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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724017/low-maternal-microbiota-sharing-across-gut-breast-milk-and-vagina-as-revealed-by-16s-rrna-gene-and-reduced-metagenomic-sequencing
#1
Ekaterina Avershina, Inga Leena Angell, Melanie Simpson, Ola Storrø, Torbjørn Øien, Roar Johnsen, Knut Rudi
The maternal microbiota plays an important role in infant gut colonization. In this work we have investigated which bacterial species are shared across the breast milk, vaginal and stool microbiotas of 109 women shortly before and after giving birth using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a novel reduced metagenomic sequencing (RMS) approach in a subgroup of 16 women. All the species predicted by the 16S rRNA gene sequencing were also detected by RMS analysis and there was good correspondence between their relative abundances estimated by both approaches...
May 1, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720977/-enterococcus-faecalis-ahg0090-is-a-genetically-tractable-bacterium-and-produces-a-secreted-peptidic-bioactive-that-suppresses-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-activation-in-human-gut-epithelial-cells
#2
Páraic Ó Cuív, Rabina Giri, Emily C Hoedt, Michael A McGuckin, Jakob Begun, Mark Morrison
Enterococcus faecalis is an early coloniser of the human infant gut and contributes to the development of intestinal immunity. To better understand the functional capacity of E. faecalis , we constructed a broad host range RP4 mobilizable vector, pEHR513112, that confers chloramphenicol resistance and used a metaparental mating approach to isolate E. faecalis AHG0090 from a fecal sample collected from a healthy human infant. We demonstrated that E. faecalis AHG0090 is genetically tractable and could be manipulated using traditional molecular microbiology approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679746/prevalence-of-cfr-in-enterococcus-faecalis-strains-isolated-from-swine-farms-in-china-predominated-cfr-carrying-pcppf5-like-plasmids-conferring-non-linezolid-resistance-phenotype
#3
Liang-Xing Fang, Jia-Hong Duan, Mu-Ya Chen, Hui Deng, Hua-Qing Liang, Yan Q Xiong, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu, Xiao-Ping Liao
The cfr gene associated with linezolid resistance has attracted wide attention. However, little is known about its prevalence and mode of transmission in Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and genetic environment of the cfr gene in 91 E. faecalis isolates collected from swine faecal swabs in 30 farms in Guangdong Province, China in 2012. A relatively high prevalence of cfr was identified in E. faecalis isolates (11/91, 12.1%) by PCR. All the cfr-positive E. faecalis strains had a multidrug-resistance phenotype including erythrocin, tetracycline, gentamicin, kanamicin and ciprofloxacin, except vancomycin and linezolid...
April 19, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617860/whole-genome-sequencing-based-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-enterococcus
#4
Gregory H Tyson, Jonathan L Sabo, Crystal Rice-Trujillo, Jacqueline Hernandez, Patrick F McDermott
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has transformed our understanding of antimicrobial resistance, yielding new insights into the genetics underlying resistance. To date, most studies using WGS to study antimicrobial resistance have focused on gram-negative bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae, such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, which have well-defined resistance mechanisms. In contrast, relatively few studies have been performed on gram-positive organisms. We sequenced 197 strains of Enterococcus from various animal and food sources, including 100 Enterococcus faecium and 97 E...
March 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515231/streptosporangium-minutum-sp-nov-isolated-from-garden-soil-exposed-to-microwave-radiation
#5
Marilize Le Roes-Hill, Kim Durrell, Alaric Prins, Paul R Meyers
The actinobacterium, strain M26T , was isolated from garden soil that was pre-treated with microwave radiation. The soil sample was collected in Roodepoort, Gauteng Province, South Africa as part of an antibiotic-screening programme. The isolate produced branched vegetative mycelium with sporangiophores bearing small sporangia ranging from 3 to 6 μm in diameter. Rapid genus identification revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Streptosporangium. To confirm this result, the strain was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterisation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436902/both-live-and-dead-enterococci-activate-caenorhabditis-elegans-host-defense-via-immune-and-stress-pathways
#6
Grace J Yuen, Frederick M Ausubel
The innate immune response of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been extensively studied and a variety of Toll-independent immune response pathways have been identified. Surprisingly little, however, is known about how pathogens activate the C. elegans immune response. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are closely related enterococcal species that exhibit significantly different levels of virulence in C. elegans infection models. Previous work has shown that activation of the C. elegans immune response by Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves P...
December 31, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390078/effect-of-tedizolid-on-clinical-enterococcus-isolates-in-vitro-activity-distribution-of-virulence-factor-resistance-genes-and-multilocus-sequence-typing
#7
Bing Bai, Kaitao Hu, Hui Li, Weiming Yao, Duoyun Li, Zhong Chen, Hang Cheng, Jinxin Zheng, Weiguang Pan, Minggui Deng, Xiaojun Liu, Zhiwei Lin, Qiwen Deng, Zhijian Yu
Enterococcal infections have become one of the most challenging nosocomial problems. Tedizolid, the second oxazolidinone, is 4-fold to 8-fold more potent in vivo and in vitro than linezolid against enterococci. However, the characteristics of tedizolid related to enterococci isolates in China remain elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro activity of tedizolid against enterococcal isolates from patients with infections at a teaching hospital in China and to investigate the correlations between in vitro tedizolid activity against enterococci and the distribution of multilocus sequence types (MLST), resistance genes and virulence factors...
February 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372297/genomic-and-functional-characterisation-of-two-enterococcus-strains-isolated-from-cotija-cheese-and-their-potential-role-in-ripening
#8
Myrna Olvera-García, Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Maricarmen Quirasco Baruch
Enterococcus spp. are present in the native microbiota of many traditional fermented foods. Their ability to produce antibacterial compounds, mainly against Listeria monocytogenes, has raised interest recently. However, there is scarce information about their proteolytic and lipolytic potential, and their biotechnological application is currently limited because enterococcal strains have been related to nosocomial infections. In this work, next-generation sequencing and optimised bioinformatic pipelines were used to annotate the genomes of two Enterococcus strains-one E...
March 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326225/genomic-insights-into-biofilm-forming-enterococcus-faecalis-sk460-isolated-from-a-chronic-diabetic-ulcer-patient
#9
Karthika Suryaletha, Lekshmi Narendrakumar, Joby John, Dinesh Reghunathan, Manoj Prasannakumar, Sabu Thomas
Enterococcus faecalis is recognized as one of the leading pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Here we report a draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis SK460, isolated from a chronic diabetic foot ulcer patient. This strain exhibits various biofilm-associated genes, virulence genes, and antibiotic-resistance genes related to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284147/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-four-strains-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-growth-immune-related-response-and-genes-expression-of-the-juvenile-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka
#10
Chao Li, Yichao Ren, Senhao Jiang, Shun Zhou, Jinshan Zhao, Renjie Wang, Yongmei Li
A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of four strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) [i.e. Lactobacillus plantarum LL11 (LP), Weissella confuse LS13 (WC), Lactococcus lactis LH8 (LL) and Enterococcus faecalis LC3 (ES)] isolated from marine fish on growth, immune response and expression levels of immune-related gens in body wall of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. As a result, sea cucumber had better growth performance fed supplementation of LP and ES than the control group (P < ...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241767/effects-of-prolonged-exposure-to-moderate-static-magnetic-field-and-its-synergistic-effects-with-alkaline-ph-on-enterococcus-faecalis
#11
Wei Fan, Zhuo Huang, Bing Fan
Static magnetic field (SMF) has been shown to biologically affect various microorganisms, but its effects on Enterococcus faecalis, which is associated with multiple dental infections, have not been reported yet. Besides, Enterococcus faecalis was found to be resistant to the alkaline environment provided by a major dental antimicrobial, calcium hydroxide. Therefore, the antibacterial activity of prolonged exposure to moderate SMF (170 mT) and its possible synergistic activity with alkaline pH (pH = 9) were evaluated in the study...
February 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235021/occurrence-of-antimicrobial-agents-drug-resistant-bacteria-and-genes-in-the-sewage-impacted-vistula-river-poland
#12
Joanna Giebułtowicz, Stefan Tyski, Renata Wolinowska, Wanda Grzybowska, Tomasz Zaręba, Agata Drobniewska, Piotr Wroczyński, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki
Antimicrobial agents (antimicrobials) are a group of therapeutic and hygienic agents that either kill microorganisms or inhibit their growth. Their occurrence in surface water may reveal harmful effects on aquatic biota and challenge microbial populations. Recently, there is a growing concern over the contamination of surface water with both antimicrobial agents and multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was the determination of the presence of selected antimicrobials at specific locations of the Vistula River (Poland), as well as in tap water samples originating from the Warsaw region...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128404/milk-from-transgenic-goat-expressing-human-lysozyme-for-recovery-and-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens
#13
Igor de Sá Carneiro, José Nilson Rodrigues de Menezes, Julyana Almeida Maia, André Marrocos Miranda, Victor Bruno Soares de Oliveira, James D Murray, Elizabeth A Maga, Marcelo Bertolini, Luciana Relly Bertolini
Lysozyme is an important non-specific immune protein in human milk, modulating the immune response against bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the milk of a transgenic goat expressing a recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) in the milk, also testing the in vitro antibacterial activity of the rhLZ milk against pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract. Milk samples collected from Tg and non-transgenic goats (nTg) from the 3rd to the 11th week of lactation were submitted to physicochemical analyses, rhLZ semi-quantification, and to rhLZ antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Shiguella sonnei and Enterococcus faecalis...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110155/streptomyces-swartbergensis-sp-nov-a-novel-tyrosinase-and-antibiotic-producing-actinobacterium
#14
Marilize le Roes-Hill, Alaric Prins, Paul R Meyers
As part of an antibiotic screening program, an actinobacterium, strain HMC13T , was isolated from soil collected from the banks of the Gamka River, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The isolate was found to produce branched mycelia that differentiated into spiral spore chains with spiny spores. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the strain to be closely related to Streptomyces caelestis NRRL 2418T (99.72%) and Streptomyces azureus NBRC 12744T (99.51%). Chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed the classification of the strain as a member of the genus Streptomyces: LL-DAP in the peptidoglycan, no diagnostic sugars in the whole cell sugar pattern, dominant menaquinones including MK9(H8 ), MK9(H6 ), and the polar lipids detected included phosphatidylethanolamine...
April 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030312/antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-thai-fermented-pork-in-chiang-rai-province-thailand
#15
Kamonnaree Chotinantakul, Nittaya Chansiw, Seiji Okada
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes and genes of Enterococcus spp. in order to explore the range of resistance profiles from Thai traditional fermented pork. METHODS: A total of 120 Thai fermented pork specimens were collected in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Antimicrobial resistance among isolated enterococci to 11 antimicrobial agents was determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance genes from resistant phenotypes and virulence genes were observed...
March 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878752/myxobacteria-are-able-to-prey-broadly-upon-clinically-relevant-pathogens-exhibiting-a-prey-range-which-cannot-be-explained-by-phylogeny
#16
Paul G Livingstone, Russell M Morphew, David E Whitworth
Myxobacteria are natural predators of microorganisms and the subjects of concerted efforts to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Myxobacterial predatory activity seems to require more than just the possession of specific antimicrobial metabolites. Thus a holistic approach to studying predation promises novel insights into antimicrobial action. Here, we report the isolation of 113 myxobacteria from samples of soil taken from a range of habitats in mid Wales. Predatory activity of each isolate was quantified against a panel of clinically important prey organisms, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, and three species of Staphylococcus...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866136/major-globally-disseminated-clonal-complexes-of-antimicrobial-resistant-enterococci-associated-with-infections-in-cancer-patients-in-brazil
#17
Barbara A Santos, Jéssica S Oliveira, Nayara T Cardoso, André V Barbosa, Silvana V Superti, Lúcia M Teixeira, Felipe P G Neves
Cancer and hematological malignancies constitute major comorbidities in enterococcal infections, but little is known about the characteristics of enterococci affecting cancer patients. The aim of this study was to characterize 132 enterococcal clinical isolates obtained from cancer patients attending a Cancer Reference Center in Brazil between April 2013 and March 2014. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents was assessed by disk diffusion method. Resistance and virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for selected Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates...
September 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799224/genomic-insights-into-the-pathogenicity-and-environmental-adaptability-of-enterococcus-hirae-r17-isolated-from-pork-offered-for-retail-sale
#18
Zixin Peng, Menghan Li, Wei Wang, Hongtao Liu, Séamus Fanning, Yujie Hu, Jianzhong Zhang, Fengqin Li
Genetic information about Enterococcus hirae is limited, a feature that has compromised our understanding of these clinically challenging bacteria. In this study, comparative analysis was performed of E. hirae R17, a daptomycin-resistant strain isolated from pork purchased from a retail market in Beijing, China, and three other enterococcal genomes (Enterococcus faecium DO, Enterococcus faecalis V583, and E. hirae ATCC™ 9790). Some 1,412 genes were identified that represented the core genome together with an additional 139 genes that were specific to E...
December 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797211/disulfide-bonds-a-key-modification-in-bacterial-extracytoplasmic-proteins
#19
REVIEW
S F Lee, L Davey
Disulfide bonds are a common posttranslational modification that contributes to the folding and stability of extracytoplasmic proteins. Almost all organisms, from eukaryotes to prokaryotes, have evolved enzymes to make and break these bonds. Accurate and efficient disulfide bond formation can be vital for protein function; therefore, the enzymes that catalyze disulfide bond formation are involved in multiple biological processes. Recent advances clearly show that oral bacteria also have the ability to from disulfide bonds, and this ability has an effect on a range of dental plaque-related phenotypes...
December 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707018/postoperative-enterococcus-faecalis-endophthalmitis-virulence-factors-leading-to-poor-visual-outcome
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Daisuke Todokoro, Takashi Suzuki, Shinichiro Kobayakawa, Haruyoshi Tomita, Yuichi Ohashi, Hideo Akiyama
Purpose Postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis often results in poor visual outcome due to retinal destruction. We evaluated the virulence factors of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates and analyzed their relationship with retinal destruction and poor visual outcomes in postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis (PBE) following cataract surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. METHODS: E. faecalis isolates from nine acute-onset PBE cases were examined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA, plasmid isolation and pheromone response experiments...
September 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
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