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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641054/behavioural-interventions-to-reduce-nickel-exposure-in-a-nickel-processing-plant
#1
Krassi Rumchev, Helen Brown, Amanda Wheeler, Gavin Pereira, Jeff Spickett
Nickel is a widely used material in many industries. Although, there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behaviour could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638424/application-of-fuzzy-delphi-in-the-selection-of-copd-risk-factors-among-steel-industry-workers
#2
Rahmat Dapari, Halim Ismail, Rosnah Ismail, Noor Hassim Ismail
BACKGROUND: The Delphi method has been widely applied in many study areas to systematically gather experts' input on particular topic. Recently, it has become increasingly well known in health related research. This paper applied the Fuzzy Delphi method to enhance the validation of a questionnaire pertaining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk factors among metal industry workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed, predefined list of possible risk factors for COPD among metal industry workers was created through a comprehensive and exhaustive review of literature from 1995 to 2015...
2017: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631452/the-impact-of-the-anaesthetic-conserving-device-on-occupational-exposure-to-isoflurane-among-intensive-care-healthcare-professionals
#3
Jennifer Herzog-Niescery, Heike Vogelsang, Philipp Gude, Hans-Martin Seipp, Horst Bartz, Waldemar Uhl, Thomas P Weber, Martin Bellgardt
BACKGROUND: Use of Anesthetic Conserving Devices (ACD) for inhalational isoflurane sedation in intensive care units (ICU) has grown in recent years, and healthcare professionals are concerned about isoflurane pollution and exposure-related health risks. Real-time measurements to determine isoflurane exposure in ICU personnel during short-term patient care procedures and ACD handling have not yet been performed. METHODS: Isoflurane concentrations in the breathing zones of ICU staff (25 cm around the nose and mouth) were measured, by photoacoustic gas monitoring, during daily practice including tracheal suctioning, oral hygiene, body care, and patient positioning...
June 14, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626294/optical-molecular-fluorescence-determination-of-ultra-trace-beryllium-in-occupational-and-environmental-samples-using-highly-alkaline-conditions
#4
Lori Adams, Anoop Agrawal, John P Cronin, Kevin Ashley
Exposures to beryllium (Be), even at extremely low levels, can cause severe health effects in a percentage of those exposed; consequently, occupational exposure limits (OELs) promulgated for this element are the lowest established for any element. This work describes the advantages of using highly alkaline dye solutions for determination of Be in occupational hygiene and environmental samples by means of an optical molecular fluorescence technique after sample extraction in 1-3% (w˖w(-1)) aqueous ammonium bifluoride (NH4HF2)...
2017: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626126/conduct-of-occupational-health-during-major-disasters-a-comparison-of-literature-on-occupational-health-issues-in-the-world-trade-center-terrorist-attack-and-the-fukushima-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#5
Hiroyuki Toyoda, Koji Mori
Workers who respond to large-scale disasters can be exposed to health hazards that do not exist in routine work. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for preparing for and responding to such problems, but published information is still insufficient. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health issues and occupational health activities at the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack and at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident to investigate how occupational health activities during disasters should be conducted...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609192/evaluation-of-the-well-mixed-room-and-near-field-far-field-models-in-occupational-settings
#6
Susan F Arnold, Yuan Shao, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
Drawing appropriate conclusions about a scenario for which the exposure is truly unacceptable drives appropriate exposure and risk management, and protects the health and safety of those individuals. To ensure the vast majority of these decisions are accurate, these decisions must be based upon proven approaches and tools. When these decisions are based solely on professional judgment guided by subjective inputs however, they are more than likely wrong, and biased, underestimating the true exposure. Models have been shown anecdotally to be useful in accurately predicting exposure but their use in occupational hygiene has been limited...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609175/center-for-the-polyurethanes-industry-summary-of-unpublished-industrial-hygiene-studies-related-to-the-evaluation-of-emissions-of-spray-polyurethane-foam-insulation
#7
Richard D Wood
Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation is used as thermal insulation for residential and commercial buildings. It has many advantages over other forms insulation; however, concerns have been raised related to chemical emissions during and after application. The American Chemistry Council's (ACC's) Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) has gathered previously unpublished industrial hygiene air sampling studies submitted by member companies that were completed during an eight year period from 2007 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571172/disparities-in-oral-health-behaviour-among-young-adults-in-mangalore-india-a-psychosocial-perspective
#8
G Rajesh, Simi Seemanthini, Dilip Naik, Keshava Pai, Ashwini Rao
INTRODUCTION: Oral health inequalities imply unequal distribution of health and disease across socioeconomic gradients. Oral health related behaviour and its psychosocial antecedents can have a major impact on oral disease pathways in communities. AIM: To ascertain disparities in oral health behaviour and its psychosocial antecedents among young adults in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Present study was carried out among 341 degree students at three randomly chosen institutions belonging to government, aided and private colleges in Mangalore...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551887/bacteriological-safety-assessment-hygienic-habits-and-cross-contamination-risks-in-a-nigerian-urban-sample-of-household-kitchen-environment
#9
Bernard O Ejechi, Ono P Ochei
Urban household kitchen environment was assessed for safety by determining their levels of indicator bacteria, hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination. Household kitchens (60) were selected in Warri Town, Nigeria, by the multi-stage sampling technique. Contact surfaces, water and indoor kitchen air were analysed for aerobic plate counts, total and faecal coliforms using Nutrient and McConkey media by swab/rinse method, membrane filtration and sedimentation methods, respectively. Hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination were assessed with structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic variables...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528784/keeping-the-voice-fit-in-the-group-fitness-industry-a-qualitative-study-to-determine-what-instructors-want-in-a-voice-education-program
#10
Patrick J Aiken, Anna F Rumbach
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide a descriptive summary of (1) group fitness instructors' (GFIs') experiences of occupational voice use and education, and (2) the content and mode of delivery desired by GFIs in an education and training program. STUDY DESIGN: This is a qualitative inductive approach using a semi-structured interview. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight GFIs recruited via self-selection sampling...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524757/wood-smoke-exposure-of-portuguese-wildland-firefighters-dna-and-oxidative-damage-evaluation
#11
Ana Abreu, Carla Costa, Susana Pinho E Silva, Simone Morais, Maria do Carmo Pereira, Adília Fernandes, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, João Paulo Teixeira, Solange Costa
Portugal is among the European Union countries most devastated by forest fires each year. In the last three decades, more than 3.8 million hectares of forest were burned. Wildland firefighters are exposed to a variety of hazards, including many toxic combustion products that may lead to deleterious health effects. Epidemiological studies showed a positive association between firefighting and several chronic diseases, including cancer. Results from biomonitoring studies in firefighters, particularly concerning genotoxicity evaluation, constitute a valuable tool for investigating important occupational hazards...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506241/socio-demographic-determinants-of-toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-in-migrant-workers-of-peninsular-malaysia
#12
Norhidayu Sahimin, Yvonne A L Lim, Farnaza Ariffin, Jerzy M Behnke, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Martin Walker, John W Lewis, Rahmah Noordin, Khairul Anuar Abdullah, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
BACKGROUND: The number of migrants working in Malaysia has increased sharply since the 1970's and there is concern that infectious diseases endemic in other (e.g. neighbouring) countries may be inadvertently imported. Compulsory medical screening prior to entering the workforce does not include parasitic infections such as toxoplasmosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among migrant workers in Peninsular Malaysia by means of serosurveys conducted on a voluntary basis among low-skilled and semi-skilled workers from five working sectors, namely, manufacturing, food service, agriculture and plantation, construction and domestic work...
May 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506182/elemental-properties-of-copper-slag-and-measured-airborne-exposures-at-a-copper-slag-processing-facility
#13
Christopher Mugford, Jenna L Gibbs, Randy Boylstein
In 1974, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended a ban on the use of abrasives containing >1% silica, giving rise to abrasive substitutes like copper slag. We present results from a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health industrial hygiene survey at a copper slag processing facility that consisted of the collection of bulk samples for metals and silica; and full-shift area and personal air samples for dust, metals, and respirable silica. Carcinogens, suspect carcinogens, and other toxic elements were detected in all bulk samples, and area and personal air samples...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475481/evaluating-well-mixed-room-and-near-field-far-field-model-performance-under-highly-controlled-conditions
#14
Susan F Arnold, Yuan Shao, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
Exposure judgments made without personal exposure data and based instead on subjective inputs tend to underestimate exposure, with exposure judgment accuracy not significantly more accurate than random chance. Therefore, objective inputs that contribute to more accurate decision making are needed. Models have been shown anecdotally to be useful in accurately predicting exposure but their use in occupational hygiene has been limited. This may be attributable to a general lack of guidance on model selection and use and scant model input data...
June 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472371/bayesian-analysis-of-occupational-exposure-data-with-conjugate-priors
#15
Rachael M Jones, Igor Burstyn
Bayesian analysis is a flexible method that can yield insight into occupational exposures as the methods quantify plausible values for exposure parameters of interest, such as the mean, variance, and specific percentiles of the exposure distribution. We describe three Bayesian analysis methods for the analysis of normally distributed data (e.g. the logarithm of measurements of chemical hazards) that use conjugate prior distributions (normal for the mean, and inverse-χ2, inverse-Γ, or vague for the variance) to provide analytical expressions for the posterior distributions of the sufficient statistics of the normal distribution (e...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447136/-environmental-health-relevance-of-airborne-microorganisms-in-ambient-and-indoor-air
#16
REVIEW
Sandra M Walser, Bernhard Brenner, Stefanie Heinze, Regine Szewzyk, Eike Wolter, Caroline E W Herr
Airborne microorganisms occur ubiquitously in the ambient air. Besides allergic and irritative-toxic effects, they can cause infections after inhalation. Occupational studies have shown that an increased incidence of respiratory diseases is found in adequately exposed workers. In addition to respiratory diseases, severe systemic infections can also occur in particular cases, such as in the case of a hantavirus infection that is recognized as an occupational disease. In studies from environmental medicine, respiratory diseases have also been observed in residents living in the vicinity of livestock facilities and evaporative cooling towers...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434545/opportunities-and-obstacles-in-translating-evidence-to-policy-in-occupational-asthma
#17
Susan M Tarlo, Ahmed A Arif, George L Delclos, Paul Henneberger, Jenil Patel
PURPOSE: Occupational asthma (OA), a common respiratory disorder in Western countries, is caused by exposures at the workplace. It is part of a broader definition of work-related asthma (WRA) that also includes pre-existing asthma aggravated by substances present in the workplace environment, and it is potentially preventable. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate preventive measures for occupational asthma by case studies. METHODS: In three case studies we discuss preventive measures that have been associated with reductions in incidence of occupational asthma from natural rubber latex and from diisocyanates as supported by published literature...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395354/urinary-bisphenol-a-bpa-concentrations-among-workers-in-industries-that-manufacture-and-use-bpa-in-the-usa
#18
Cynthia J Hines, Matthew V Jackson, James A Deddens, John C Clark, Xiaoyun Ye, Annette L Christianson, Juliana W Meadows, Antonia M Calafat
Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) toxicity and exposure risk to humans has been the subject of considerable scientific debate; however, published occupational exposure data for BPA are limited. Methods: In 2013-2014, 77 workers at six US companies making BPA, BPA-based resins, or BPA-filled wax provided seven urine samples over two consecutive work days (151 worker-days, 525 samples). Participant information included industry, job, tasks, personal protective equipment used, hygiene behaviors, and canned food/beverage consumption...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395307/a-method-for-constructing-informative-priors-for-bayesian-modeling-of-occupational-hygiene-data
#19
Harrison Quick, Tran Huynh, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
In many occupational hygiene settings, the demand for more accurate, more precise results is at odds with limited resources. To combat this, practitioners have begun using Bayesian methods to incorporate prior information into their statistical models in order to obtain more refined inference from their data. This is not without risk, however, as incorporating prior information that disagrees with the information contained in data can lead to spurious conclusions, particularly if the prior is too informative...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375944/exploring-canadians-and-europeans-health-care-professionals-perception-of-biological-risks-patient-safety-and-professionals-safety-practices
#20
Laurence Bernard, Agnès Bernard, Alain Biron, Mélanie Lavoie-Tremblay
Patient safety has become a worldwide concern in relation to infectious diseases (Ebola/severe acute respiratory syndrome/flu). During the pandemic, different sanitary responses were documented between Europe and North America in terms of vaccination and compliance with infection prevention and control measures. The purpose of this study was to explore the health care professionals' perceptions of biological risks, patient safety, and their practices in European and Canadian health care facilities. A qualitative-descriptive design was used to explore the perceptions of biological risks and patient safety practices among health care professionals in 3 different facilities...
April 2017: Health Care Manager
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