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related gene of enterococcus faecalis

Liaqat Ali, Yan-Qiu Wang, Jie Zhang, Muhammad Ajmal, Zhengrun Xiao, Jiarong Wu, Ji-Long Chen, Daojin Yu
Nutrient deposition and extensive use of antibiotics are increasing worldwide, especially in freshwater ecosystems. Bacteria display resistance to certain antibiotics and thus survive for extended periods in eutrophic environments. In this study, model ecosystems were established to investigate the effect of nitrate and phosphate nutrient salts on antibiotic resistance in strains of Enterococcus faecalis. Mesocosms were replicated to evaluate the ecological effects of nutrient influx. The mesocosms were divided into four different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) regimens...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Leron Khalifa, Mor Shlezinger, Shaul Beyth, Yael Houri-Haddad, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Elisabeth Grohmann, Nikolaus Goessweiner-Mohr, Sabine Brantl
pIP501 is a Gram-positive broad-host-range model plasmid intensively used for studying plasmid replication and conjugative transfer. It is a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid frequently detected in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains. Replication of pIP501 proceeds unidirectionally by a theta mechanism. The minimal replicon of pIP501 is composed of the repR gene encoding the essential rate-limiting replication initiator protein RepR and the origin of replication, oriR, located downstream of repR...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
E-M Klupp, A Both, C Belmar Campos, H Büttner, C König, M Christopeit, M Christner, M Aepfelbacher, H Rohde
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of ever-increasing importance, most notably in high-risk patient populations. Therapy options are often limited for these isolates, and apart from tigecycline and daptomycin, oxazolidinone linezolid is frequently administered. The broad usage of linezolid, however, has driven the emergence of linezolid-resistant VRE strains (LR-VRE), further shortening therapeutic options. Second-generation oxazolidinone tedizolid has the advantage of being active against a specific subset of LR-VRE, i...
August 15, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jun Kurushima, Yasuyoshi Ike, Haruyoshi Tomita
UNLABELLED: Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is the plasmid-encoded bacteriocin produced by the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis Its genetic determinant consists of bacL1 (effector), bacL2 (regulator), bacA (effector), and bacI (immunity). The secreted effectors BacL1 and BacA coordinate to induce the lytic cell death of E. faecalis Meanwhile, the immunity factor BacI provides self-resistance to the Bac41 producer, E. faecalis, against the action of BacL1 and BacA. In this study, we demonstrated that more than half of the 327 clinical strains of E...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Paul Brauner, Kerstin Klug, Udo Jäckel
Occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne bacteria in poultry production is related to an increased risk of respiratory disorders. However, potential sources and formation of hatchery bioaerosols are rarely characterized. In this study, bacterial multiplication on fresh shell fragments from turkey hatching eggs under conditions present in a hatcher incubator was investigated. A 10(5)-fold amplification was observed both by colony count and total cell count gaining 4×10(7) cfu/cells per gram eggshell within 30 hours of incubation...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Valerie J Price, Wenwen Huo, Ardalan Sharifi, Kelli L Palmer
Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Conjugative pheromone-responsive plasmids are narrow-host-range mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that are rapid disseminators of antibiotic resistance in the faecalis species. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas and restriction-modification confer acquired and innate immunity, respectively, against MGE acquisition in bacteria. Most multidrug-resistant E. faecalis isolates lack CRISPR-Cas and possess an orphan locus lacking cas genes, CRISPR2, that is of unknown function...
May 2016: MSphere
Patrick E Akpaka, Shivnarine Kissoon, Padman Jayaratne
Geographic spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) clones in cities, countries, or even continents has been identified by molecular techniques. This study aimed at characterizing virulent genes and determining genetic relatedness of 45 VRE isolates from Trinidad and Tobago using molecular tools, including polymerase chain reaction, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The majority (84%) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium possessing vanA gene while the rest (16%) were Enterococcus faecalis possessing vanB...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Marlos Barbosa-Ribeiro, Adriana De-Jesus-Soares, Alexandre A Zaia, Caio C R Ferraz, José F A Almeida, Brenda P F A Gomes
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of virulence factors and the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolates of teeth with failure of the endodontic treatment. METHODS: Twenty root canal samples were collected from teeth with apical periodontitis. E. faecalis was firstly identified based on phenotypic features and then by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, azithromycin, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin using the E test method...
July 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Arpan Bandyopadhyay, Sofie O'Brien, Kristi L Frank, Gary M Dunny, Wei-Shou Hu
UNLABELLED: Enterococcus faecalis, a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections, is resistant to many known antibiotics. Its ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes and virulence determinants through conjugative plasmids poses a serious concern for public health. In some cases, induction of transfer of E. faecalis plasmids results from peptide pheromones produced by plasmid-free recipient cells, which are sensed by the plasmid-bearing donor cells. These plasmids generally encode an inhibitory peptide that competes with the pheromone and suppresses self-induction of donors...
August 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rukaia Gashgari, Youssuf Gherbawy, Fuad Ameen, Salam Alsharari
BACKGROUND: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics...
January 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Jiao Yuehua, Zhang Lanwei, Liu Fei, Yi Huaxi, Han Xue
Enterococcus faecalis LD33 strain was originally isolated from traditional naturally fermented cream in Inner Mongolia of China. Its complete genome sequence was carried out using the Illumina Hiseq and the PacBio RSII platform. The genome only has a circular chromosome and a GC content of 37.58%. Other core information shown in the genome sequencing results further insight on this bacterium's genetic elements for bacteriocin production and the genes related to respiratory chain.
June 10, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Zhiyan He, Jingping Liang, Wei Zhou, Qian Xie, Zisheng Tang, Rui Ma, Zhengwei Huang
Enterococcus faecalis is the species of bacterium most frequently isolated from the root canals of teeth that exhibit chronic apical periodontitis refractory to endodontic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase (luxS) quorum-sensing gene on E. faecalis biofilm formation by constructing a knockout mutant. The biofilms formed by both E. faecalis and its luxS mutant strain were evaluated using the MTT method. Important parameters that influence biofilm formation, including cell-surface hydrophobicity and the nutrient content of the growth medium, were also studied...
June 2016: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Janira Prichula, Rebeca Inhoque Pereira, Guilherme Raffo Wachholz, Leonardo Almansa Cardoso, Neidimar Cezar Correa Tolfo, Naiara Aguiar Santestevan, Aline Weber Medeiros, Maurício Tavares, Jeverson Frazzon, Pedro Alves d'Azevedo, Ana Paula Guedes Frazzon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate species distribution, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and presence of resistance genes in enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild marine species, including seabirds (n=12), sea turtles (n=8), and mammals (n=3) found alive or dead in southern coast of Brazil. Enterococci were classified based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, tested for antibiotic susceptibility, and the presence of tet(S), tet(M), tet(L), mrsC, and erm(B) genes by PCR. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were the most common species...
April 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Talat A El-Kersh, Mohammed A Marie, Yazeed A Al-Sheikh, Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Ahmad A Al Bloushy
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, antibiotic resistant profiles, and risk factors of early fecal carriage of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and staphylococci among 150 healthy Saudi neonates born in a hospital setting in central Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in Al-Bukayriyah General Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, between June 2012 and January 2013. The E. faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified manually, and Vitek2 system was used for identity confirmation at the species level and minimum inhibitory concentration-susceptibility testing...
March 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Tao He, Yingbo Shen, Stefan Schwarz, Jiachang Cai, Yuan Lv, Jun Li, Andrea T Feßler, Rong Zhang, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen, Yang Wang
OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to analyse 17 non-related Enterococcus faecalis isolates of human and animal origin for the genetic environment of the novel oxazolidinone/phenicol resistance gene optrA. METHODS: WGS and de novo assembly were conducted to analyse the flanking sequences of the optrA gene in the 17 E. faecalis isolates. When optrA was located on a plasmid, conjugation assays were performed to check whether the plasmids are conjugative and to confirm the resistance phenotype associated with these plasmids...
June 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Victor Hugo Pacagnelli Infante, Natália Conceição, Adriana Gonçalves de Oliveira, Ana Lúcia da Costa Darini
The aim of the present study was to verify whether penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (PRASEF) occurred in Brazil prior to the beginning of the 21st century, and to verify whether ampicillin susceptibility can predict susceptibility to other β-lactams in E. faecalis with this inconsistent phenotype. The presence of polymorphisms in the pbp4 gene and genetic diversity among the isolates were investigated. Of 21 PRASEF analyzed, 5 (23.8%) and 4 (19.0%) were imipenem and piperacillin resistant simultaneously by disk diffusion and broth dilution respectively, contradicting the current internationally accepted standards of susceptibility testing...
April 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Stefanie P Glaeser, Olivia Sowinsky, Jana S Brunner, Wolfgang Dott, Peter Kämpfer
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) were detected in two mesophilic German biogas plants (BGPs) using selective pre-enrichment methods combined with cultivation on CHROMagar media and antibiotic resistance gene screening. Genetic fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed the presence of enterococci isolated by the VRE selective cultivation (67 isolates) in input and output samples of BGPs. In contrast, MRS (44 isolates) were detected in input, but in none of the output samples...
March 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Fabrizio Bertelloni, Claudia Salvadori, Annalisa Moni, Domenico Cerri, Paolo Mani, Valentina Virginia Ebani
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Enterococci belonging to human and animal gastrointestinal flora are widely-distributed in the environment. They are opportunistic bacteria that can cause severe infections, with the ability to acquire, express and transfer antimicrobial resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from cloacal swabs of laying hens of small backyard flocks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested by the disc diffusion method in 115 Enterococcus spp...
2015: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Tiane Martin de Moura, Fabrício Souza Campos, Juliana Caierão, Ana Claudia Franco, Paulo Michel Roehe, Pedro Alves d'Azevedo, Jeverson Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes Frazzon
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of antimicrobials may alter the bacterial transcriptome. METHODS: Here, we evaluated the expression of nine virulence-related genes in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) urinary tract infection isolates grown at SICs of vancomycin. RESULTS: A Subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin interferes with gene modulation, but does not affect the phenotype of a VRE strain in vitro ...
September 2015: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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