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environmental heath

Bo Yang, Nathan Heath Patterson, Tina Tsui, Richard M Caprioli, Jeremy L Norris
It has been widely recognized that individual cells that exist within a large population of cells, even if they are genetically identical, can have divergent molecular makeups resulting from a variety of factors, including local environmental factors and stochastic processes within each cell. Presently, numerous approaches have been described that permit the resolution of these single-cell expression differences for RNA and protein; however, relatively few techniques exist for the study of lipids and metabolites in this manner...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Gustavo Arango-Argoty, Emily Garner, Amy Pruden, Lenwood S Heath, Peter Vikesland, Liqing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Growing concerns about increasing rates of antibiotic resistance call for expanded and comprehensive global monitoring. Advancing methods for monitoring of environmental media (e.g., wastewater, agricultural waste, food, and water) is especially needed for identifying potential resources of novel antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), hot spots for gene exchange, and as pathways for the spread of ARGs and human exposure. Next-generation sequencing now enables direct access and profiling of the total metagenomic DNA pool, where ARGs are typically identified or predicted based on the "best hits" of sequence searches against existing databases...
February 1, 2018: Microbiome
Byung-Ju Kim, Sung-Hou Kim
Prevention and early intervention are the most effective ways of avoiding or minimizing psychological, physical, and financial suffering from cancer. However, such proactive action requires the ability to predict the individual's susceptibility to cancer with a measure of probability. Of the triad of cancer-causing factors (inherited genomic susceptibility, environmental factors, and lifestyle factors), the inherited genomic component may be derivable from the recent public availability of a large body of whole-genome variation data...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elisabeth MacColl, Kris Vanesky, Jeremy A Buck, Benjamin M Dudek, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Julie A Heath, Garth Herring, Chris Vennum, Cynthia J Downs
An individual's investment in constitutive immune defenses depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined how Leucocytozoon parasite presence, body condition (scaled mass), heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, sex, and age affected immune defenses in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nestlings from three regions: California, Oregon, and Idaho. We quantified hemolytic-complement activity and bacterial killing ability, two measures of constitutive immunity. Body condition and age did not affect immune defenses...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Maria Tudela-Isanta, Eduardo Fernández-Pascual, Malaka Wijayasinghe, Simone Orsenigo, Graziano Rossi, Hugh W Pritchard, Andrea Mondoni
Understanding the key aspects of plant regeneration from seeds is crucial in assessing species assembly to their habitats. However, the regenerative traits of seed dormancy and germination are underrepresented in this context. In the alpine zone, the large species and microhabitat diversity provide an ideal context to assess habitat-related regenerative strategies. To this end, seeds of 53 species growing in alpine siliceous and calcareous habitats (6230 and 6170 of EU Directive 92/43, respectively) were exposed to different temperature treatments under controlled laboratory conditions...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
José L A Silva, Alexandre F Souza, Adriano Caliman, Eduardo L Voigt, Juliana E Lichston
A core question involving both plant physiology and community ecology is whether traits from different organs are coordinated across species, beyond pairwise trait correlations. The strength of within-community trait coordination has been hypothesized to increase along gradients of environmental harshness, due to the cost of adopting ecological strategies out of the viable niche space supported by the abiotic conditions. We evaluated the strength of trait relationship and coordination in a stressful environment using 21 leaf and stem traits of 21 deciduous and evergreen woody species from a heath vegetation growing on coastal sandy plain in northeastern South America...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Kyle W Wellband, John W Heath, Daniel D Heath
Variation in gene transcription is widely believed to be the mechanistic basis of phenotypically plastic traits; however, comparatively little is known about the inheritance patterns of transcriptional variation that would allow us to predict its response to selection. In addition, acclimation to different environmental conditions influences acute transcriptional responses to stress and it is unclear if these effects are heritable. To address these gaps in knowledge, we assayed levels of messenger RNA for 14 candidate genes at rest and in response to a 24-h confinement stress for 72 half-sib families of Chinook salmon reared in two different environments (hatchery and semi-natural stream channel)...
January 2018: Heredity
Lisa A Boden, Harriet Auty, Aaron Reeves, Gustaf Rydevik, Paul Bessell, Iain J McKendrick
Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Sophie A M Elliott, Alessandro D Sabatino, Michael R Heath, William R Turrell, David M Bailey
Nature conservation and fisheries management often focus on particular seabed features that are considered vulnerable or important to commercial species. As a result, individual seabed types are protected in isolation, without any understanding of what effect the mixture of seabed types within the landscape has on ecosystem functions. Here we undertook predictive seabed modelling within a coastal marine protected area using observations from underwater stereo-video camera deployments and environmental information (depth, wave fetch, maximum tidal speeds, distance from coast and underlying geology)...
2017: PloS One
Subin Park, Hyesue Jang, Adrian Furnham, Mina Jeon, Se Jin Park
Public beliefs about psychiatric disorders are important for understanding help-seeking behaviours. We investigated factors that affect South Koreans' beliefs about the causes and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder. We recruited 654 participants aged 15-54 years using an online panel survey. Participants completed two questionnaires: 34 possible causes of and 33 possible treatments for depression and bipolar disorder. For both disorders, the questionnaires about causes revealed four factors: social-environmental, God/fate, heath/lifestyle, and biological; the questionnaires about treatments revealed five factors: self-help/stress management, physical treatment/health management, seeking mental health services, religious help, and resting...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Molly E McCue, Annette M McCoy
Advances in high-throughput molecular biology and electronic health records (EHR), coupled with increasing computer capabilities have resulted in an increased interest in the use of big data in health care. Big data require collection and analysis of data at an unprecedented scale and represents a paradigm shift in health care, offering (1) the capacity to generate new knowledge more quickly than traditional scientific approaches; (2) unbiased collection and analysis of data; and (3) a holistic understanding of biology and pathophysiology...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Charles Heath, Matthew Myers, Bobby Pejcic
Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy using a polymer coated internal reflection element/waveguide is an established sensor platform for the detection of a range of organic and hydrocarbon molecules dissolved in water. The polymer coating serves two purposes: to concentrate hydrocarbons from the aqueous phase and to exclude water along with other interfering molecules from the surface of the internal reflection element. Crucial to reliable quantification and analytical performance is the calibration of the ATR-FTIR sensor which is commonly performed in water under mild ambient conditions (i...
December 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Anindita Mukherjee, Koustav Mazumder, Vikrant Kaushal, Sushmita Ghoshal
Context: Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy for their recurrent disease often report the presence of anxiety and depression. Aims: In the study, we intended to find out the mental health status and overall quality of life (QOL) of such patients and to identify the effect of supportive psychotherapy. Subjects and Methods: Forty cancer patients undergoing second or subsequent line chemotherapy(CCT) were selected for psychotherapy session...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
William G Iacono, Andrew C Heath, John K Hewitt, Michael C Neale, Marie T Banich, Monica M Luciana, Pamela A Madden, Deanna M Barch, James M Bjork
The ABCD twin study will elucidate the genetic and environmental contributions to a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes in children, including substance use, brain and behavioral development, and their interrelationship. Comparisons within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, further powered by multiple assessments, provide information about genetic and environmental contributions to developmental associations, and enable stronger tests of causal hypotheses, than do comparisons involving unrelated children...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Chiara Russo, Margherita Lavorgna, Marjeta Česen, Tina Kosjek, Ester Heath, Marina Isidori
Cyclophosphamide (CP) and Ifosfamide (IF) are two nitrogen mustard drugs widely prescribed in cancer therapy. They are continuously released via excreta into hospital and urban wastewaters reaching wastewater treatment plants. Although CP and IF, their metabolites and transformation products (TPs) residues have been found in the aquatic environment from few ng L(-1) to tens of μg L(-1), their environmental toxic effects are still not well known. The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic ecotoxicity of CP and IF and their commercially available human metabolites/TPs, i...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Lauren Micalizzi, Kristine Marceau, Leslie A Brick, Rohan H Palmer, Alexandre A Todorov, Andrew C Heath, Allison Evans, Valerie S Knopik
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) has been linked to poorer offspring executive function across development, but SDP does not occur independent of other familial risk factors. As such, poor and inconsistent control for potential confounds, notably shared familial (i.e., genetic and environmental) confounds, preclude concluding causal effects of SDP on child outcomes. We examined the within-family association between SDP and one component of executive function, inhibitory control, in a sample of families (N = 173) specifically selected for sibling pairs discordant for exposure to SDP...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Psychology
Hongli Wang, Zhiyuan Xiang, Lina Wang, Shengao Jing, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Jing Liu, Mingzhou Yu, Li Li, Li Lin, Ying Chen, Alfred Wiedensohler, Changhong Chen
Cooking emission is one of sources for ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is deleterious to air quality, climate and human health. These emissions are especially of great interest in large cities of East and Southeast Asia. We conducted a case study in which VOC emissions from kitchen extraction stacks have been sampled in total 57 times in the Megacity Shanghai. To obtain representative data, we sampled VOC emissions from kitchens, including restaurants of seven common cuisine types, canteens, and family kitchens...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Allen F Sanborn, James E Heath, Maxine S Heath, Polly K Phillips
We determine and summarize the thermal responses for 118 species and subspecies of North American cicadas representing more than 50 years of fieldwork and experimentation. We investigate the role that habitat and behavior have on the thermal adaptation of the North American cicadas. There are general patterns of increasing thermal responses in warmer floristic provinces and increasing maximum potential temperature within a habitat. Altitude shows an inverse relationship with thermal responses. Comparison of thermal responses of species emerging early or late in the season within the same habitat show increases in the thermal responses along with the increasing environmental temperatures late in the summer...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Yiqun Hu, Feng Yan, Le Ying, Dakang Xu
Macrophages and dendritic cells initiate the innate immune response to infection and injury and contribute to inflammatory signaling to maintain the homeostasis of various tissues, which includes resident macrophages for the elimination of invading microorganisms and tissue damage. Inappropriate inflammatory signaling can lead to persistent inflammation and further develop into autoimmune and inflammation-associated diseases. Inflammatory signaling pathways have been well characterized, but how these signaling pathways are converted into sustained and diverse patterns of expression of cytokines, chemokines, and other genes in response to environmental challenges is unclear...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Gwyneth Anne MacMillan, John Chételat, Joel P Heath, Raymond Mickpegak, Marc Amyot
Few ecotoxicological studies exist for rare earth elements (REEs), particularly field-based studies on their bioaccumulation and food web dynamics. REE mining has led to significant environmental impacts in several countries (China, Brazil, U.S.), yet little is known about the fate and transport of these contaminants of emerging concern. Northern ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to REE enrichment from prospective mining projects at high latitudes. To understand how REEs behave in remote northern food webs, we measured REE concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (∂(15)N, ∂(13)C) in biota from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic (N = 339)...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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