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environmental heath

Sarah E Heath, Sinead Collins
Viruses play important roles in population dynamics and as drivers of evolution in single-celled marine phytoplankton. Viral infection of Ostreococcus tauri often causes cell lysis, but two spontaneously arising resistance mechanisms occur: resistant cells that cannot become infected and resistant producer cells that are infected but not lysed, and which may slowly release viruses. As of yet, little is known about how consistent the effects of viruses on their hosts are across different environments. To measure the effect of host resistance on host growth, and to determine whether this effect is environmentally dependent, we compared the growth and survival of susceptible, resistant and resistant producer O...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Arpana Agrawal, Julia D Grant, Jon Randolph Haber, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of religious attendance during childhood (C-RA) and adulthood (A-RA) with alcohol involvement (ever drinking, timing of first alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]) in White and Black female twins. As genetic and environmental factors influence religious attendance and alcohol involvement, we examined the extent to which they contribute to their association. METHODS: Data on 3,234 White and 553 Black female twins (18-29 years) from the Missouri Adolescent Female twin Study...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Surajit Mandal, Subrota Hati
Probiotics are dietary concepts to improve the dynamics of intestinal microbial balance favorably. Careful screening of probiotic strains for their technological suitability can also allow selection of strains with the best manufacturing and food technology characteristics. However, even the most robust probiotic bacteria are currently in the range of food applications to which they can be applied. Additionally, bacteria with exceptional functional heath properties are ruled out due to technological limitations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Channa Jayasumana, Carlos Orantes, Raul Herrera, Miguel Almaguer, Laura Lopez, Luis Carlos Silva, Pedro Ordunez, Sisira Siribaddana, Sarath Gunatilake, Marc E De Broe
Increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed in Central America, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries. It is named chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC). CINAC is defined as a form of CKD that affects mainly young men, occasionally women. Its aetiology is not linked to diabetes, hypertension, glomerulopathies or other known causes. CINAC patients live and work in poor agricultural communities located in CINAC endemic areas with a hot tropical climate, and are exposed to toxic agrochemicals through work, by ingestion of contaminated food and water, or by inhalation...
October 13, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Jennifer M Lang, Racheal Erb, Jennifer L Pechal, John R Wallace, Ryan W McEwan, Mark Eric Benbow
Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses) and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles) communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis...
January 4, 2016: Microorganisms
Gustavo Arango-Argoty, Gargi Singh, Lenwood S Heath, Amy Pruden, Weidong Xiao, Liqing Zhang
Metagenomics is a trending research area, calling for the need to analyze large quantities of data generated from next generation DNA sequencing technologies. The need to store, retrieve, analyze, share, and visualize such data challenges current online computational systems. Interpretation and annotation of specific information is especially a challenge for metagenomic data sets derived from environmental samples, because current annotation systems only offer broad classification of microbial diversity and function...
2016: PloS One
Katherine D Balasingham, Ryan P Walter, Daniel D Heath
Several studies have demonstrated that environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to detect the presence of aquatic species, days to weeks after the target species has been removed. However, most studies used eDNA analysis in lentic systems (ponds or lakes), or in controlled laboratory experiments. While eDNA degrades rapidly in all aquatic systems, it also undergoes dilution effects and physical destruction in flowing systems, complicating detection in rivers. However, some eDNA (i.e. residual eDNA) can be retained in aquatic systems, even those subject to high flow regimes...
September 12, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Tanima Biswas, Probir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
Several protozoan parasites have been found infecting the edible oysters, hence deteriorating the meat quality. Protozoan parasites such as, Tetrahymena rostrata and Callimastix equi infested the edible oyster in Sundarbans region, West Bengal, India, are first record from this region. Due to filter feeding habit of the organisms, oysters provides excellent ecological services in regard to efficient cleaning of infectious agents from surrounding water as a potential measure to improve water quality. However, these environmental benefits are associated with public heath risks from contaminated oysters intended for human consumption...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Andrew C Heath, Christina N Lessov-Schlaggar, Min Lian, Ruth Miller, Alexis E Duncan, Pamela A F Madden
Successful identification of genetic risk factors in genomewide association studies typically has depended on meta-analyses combining data from large numbers of studies involving tens or hundreds of thousands of participants. This poses a challenge for research on Gene × Environment interaction (G × E) effects, where characterization of environmental exposures is quite limited in most studies and often varies idiosyncratically between studies. Yet the importance of environmental exposures in the etiology of many disorders-and especially alcohol, tobacco, and drug use disorders-is undeniable...
September 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Leah S Richmond-Rakerd, Wendy S Slutske, Michael T Lynskey, Arpana Agrawal, Pamela A F Madden, Kathleen K Bucholz, Andrew C Heath, Dixie J Statham, Nicholas G Martin
Behavioral genetic studies have provided insights into why early substance use initiation is associated with increased risk for disorder. Few genetically informative studies, however, have operationalized initiation as the timing of first use and simultaneously modeled the timing of initiation and problematic use of multiple substances. Such research can help capture the risk associated with early initiation and determine the extent to which genetic and environmental risk generalizes across substances. This study utilized a behavior genetic approach to examine the relation between the age of substance use initiation and symptoms of substance use disorder...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Daniela R Parreira, Ana M Jansen, Urbano G P Abreu, Gabriel C Macedo, Antônia R S Silva, Carlos Mazur, Gisele B Andrade, Heitor M Herrera
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%)...
November 2016: Acta Tropica
Rikke Reisner Hansen, Oskar Liset Pryds Hansen, Joseph J Bowden, Urs A Treier, Signe Normand, Toke Høye
The Arctic is warming at twice the rate of the rest of the world. This impacts Arctic species both directly, through increased temperatures, and indirectly, through structural changes in their habitats. Species are expected to exhibit idiosyncratic responses to structural change, which calls for detailed investigations at the species and community level. Here, we investigate how arthropod assemblages of spiders and beetles respond to variation in habitat structure at small spatial scales. We sampled transitions in shrub dominance and soil moisture between three different habitats (fen, dwarf shrub heath, and tall shrub tundra) at three different sites along a fjord gradient in southwest Greenland, using yellow pitfall cups...
2016: PeerJ
Penelope Greenslade, Singarayer K Florentine, Brigita D Hansen, Peter A Gell
Monitoring forms the basis for understanding ecological change. It relies on repeatability of methods to ensure detected changes accurately reflect the effect of environmental drivers. However, operator bias can influence the repeatability of field and laboratory work. We tested this for invertebrates and diatoms in three trials: (1) two operators swept invertebrates from heath vegetation, (2) four operators picked invertebrates from pyrethrum knockdown samples from tree trunk and (3) diatom identifications by eight operators in three laboratories...
August 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sheila A Haas, Frances Vlasses, Julia Havey
There are multiple demands and challenges inherent in establishing staffing models in ambulatory heath care settings today. If health care administrators establish a supportive physical and interpersonal health care environment, and develop high-performing interprofessional teams and staffing models and electronic documentation systems that track performance, patients will have more opportunities to receive safe, high-quality evidence-based care that encourages patient participation in decision making, as well as provision of their care...
May 2016: Nursing Economic$
Sunil Mundra, Mohammad Bahram, Pernille Bronken Eidesen
Bistorta vivipara is a widespread arctic-alpine ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plant species. Recent findings suggest that fungal communities associated with B. vivipara roots appear random over short distances, but at larger scales, environmental filtering structure fungal communities. Habitats in highly stressful environments where specialist species with narrower niches may have an advantage represent unique opportunity to test the effect of environmental filtering. We utilised high-throughput amplicon sequencing to identify ECM communities associated with B...
June 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Arpana Agrawal, Lauren Few, Elliot C Nelson, Arielle Deutsch, Julia D Grant, Kathleen K Bucholz, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Michael T Lynskey
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Substance use has been implicated in the onset and maintenance of risky sexual behaviors, which have particularly devastating consequences in young women. This study examined whether (i) adolescent onset of cannabis use is associated with repeated voluntary unprotected sex in women and (ii) whether this association persists after accounting for correlated familial influences. DESIGN: General population sample of female twins. SETTING: Midwestern United States...
June 18, 2016: Addiction
K E Lawrence, S R Summers, A C G Heath, A M J McFadden, D J Pulford, W E Pomroy
The tick-borne haemoparasite Theileria orientalis is the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. Since 2012 a previously unrecorded type, T. orientalis type 2 (Ikeda), has been associated with disease outbreaks of anaemia, lethargy, jaundice and deaths on over 1000 New Zealand cattle farms, with most of the affected farms found in the upper North Island. The aim of this study was to model the relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission throughout New Zealand, to predict the proportion of cattle farms potentially suitable for active T...
July 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
D O Logofet, I N Belova, E S Kazantseva, V G Onipchenko
For the plant species, which is considered a short-lived perennial, we have composed a scale of ontogenetic stages and the life cycle graph (LCG) according to annual observations on permanent sample plots in an Alpine lichen heath during the 2009-2014 period. The LCG that reflects seed reproduction has been reduced to the one that avoids the stage of soil seed bank, yet preserves the arcs of annual recruitment. The corresponding matrix model of stage-structured population dynamics has four stages: juvenile plants (including seedlings), virginal, generative, and 'terminally generative' (the plants die after seed production)...
March 2016: Zhurnal Obshcheĭ Biologii
Saman Saber, Azizollah Arbabisarjou, Massoud Zare, Toktam Kianian
INTRODUCTION: Health care professional are the first and most important level of health care providers that their training competencies determines the health of society. This study aimed to determine the training competencies of health care professionals for training the clients. MATERIALS & METHODS: This is a descriptive cross sectional study conducted in Mashhad's health care centers in 2013 using probability stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 250 heath care professionals in the departments of vaccination, mothers and children care, disease fighting, midwifery and environmental health participated in the study...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Aysu Okbay, Jonathan P Beauchamp, Mark Alan Fontana, James J Lee, Tune H Pers, Cornelius A Rietveld, Patrick Turley, Guo-Bo Chen, Valur Emilsson, S Fleur W Meddens, Sven Oskarsson, Joseph K Pickrell, Kevin Thom, Pascal Timshel, Ronald de Vlaming, Abdel Abdellaoui, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Jonas Bacelis, Clemens Baumbach, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Johannes H Brandsma, Maria Pina Concas, Jaime Derringer, Nicholas A Furlotte, Tessel E Galesloot, Giorgia Girotto, Richa Gupta, Leanne M Hall, Sarah E Harris, Edith Hofer, Momoko Horikoshi, Jennifer E Huffman, Kadri Kaasik, Ioanna P Kalafati, Robert Karlsson, Augustine Kong, Jari Lahti, Sven J van der Lee, Christiaan deLeeuw, Penelope A Lind, Karl-Oskar Lindgren, Tian Liu, Massimo Mangino, Jonathan Marten, Evelin Mihailov, Michael B Miller, Peter J van der Most, Christopher Oldmeadow, Antony Payton, Natalia Pervjakova, Wouter J Peyrot, Yong Qian, Olli Raitakari, Rico Rueedi, Erika Salvi, Börge Schmidt, Katharina E Schraut, Jianxin Shi, Albert V Smith, Raymond A Poot, Beate St Pourcain, Alexander Teumer, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Niek Verweij, Dragana Vuckovic, Juergen Wellmann, Harm-Jan Westra, Jingyun Yang, Wei Zhao, Zhihong Zhu, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Najaf Amin, Andrew Bakshi, Sebastian E Baumeister, Ginevra Biino, Klaus Bønnelykke, Patricia A Boyle, Harry Campbell, Francesco P Cappuccio, Gail Davies, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Panos Deloukas, Ilja Demuth, Jun Ding, Peter Eibich, Lewin Eisele, Niina Eklund, David M Evans, Jessica D Faul, Mary F Feitosa, Andreas J Forstner, Ilaria Gandin, Bjarni Gunnarsson, Bjarni V Halldórsson, Tamara B Harris, Andrew C Heath, Lynne J Hocking, Elizabeth G Holliday, Georg Homuth, Michael A Horan, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Philip L de Jager, Peter K Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika A Kaakinen, Mika Kähönen, Stavroula Kanoni, Liisa Keltigangas-Järvinen, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Ivana Kolcic, Seppo Koskinen, Aldi T Kraja, Martin Kroh, Zoltan Kutalik, Antti Latvala, Lenore J Launer, Maël P Lebreton, Douglas F Levinson, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter Lichtner, David C M Liewald, Anu Loukola, Pamela A Madden, Reedik Mägi, Tomi Mäki-Opas, Riccardo E Marioni, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gerardus A Meddens, George McMahon, Christa Meisinger, Thomas Meitinger, Yusplitri Milaneschi, Lili Milani, Grant W Montgomery, Ronny Myhre, Christopher P Nelson, Dale R Nyholt, William E R Ollier, Aarno Palotie, Lavinia Paternoster, Nancy L Pedersen, Katja E Petrovic, David J Porteous, Katri Räikkönen, Susan M Ring, Antonietta Robino, Olga Rostapshova, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Alan R Sanders, Antti-Pekka Sarin, Helena Schmidt, Rodney J Scott, Blair H Smith, Jennifer A Smith, Jan A Staessen, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Konstantin Strauch, Antonio Terracciano, Martin D Tobin, Sheila Ulivi, Simona Vaccargiu, Lydia Quaye, Frank J A van Rooij, Cristina Venturini, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Judith M Vonk, Diego Vozzi, Johannes Waage, Erin B Ware, Gonneke Willemsen, John R Attia, David A Bennett, Klaus Berger, Lars Bertram, Hans Bisgaard, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Ute Bültmann, Christopher F Chabris, Francesco Cucca, Daniele Cusi, Ian J Deary, George V Dedoussis, Cornelia M van Duijn, Johan G Eriksson, Barbara Franke, Lude Franke, Paolo Gasparini, Pablo V Gejman, Christian Gieger, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Jacob Gratten, Patrick J F Groenen, Vilmundur Gudnason, Pim van der Harst, Caroline Hayward, David A Hinds, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Elina Hyppönen, William G Iacono, Bo Jacobsson, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Jaakko Kaprio, Sharon L R Kardia, Terho Lehtimäki, Steven F Lehrer, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nicholas G Martin, Matt McGue, Andres Metspalu, Neil Pendleton, Brenda W J H Penninx, Markus Perola, Nicola Pirastu, Mario Pirastu, Ozren Polasek, Danielle Posthuma, Christine Power, Michael A Province, Nilesh J Samani, David Schlessinger, Reinhold Schmidt, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Tim D Spector, Kari Stefansson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, A Roy Thurik, Nicholas J Timpson, Henning Tiemeier, Joyce Y Tung, André G Uitterlinden, Veronique Vitart, Peter Vollenweider, David R Weir, James F Wilson, Alan F Wright, Dalton C Conley, Robert F Krueger, George Davey Smith, Albert Hofman, David I Laibson, Sarah E Medland, Michelle N Meyer, Jian Yang, Magnus Johannesson, Peter M Visscher, Tõnu Esko, Philipp D Koellinger, David Cesarini, Daniel J Benjamin
Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed...
May 26, 2016: Nature
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