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environmental heath

Carina Pretzer, Irina S Druzhinina, Carmen Amaro, Eva Benediktsdóttir, Ingela Hedenström, Dominique Hervio-Heath, Steliana Huhulescu, Franciska M Schets, Andreas H Farnleitner, Alexander K T Kirschner
Coastal marine Vibrio cholerae populations usually exhibit high genetic diversity. To assess the genetic diversity of abundant V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 populations in the Central European lake Neusiedler See we performed a phylogenetic analysis based on recA, toxR, gyrB and pyrH loci sequenced for 472 strains. The strains were isolated from three ecologically different habitats in a lake that is a hot-spot of migrating birds and an important bathing water. We also analysed 76 environmental and human V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 isolates from Austria and other European countries and added sequences of seven genome-sequenced strains...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Mariette Barbier, Dylan Boehm, Emel Sen-Kiliç, Claire Bonnin, Theo Pinheiro, Casey Hoffman, Mary Gray, Erik Hewlett, F Heath Damron
Bordetella pertussis is a human pathogen that can infect the respiratory tract and cause the disease known as whooping cough. B. pertussis uses pertussis toxin (PT) and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) to kill and modulate host cells to allow the pathogen to survive and persist. B. pertussis encodes many uncharacterized transcription factors and very little is known about their functions. RpoE is a sigma factor which in other bacteria, responds to oxidative, heat, and other environmental stresses. RseA is a negative regulator of RpoE that sequesters the sigma factor to regulate gene expression based on conditions...
November 14, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Mall Orru, Katri Ots, Hans Orru
Eighty-one cutaway peat production fields with a total area of about 9000 ha exist and were studied in Estonia in 2005-2015. Only a very small number of the fields (seven) have been restored-either afforested or used for growing berries. The re-vegetation of Estonian cutaway peat production fields is mainly the result of natural processes, which are generally very slow due to an unfavourable water regime or a too thin remaining peat layer. The fields are mostly covered by cotton grass and birches. Often sparse vegetation covers 15-20% of a peat field, but some fields have turned into heaths or grasslands with plant coverage up to 60%...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ewa King, Cynthia Vanner, Henry Leibovitz, Robin Smith
While laboratories play an important and recognized role in many public health programs that require surveillance of disease spread or monitoring of environmental conditions, the role of public laboratories in assessing and advancing health equity is not well understood. Yet, public laboratories collect, provide or generate much of the data used to determine health equity status and monitor heath equity trends in multiple settings and disciplines. RI State Health Laboratories, a division of the RI Department of Health, operates programs that help measure and address health disparities...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Lauren R Few, Julia D Grant, Elliot C Nelson, Timothy J Trull, Richard A Grucza, Kathleen K Bucholz, Karin J H Verweij, Nicholas G Martin, Dixie J Statham, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Michael T Lynskey, Arpana Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Cannabis use, particularly at an early age, has been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior, but minimal work has examined the association between cannabis use and lifetime nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The current study aims to characterize the overlap between lifetime and early cannabis use and NSSI and to examine genetic and environmental mechanisms of this association. METHOD: Adult male and female twins from the Australian Twin Registry (N = 9,583) were used to examine the odds of NSSI associated with lifetime cannabis use and early cannabis use (i...
November 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Sarah E Heath, Sinead Collins
Viruses play important roles in population dynamics and as drivers of evolution in single-celled marine phytoplankton. Viral infection of Ostreococcus tauri often causes cell lysis, but two spontaneously arising resistance mechanisms occur: resistant cells that cannot become infected and resistant producer cells that are infected but not lysed, and which may slowly release viruses. As of yet, little is known about how consistent the effects of viruses on their hosts are across different environments. To measure the effect of host resistance on host growth, and to determine whether this effect is environmentally dependent, we compared the growth and survival of susceptible, resistant and resistant producer O...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Arpana Agrawal, Julia D Grant, Jon Randolph Haber, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of religious attendance during childhood (C-RA) and adulthood (A-RA) with alcohol involvement (ever drinking, timing of first alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]) in White and Black female twins. As genetic and environmental factors influence religious attendance and alcohol involvement, we examined the extent to which they contribute to their association. METHODS: Data on 3,234 White and 553 Black female twins (18-29 years) from the Missouri Adolescent Female twin Study...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Surajit Mandal, Subrota Hati
Probiotics are dietary concepts to improve the dynamics of intestinal microbial balance favorably. Careful screening of probiotic strains for their technological suitability can also allow selection of strains with the best manufacturing and food technology characteristics. However, even the most robust probiotic bacteria are currently in the range of food applications to which they can be applied. Additionally, bacteria with exceptional functional heath properties are ruled out due to technological limitations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Channa Jayasumana, Carlos Orantes, Raul Herrera, Miguel Almaguer, Laura Lopez, Luis Carlos Silva, Pedro Ordunez, Sisira Siribaddana, Sarath Gunatilake, Marc E De Broe
Increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed in Central America, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries. It is named chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC). CINAC is defined as a form of CKD that affects mainly young men, occasionally women. Its aetiology is not linked to diabetes, hypertension, glomerulopathies or other known causes. CINAC patients live and work in poor agricultural communities located in CINAC endemic areas with a hot tropical climate, and are exposed to toxic agrochemicals through work, by ingestion of contaminated food and water, or by inhalation...
October 13, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Jennifer M Lang, Racheal Erb, Jennifer L Pechal, John R Wallace, Ryan W McEwan, Mark Eric Benbow
Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses) and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles) communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis...
January 4, 2016: Microorganisms
Gustavo Arango-Argoty, Gargi Singh, Lenwood S Heath, Amy Pruden, Weidong Xiao, Liqing Zhang
Metagenomics is a trending research area, calling for the need to analyze large quantities of data generated from next generation DNA sequencing technologies. The need to store, retrieve, analyze, share, and visualize such data challenges current online computational systems. Interpretation and annotation of specific information is especially a challenge for metagenomic data sets derived from environmental samples, because current annotation systems only offer broad classification of microbial diversity and function...
2016: PloS One
Katherine D Balasingham, Ryan P Walter, Daniel D Heath
Several studies have demonstrated that environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to detect the presence of aquatic species, days to weeks after the target species has been removed. However, most studies used eDNA analysis in lentic systems (ponds or lakes), or in controlled laboratory experiments. While eDNA degrades rapidly in all aquatic systems, it also undergoes dilution effects and physical destruction in flowing systems, complicating detection in rivers. However, some eDNA (i.e. residual eDNA) can be retained in aquatic systems, even those subject to high flow regimes...
September 12, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Tanima Biswas, Probir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
Several protozoan parasites have been found infecting the edible oysters, hence deteriorating the meat quality. Protozoan parasites such as, Tetrahymena rostrata and Callimastix equi infested the edible oyster in Sundarbans region, West Bengal, India, are first record from this region. Due to filter feeding habit of the organisms, oysters provides excellent ecological services in regard to efficient cleaning of infectious agents from surrounding water as a potential measure to improve water quality. However, these environmental benefits are associated with public heath risks from contaminated oysters intended for human consumption...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Andrew C Heath, Christina N Lessov-Schlaggar, Min Lian, Ruth Miller, Alexis E Duncan, Pamela A F Madden
Successful identification of genetic risk factors in genomewide association studies typically has depended on meta-analyses combining data from large numbers of studies involving tens or hundreds of thousands of participants. This poses a challenge for research on Gene × Environment interaction (G × E) effects, where characterization of environmental exposures is quite limited in most studies and often varies idiosyncratically between studies. Yet the importance of environmental exposures in the etiology of many disorders-and especially alcohol, tobacco, and drug use disorders-is undeniable...
September 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Leah S Richmond-Rakerd, Wendy S Slutske, Michael T Lynskey, Arpana Agrawal, Pamela A F Madden, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, Dixie J Statham, Nicholas G Martin
Behavioral genetic studies have provided insights into why early substance use initiation is associated with increased risk for disorder. Few genetically informative studies, however, have operationalized initiation as the timing of first use and simultaneously modeled the timing of initiation and problematic use of multiple substances. Such research can help capture the risk associated with early initiation and determine the extent to which genetic and environmental risk generalizes across substances. This study utilized a behavior genetic approach to examine the relation between the age of substance use initiation and symptoms of substance use disorder...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Daniela R Parreira, Ana M Jansen, Urbano G P Abreu, Gabriel C Macedo, Antônia R S Silva, Carlos Mazur, Gisele B Andrade, Heitor M Herrera
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%)...
November 2016: Acta Tropica
Rikke Reisner Hansen, Oskar Liset Pryds Hansen, Joseph J Bowden, Urs A Treier, Signe Normand, Toke Høye
The Arctic is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the world. This impacts Arctic species both directly, through increased temperatures, and indirectly, through structural changes in their habitats. Species are expected to exhibit idiosyncratic responses to structural change, which calls for detailed investigations at the species and community level. Here, we investigate how arthropod assemblages of spiders and beetles respond to variation in habitat structure at small spatial scales. We sampled transitions in shrub dominance and soil moisture between three different habitats (fen, dwarf shrub heath, and tall shrub tundra) at three different sites along a fjord gradient in southwest Greenland, using yellow pitfall cups...
2016: PeerJ
Penelope Greenslade, Singarayer K Florentine, Brigita D Hansen, Peter A Gell
Monitoring forms the basis for understanding ecological change. It relies on repeatability of methods to ensure detected changes accurately reflect the effect of environmental drivers. However, operator bias can influence the repeatability of field and laboratory work. We tested this for invertebrates and diatoms in three trials: (1) two operators swept invertebrates from heath vegetation, (2) four operators picked invertebrates from pyrethrum knockdown samples from tree trunk and (3) diatom identifications by eight operators in three laboratories...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sheila A Haas, Frances Vlasses, Julia Havey
There are multiple demands and challenges inherent in establishing staffing models in ambulatory heath care settings today. If health care administrators establish a supportive physical and interpersonal health care environment, and develop high-performing interprofessional teams and staffing models and electronic documentation systems that track performance, patients will have more opportunities to receive safe, high-quality evidence-based care that encourages patient participation in decision making, as well as provision of their care...
May 2016: Nursing Economic$
Sunil Mundra, Mohammad Bahram, Pernille Bronken Eidesen
Bistorta vivipara is a widespread arctic-alpine ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plant species. Recent findings suggest that fungal communities associated with B. vivipara roots appear random over short distances, but at larger scales, environmental filtering structure fungal communities. Habitats in highly stressful environments where specialist species with narrower niches may have an advantage represent unique opportunity to test the effect of environmental filtering. We utilised high-throughput amplicon sequencing to identify ECM communities associated with B...
June 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
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