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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792471/sex-differences-in-the-anorexigenic-effects-of-dexfenfluramine-and-amphetamine-in-baboons
#1
Richard W Foltin, Suzette M Evans
The anorexigenic effects of intramuscular d-amphetamine HCl (0.06-0.50 mg/kg) and dexfenfluramine HCl (0.25-2.0 mg/kg) were determined in experimentally naïve baboons. A group of 8 adult male baboons was tested prior to a group of 7 adult female baboons. A 120-min session occurred at 9:00 a.m. during which baboons could respond for food pellets. Drug was given 30 min prior to the 9:00 a.m. morning session. Beginning at 11:00 a.m., baboons had a 6-hr multiple-meal session during which they could have up to 4 food pellet meals...
May 24, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792383/donor-variation-and-optimization-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-chondrogenesis-in-hyaluronic-acid
#2
Minwook Kim, Isaac E Erickson, Alice H Huang, Sean T Garrity, Robert L Mauck, David R Steinberg
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell type for cartilage repair that can undergo chondrogenesis in a variety of three dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels provide a biologically relevant interface for cell encapsulation. While our previous studies have shown that MSC-laden HA constructs can mature in vitro to match native mechanical properties using cells from animal sources, clinical application will depend on the successful translation of these findings to human cells...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790046/energy-consumption-habits-and-human-health-nexus-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Imran Hanif
This study explores the impact of fossil fuels consumption, solid fuels consumption for cooking purposes, economic growth, and carbon emissions on human health, with a key emphasis on the occurrence of tuberculosis and the high mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. For its practical insights, the study develops a system Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) for a panel of 34 middle- and lower-middle-income countries from 1995 to 2015. The study adopts a flexible methodology to tackle endogeneity in the variables...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787884/the-pelletization-and-combustion-properties-of-terrified-camellia-shell-via-dry-and-hydrothermal-torrefaction-a-comparative-evaluation
#4
Ren Tu, Enchen Jiang, Sun Yan, Xiwei Xu, Shu Rao
The torrefaction performance and properties of torrefied CS (Camellia shell) bio-char obtained via dry and hydrothermal torrefaction have been compared as well as pyrolysis and combustion properties. And making of torrefied pellets and their properties such as pellet density, Meyer hardness, and energy consumption are also investigated. The results showed that dry torrefied bio-char had higher energy and density at 220 °C and decreased significantly with temperature, while hydrothermally prepared bio-char had stable energy and mass yield with temperature...
May 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785129/performance-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-rif-inh-resistance-assay-when-used-to-test-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specimens-from-bangladesh
#5
Joshua Kostera, Gregor Leckie, Klara Abravaya, Hong Wang
Introduction: The Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance Assay (RT MTB RIF/INH) is an assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF)- and/or isoniazid (INH)-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The assay can be used to test sputum, bronchial alveolar lavage, and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NALC)/NaOH pellets prepared from these samples. The assay can be used in direct testing mode, or in reflex mode following a MTB positive result produced by its companion assay, Abbott RT MTB. Methods: In this study, the direct testing mode was used to test paired sputum and NALC/NaOH pellets prepared from sputum collected from Bangladesh TB patients...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782847/optogenetic-induction-of-colonic-motility-in-mice
#6
Timothy J Hibberd, Jing Feng, Jialie Luo, Pu Yang, Vijay K Samineni, Robert W Gereau, Nigel Kelley, Hongzhen Hu, Nick J Spencer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strategies are needed to increase gastrointestinal transit without systemic pharmacologic agents. We investigated whether optogenetics, focal application of light to control enteric nervous system excitability, could be used to evoke propagating contractions and increase colonic transit in mice. METHODS: We generated transgenic mice with Cre-mediated expression of light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 (CHR2) in calretinin neurons (CAL-ChR2 Cre+ mice); Cre- littermates served as controls...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781150/sex-differences-in-adolescent-ethanol-drinking-to-behavioral-intoxication
#7
Sara R Westbrook, Minsu Kang, Luke K Sherrill, Dylan O'Hearn, Tanya Krishnamani, Joshua M Gulley
Rodent models have been especially useful for investigating adolescent ethanol exposure. However, there is a paucity of studies examining sex differences in behavioral intoxication from adolescent ethanol drinking. Here, we used an ethanol drinking model to investigate if adolescent rats of both sexes readily drink ethanol to measurable behavioral intoxication, indicated by increased impulsive action and motor incoordination. Beginning on postnatal day (P) 28, male and female Long-Evans rats were given 30-min access to a solution of sucrose (20%) or sweetened ethanol (20% sucrose +15% ethanol) every other day until P60 and once after 2 weeks of forced abstinence (on P75)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780820/coadministration-of-nematophagous-fungi-for-biological-control-over-nematodes-in-bovine-in-the-south-eastern-brazil
#8
Fábio Dias Luns, Rafaela Carolina Lopes Assis, Laryssa Pinheiro Costa Silva, Carolina Magri Ferraz, Fábio Ribeiro Braga, Jackson Victor de Araújo
This study compared the coadministration among the three nematode predatory fungi, Duddingtonia flagrans , Monacrosporium thaumasium , and Arthrobotrys robusta , in the biological control of cattle gastrointestinal nematodiasis in comparison with the use of the fungus D. flagrans alone. Five groups consisting of eight Girolando heifers were kept in paddocks of Brachiaria decumbens for six months. Each heifer received 1 g/10 kg of pellets containing the fungi (0.2 g of fungus/10 kg b.w.). Group 1 (G1) received pellets with D...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780666/chitin-distribution-in-the-oithona-digestive-and-reproductive-systems-revealed-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#9
Kevin Sugier, Benoit Vacherie, Astrid Cornils, Patrick Wincker, Jean-Louis Jamet, Mohammed-Amin Madoui
Among copepods, which are the most abundant animals on Earth, the genus Oithona is described as one of the most numerous and plays a major role in the marine food chain and biogeochemical cycles, particularly through the excretion of chitin-coated fecal pellets. Despite the morphology of several Oithona species is well known, knowledge of its internal anatomy and chitin distribution is still limited. To answer this problem, Oithona nana and O. similis individuals were stained by Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Fluorescein IsoThioCyanate (WGA-FITC) and DiAmidino-2-PhenylIndole (DAPI) for fluorescence microscopy observations...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780515/topotactic-anion-exchange-in-thermoelectric-nanostructured-layered-tin-chalcogenides-with-reduced-selenium-content
#10
Guang Han, Srinivas R Popuri, Heather F Greer, Ruizhi Zhang, Lourdes Ferre-Llin, Jan-Willem G Bos, Wuzong Zhou, Michael J Reece, Douglas J Paul, Andrew R Knox, Duncan H Gregory
Anion exchange has been performed with nanoplates of tin sulfide (SnS) via "soft chemical" organic-free solution syntheses to yield layered pseudo-ternary tin chalcogenides on a 10 g-scale. SnS undergoes a topotactic transformation to form a series of S-substituted tin selenide (SnSe) nano/micro-plates with tuneable chalcogenide composition. SnS0.1 Se0.9 nanoplates were spark plasma sintered into phase-pure, textured, dense pellets, the ZT of which has been significantly enhanced to ≈1.16 from ≈0...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778947/dissociable-contributions-of-dorsal-and-ventral-striatal-regions-on-a-rodent-cost-benefit-decision-making-task-requiring-cognitive-effort
#11
Mason M Silveira, Melanie Tremblay, Catharine A Winstanley
Cognitive effort is a ubiquitous process, yet surprisingly little is known about the brain mechanisms responsible for evaluating it. Here, we utilize the rat Cognitive Effort Task (rCET) to probe the striatum's role in deciding between options that vary in the amount of cognitive effort required for success. In the rCET, animals choose to perform either an easy trial, in which the attentional demand is low but the potential reward is small, or a difficult trial which is more attentionally demanding but can yield twice the sugar pellets...
April 24, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778945/self-administration-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mpdv-enhances-reward-function-via-a-nicotinic-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#12
Jean R Geste, Marjory Pompilus, Marcelo Febo, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is an addictive synthetic drug with severe side effects. Previous studies have shown that MDPV has positive reinforcing properties. However, little is known about the effect of MDPV self-administration on the state of the brain reward system and the neuronal mechanisms by which MDPV mediates its effects. The goal of the present studies was to determine the effect of MDPV self-administration on reward function and the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of MDPV...
May 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776003/the-vcd-pattern-of-the-%C3%AE-c-o-bands-in-isoindolinones
#13
Joanna Ewa Rode, Krzysztof Lyczko, Magdalena Jawiczuk, Robert Kawęcki, Wojciech Stańczyk, Agnieszka Jaglińska, Jan Cz Dobrowolski
The IR and VCD spectra of both enantiomers of Me, iPr, nBu, Ph and CH2Ph substituted isoindolinones in solution and KBr pellets were measured and interpreted with DFT calculations. The spectra in solution revealed no important differences in the C=O stretching vibration region while the interpretation of very distinct spectra taken in pellets required determining the crystal structures. The studied compounds crystallized in the P212121 (Me, iPr, CH2Ph), P31 (nBu), and P21 (Ph) space groups. We found that the quality of simulated spectra strongly depends on the substituent, the structure of the molecular cluster assumed, basis set, and use of the dispersion correction...
May 18, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773185/kinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-bismuth-tin-and-lead-after-implantation-of-miniature-shotgun-alloy-pellets-in-rats
#14
Vidar Skaug, Einar Eilertsen, Asbjørn Skogstad, Finn E S Levy, Balázs Berlinger, Yngvar Thomassen, Dag G Ellingsen
INTRODUCTION: Shotgun pellets containing bismuth (Bi) as substitute for lead (Pb) are increasingly being used due to environmental concerns. Information on toxicokinetics of Bi is lacking for the assessment of humans accidentally shot by Bi-containing shotgun alloy pellets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to miniature alloy pellets containing Bi, tin (Sn) and minor amounts of Pb by implantation in muscle tissues of the hind legs. RESULTS: The concentrations of Bi in whole blood and urine increased up to 53 weeks after implantation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772514/the-effect-of-polymer-aging-on-the-uptake-of-fuel-aromatics-and-ethers-by-microplastics
#15
Axel Müller, Roland Becker, Ute Dorgerloh, Franz-Georg Simon, Ulrike Braun
Microplastics are increasingly entering marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, where they sorb hydrophobic organic contaminants. Here, the sorption behavior of the fuel-related water contaminants benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) and four tertiary butyl ethers to virgin and via UV radiation aged polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) pellets was investigated. Changes in material properties due to aging were recorded using appropriate polymer characterization methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772394/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-lineages-of-faecal-enterococci-of-wild-birds-emergence-of-vana-and-vanb2-harboring-enterococcus-faecalis
#16
Houssem Ben Yahia, Sarra Chairat, Nabil Hamdi, Haythem Gharsa, Rym Ben Sallem, Sara Ceballos, Carmen Torres, Karim Ben Slama
Migrating birds have been implicated in pathogen dissemination over long-distances. The lack of data on birds' intestinal microbiota makes these animals a promising path to understand their potential role in the transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This work aims to study the diversity of enterococci species and to analyze the antimicrobial resistant phenotypes/genotypes, as well as the genetic lineages of isolates obtained from faecal and pellet samples of colonial wild birds in Tunisia. Seventy-nine enterococci were recovered of 150 wild bird, after inoculation of samples in Slanetz-Bartley agar, and were identified as E...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770595/repair-potential-of-non-surgically-delivered-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-chondrocytes-in-a-rat-osteochondral-defect-model
#17
Yeri Alice Rim, Yoojun Nam, Narae Park, Jennifer Lee, Sung-Hwan Park, Ji Hyeon Ju
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are thought to be an alternative cell source for future regenerative medicine. hiPSCs may allow unlimited production of cell types that have low turnover rates and are difficult to obtain such as autologous chondrocytes. In this study, we generated hiPSC-derived chondrogenic pellets and chondrocytes were isolated. To confirm the curative effects, chondrogenic pellets and isolated chondrocytes were transplanted into rat joints with osteochondral defects. Isolated hiPSC-derived chondrocytes were delivered in the defect by a single intra-articular injection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768887/facile-synthesis-of-semiconducting-ultrathin-layer-of-molybdenum-disulfide
#18
Sarvottam K Jha, Reetu Kumari, Shubham Choudhary, Puspendu Guha, P V Satyam, Brajesh S Yadav, Zainab Naqvi, S S Kushvaha, R K Ratnesh, M S Mehata, Aditya Jain, Amrish K Panwar, Fouran Singh, Pawan K Tyagi
In this paper, we have reported a simple and efficient method for the synthesis of uniform, highly conducting single or few layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) on large scale. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) have been used for the confirmation of mono or few layered nature of the as-synthesized MoS2 sheets. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy have also been used to study the elemental, phase, and molecular composition of the sample...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768814/electric-charge-dependence-of-controlled-dye-release-behavior-in-glass-ionomer-cement-containing-nano-porous-silica-particles
#19
Yosuke Bando, Ko Nakanishi, Shigeaki Abe, Shuichi Yamagata, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Junichiro Iida
We investigated in controlled dye-release behavior of nanosized silica particles containing nanocavities (Nanoporous silica, NPS). To determine this, NPS were mixed with glass ionomer cement (GIC), which is a medical material used as a matrix. The dye-release behavior was observed using a UV-visible spectrometer. After cationic dye was charged into GIC pellet containing NPS, the pellet could gradually release cationic dye for up to two weeks. To understand the dependence of electric charge on the dye-release behavior, three types of dyes with different charge were also investigated...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768665/chiral-separation-of-isoxanthohumol-and-8-prenylnaringenin-in-beer-hop-pellets-and-hops-by-hplc-with-chiral-columns
#20
Hyuga Moriya, Sohei Tanaka, Yukari Iida, Satomi Kitagawa, Sen-Ichi Aizawa, Atsushi Taga, Hiroyuki Terashima, Atsushi Yamamoto, Shuji Kodama
Xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, and 8-prenylnaringenin in beer, hop, and hop pellet samples were analyzed by HPLC using InertSustain phenyl column and the mobile phase containing 40% methanol and 12% 2-propanol. Fractions of isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin obtained by the above HPLC were separately collected. Isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin were enantioseparated by HPLC using Chiralcel OD-H column with a mobile phase composed of hexane/ethanol (90/10, v/v) and Chiralpak AD-RH column with a mobile phase composed of methanol/2-propanol/water (40/20/40, v/v/v), respectively...
May 16, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
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