. In addition, CD4(+) T-cell activation and follicular helper T-cell (Tfh) generation were reduced, leading to inferior germinal center (GC) B-cell maturation...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643684/-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-report-of-a-case-in-uruguay
#20
Matilde Boada, Sofía Grille, Andreina Brugnini, Natalia Trias, Cecilia Canesa, Lilián Díaz, Daniela Lens
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma belongs to the group of mature T-cell malignancies according to the WHO classification. It constitutes a rare entity and has a strong association with infection by human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In Uruguay, this viral infection is very infrequent and, to our knowledge, no case of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma has been previously reported. We describe the case of a woman, immigrant from Peru, who presented with persistent lymphocytosis, intestinal parasitic diseases, and skin involvement...
2017: Medicina
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