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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207176/detecting-state-changes-for-ecosystem-conservation-with-long-term-monitoring-of-species-composition
#1
T J Mason, D A Keith, A D Letten
Effective conservation requires an understanding not only of contemporary vegetation distributions in the landscape, but also cognizance of vegetation transitions over time with the goal of maintaining persistence of all states within the landscape. Using a state and transition model framework, we investigated temporal transitions over 31 years in species composition among five upland swamp vegetation communities in southeastern Australia. We applied fuzzy clustering to document transitions across communities; evaluated the resilience and resistance of communities to change; and explored the relationship between ecosystem states and major environmental factors posited to structure the system...
October 4, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195528/sustainable-diets-within-sustainable-food-systems
#2
Alexandre Meybeck, Vincent Gitz
Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social...
February 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131504/childhood-cancer-risk-in-the-siblings-and-cousins-of-men-with-poor-semen-quality
#3
Ross E Anderson, Heidi A Hanson, William T Lowrance, Jeffrey Redshaw, Siam Oottamasathien, Anthony Schaeffer, Erica Johnstone, Kenneth I Aston, Douglas T Carrell, Patrick Cartwright, Ken R Smith, James M Hotaling
PURPOSE: Poor semen quality is associated with reduced somatic health and increased cancer risk. Infertility and cancer are increasingly being linked by epidemiologists and basic scientists. We sought to identify semen parameters associated with an increased childhood cancer risk in the family members of subfertile men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in men from the SHARE (Subfertility Heath and Assisted Reproduction) study who underwent semen analysis between 1994 and 2011...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101914/prenatal-stress-exposure-generates-higher-early-survival-and-smaller-size-without-impacting-developmental-rate-in-a-pacific-salmon
#4
Pauline M Capelle, Christina A D Semeniuk, Natalie M Sopinka, John W Heath, Oliver P Love
Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040195/human-health-screening-and-public-health-significance-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-detected-in-public-water-supplies
#5
Robert Benson, Octavia D Conerly, William Sander, Angela L Batt, J Scott Boone, Edward T Furlong, Susan T Glassmeyer, Dana W Kolpin, Heath E Mash, Kathleen M Schenck, Jane Ellen Simmons
The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040194/nationwide-reconnaissance-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-source-and-treated-drinking-waters-of-the-united-states-pharmaceuticals
#6
Edward T Furlong, Angela L Batt, Susan T Glassmeyer, Mary C Noriega, Dana W Kolpin, Heath Mash, Kathleen M Schenck
Mobile and persistent chemicals that are present in urban wastewater, such as pharmaceuticals, may survive on-site or municipal wastewater treatment and post-discharge environmental processes. These pharmaceuticals have the potential to reach surface and groundwaters, essential drinking-water sources. A joint, two-phase U.S. Geological Survey-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study examined source and treated waters from 25 drinking-water treatment plants from across the United States. Treatment plants that had probable wastewater inputs to their source waters were selected to assess the prevalence of pharmaceuticals in such source waters, and to identify which pharmaceuticals persist through drinking-water treatment...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917931/metagenomic-profiling-of-historic-colorado-front-range-flood-impact-on-distribution-of-riverine-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#7
Emily Garner, Joshua S Wallace, Gustavo Arango Argoty, Caitlin Wilkinson, Nicole Fahrenfeld, Lenwood S Heath, Liqing Zhang, Mazdak Arabi, Diana S Aga, Amy Pruden
Record-breaking floods in September 2013 caused massive damage to homes and infrastructure across the Colorado Front Range and heavily impacted the Cache La Poudre River watershed. Given the unique nature of this watershed as a test-bed for tracking environmental pathways of antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) dissemination, we sought to determine the impact of extreme flooding on ARG reservoirs in river water and sediment. We utilized high-throughput DNA sequencing to obtain metagenomic profiles of ARGs before and after flooding, and investigated 23 antibiotics and 14 metals as putative selective agents during post-flood recovery...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871138/high-genetic-diversity-of-vibrio-cholerae-in-the-european-lake-neusiedler-see-is-associated-with-intensive-recombination-in-the-reed-habitat-and-the-long-distance-transfer-of-strains
#8
Carina Pretzer, Irina S Druzhinina, Carmen Amaro, Eva Benediktsdóttir, Ingela Hedenström, Dominique Hervio-Heath, Steliana Huhulescu, Franciska M Schets, Andreas H Farnleitner, Alexander K T Kirschner
Coastal marine Vibrio cholerae populations usually exhibit high genetic diversity. To assess the genetic diversity of abundant V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 populations in the Central European lake Neusiedler See, we performed a phylogenetic analysis based on recA, toxR, gyrB and pyrH loci sequenced for 472 strains. The strains were isolated from three ecologically different habitats in a lake that is a hot-spot of migrating birds and an important bathing water. We also analyzed 76 environmental and human V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 isolates from Austria and other European countries and added sequences of seven genome-sequenced strains...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849178/modulation-of-pertussis-and-adenylate-cyclase-toxins-by-sigma-factor-rpoe-in-bordetella-pertussis
#9
Mariette Barbier, Dylan T Boehm, Emel Sen-Kilic, Claire Bonnin, Theo Pinheiro, Casey Hoffman, Mary Gray, Erik Hewlett, F Heath Damron
Bordetella pertussis is a human pathogen that can infect the respiratory tract and cause the disease known as whooping cough. B. pertussis uses pertussis toxin (PT) and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) to kill and modulate host cells to allow the pathogen to survive and persist. B. pertussis encodes many uncharacterized transcription factors, and very little is known about their functions. RpoE is a sigma factor which, in other bacteria, responds to oxidative, heat, and other environmental stresses. RseA is a negative regulator of RpoE that sequesters the sigma factor to regulate gene expression based on conditions...
January 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826820/re-vegetation-processes-in-cutaway-peat-production-fields-in-estonia-in-relation-to-peat-quality-and-water-regime
#10
Mall Orru, Katri Ots, Hans Orru
Eighty-one cutaway peat production fields with a total area of about 9000 ha exist and were studied in Estonia in 2005-2015. Only a very small number of the fields (seven) have been restored-either afforested or used for growing berries. The re-vegetation of Estonian cutaway peat production fields is mainly the result of natural processes, which are generally very slow due to an unfavourable water regime or a too thin remaining peat layer. The fields are mostly covered by cotton grass and birches. Often sparse vegetation covers 15-20% of a peat field, but some fields have turned into heaths or grasslands with plant coverage up to 60%...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801919/the-role-of-the-state-health-laboratories-in-advancing-health-equity
#11
Ewa King, Cynthia Vanner, Henry Leibovitz, Robin Smith
While laboratories play an important and recognized role in many public health programs that require surveillance of disease spread or monitoring of environmental conditions, the role of public laboratories in assessing and advancing health equity is not well understood. Yet, public laboratories collect, provide or generate much of the data used to determine health equity status and monitor heath equity trends in multiple settings and disciplines. RI State Health Laboratories, a division of the RI Department of Health, operates programs that help measure and address health disparities...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797688/cannabis-involvement-and-nonsuicidal-self-injury-a-discordant-twin-approach
#12
Lauren R Few, Julia D Grant, Elliot C Nelson, Timothy J Trull, Richard A Grucza, Kathleen K Bucholz, Karin J H Verweij, Nicholas G Martin, Dixie J Statham, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Michael T Lynskey, Arpana Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Cannabis use, particularly at an early age, has been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior, but minimal work has examined the association between cannabis use and lifetime nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current study aims to characterize the overlap between lifetime and early cannabis use and NSSI and to examine genetic and environmental mechanisms of this association. METHOD: Adult male and female twins from the Australian Twin Registry (N = 9,583) were used to examine the odds of NSSI associated with lifetime cannabis use and early cannabis use (i...
November 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768828/mode-of-resistance-to-viral-lysis-affects-host-growth-across-multiple-environments-in-the-marine-picoeukaryote-ostreococcus-tauri
#13
Sarah E Heath, Sinead Collins
Viruses play important roles in population dynamics and as drivers of evolution in single-celled marine phytoplankton. Viral infection of Ostreococcus tauri often causes cell lysis, but two spontaneously arising resistance mechanisms occur: resistant cells that cannot become infected and resistant producer cells that are infected but not lysed, and which may slowly release viruses. As of yet, little is known about how consistent the effects of viruses on their hosts are across different environments. To measure the effect of host resistance on host growth, and to determine whether this effect is environmentally dependent, we compared the growth and survival of susceptible, resistant and resistant producer O...
December 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749011/differences-between-white-and-black-young-women-in-the-relationship-between-religious-service-attendance-and-alcohol-involvement
#14
Arpana Agrawal, Julia D Grant, Jon Randolph Haber, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of religious attendance during childhood (C-RA) and adulthood (A-RA) with alcohol involvement (ever drinking, timing of first alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]) in White and Black female twins. As genetic and environmental factors influence religious attendance and alcohol involvement, we examined the extent to which they contribute to their association. METHODS: Data on 3,234 White and 553 Black female twins (18-29 years) from the Missouri Adolescent Female twin Study...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738944/microencapsulation-of-bacterial-cells-by-emulsion-technique-for-probiotic-application
#15
Surajit Mandal, Subrota Hati
Probiotics are dietary concepts to improve the dynamics of intestinal microbial balance favorably. Careful screening of probiotic strains for their technological suitability can also allow selection of strains with the best manufacturing and food technology characteristics. However, even the most robust probiotic bacteria are currently in the range of food applications to which they can be applied. Additionally, bacteria with exceptional functional heath properties are ruled out due to technological limitations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738229/chronic-interstitial-nephritis-in-agricultural-communities-a-worldwide-epidemic-with-social-occupational-and-environmental-determinants
#16
Channa Jayasumana, Carlos Orantes, Raul Herrera, Miguel Almaguer, Laura Lopez, Luis Carlos Silva, Pedro Ordunez, Sisira Siribaddana, Sarath Gunatilake, Marc E De Broe
Increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed in Central America, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries. It is named chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC). CINAC is defined as a form of CKD that affects mainly young men, occasionally women. Its aetiology is not linked to diabetes, hypertension, glomerulopathies or other known causes. CINAC patients live and work in poor agricultural communities located in CINAC endemic areas with a hot tropical climate, and are exposed to toxic agrochemicals through work, by ingestion of contaminated food and water, or by inhalation...
October 13, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681897/microbial-biofilm-community-variation-in-flowing-habitats-potential-utility-as-bioindicators-of-postmortem-submersion-intervals
#17
Jennifer M Lang, Racheal Erb, Jennifer L Pechal, John R Wallace, Ryan W McEwan, Mark Eric Benbow
Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses) and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles) communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis...
January 4, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632579/metastorm-a-public-resource-for-customizable-metagenomics-annotation
#18
Gustavo Arango-Argoty, Gargi Singh, Lenwood S Heath, Amy Pruden, Weidong Xiao, Liqing Zhang
Metagenomics is a trending research area, calling for the need to analyze large quantities of data generated from next generation DNA sequencing technologies. The need to store, retrieve, analyze, share, and visualize such data challenges current online computational systems. Interpretation and annotation of specific information is especially a challenge for metagenomic data sets derived from environmental samples, because current annotation systems only offer broad classification of microbial diversity and function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617668/residual-edna-detection-sensitivity-assessed-by-quantitative-real-time-pcr-in-a-river-ecosystem
#19
Katherine D Balasingham, Ryan P Walter, Daniel D Heath
Several studies have demonstrated that environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to detect the presence of aquatic species, days to weeks after the target species has been removed. However, most studies used eDNA analysis in lentic systems (ponds or lakes), or in controlled laboratory experiments. While eDNA degrades rapidly in all aquatic systems, it also undergoes dilution effects and physical destruction in flowing systems, complicating detection in rivers. However, some eDNA (i.e. residual eDNA) can be retained in aquatic systems, even those subject to high flow regimes...
September 12, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605821/first-record-of-protozoan-parasites-tetrahymena-rostrata-and-callimastix-equi-from-the-edible-oyster-in-sundarbans-region-of-west-bengal-india
#20
Tanima Biswas, Probir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
Several protozoan parasites have been found infecting the edible oysters, hence deteriorating the meat quality. Protozoan parasites such as, Tetrahymena rostrata and Callimastix equi infested the edible oyster in Sundarbans region, West Bengal, India, are first record from this region. Due to filter feeding habit of the organisms, oysters provides excellent ecological services in regard to efficient cleaning of infectious agents from surrounding water as a potential measure to improve water quality. However, these environmental benefits are associated with public heath risks from contaminated oysters intended for human consumption...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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