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enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918989/improper-positioning-of-the-elevator-lever-of-duodenoscopes-may-lead-to-sequestered-bacteria-that-survive-disinfection-by-automated-endoscope-reprocessors
#1
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Donald R Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
BACKGROUND: Some outbreaks associated with contaminated duodenoscopes have been attributed to biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether bacteria within an organic matrix could survive if the elevator lever was improperly positioned in the automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) after 1 round of reprocessing. METHODS: Duodenoscope lever cavities with an open or sealed elevator wire channel were inoculated with 6-7 Log10 of both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in ATS2015 (Healthmark Industries, Fraser, MI) and dried for 2 hours...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867453/the-effect-of-indocyanine-green-loaded-on-a-novel-nano-graphene-oxide-for-high-performance-of-photodynamic-therapy-against-enterococcus-faecalis
#2
Tayebeh Akbari, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Farzaneh Hosseini, Nasim Chiniforush, Elham Gholibegloo, Mehdi Khoobi, Sima Shahabi, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Recently developed photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gained attention for achieving effective root canal disinfection. Using an optimized nontoxic photosensitizer (PS), such as indocyanine green (ICG), is an imperative part of this technique. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to improve ICG photodynamic properties through incorporation of ICG into nano-graphene oxide (NGO) in order to produce NGO-ICG as a new PS and also to assess the antimicrobial effects of NGO-ICG against Enterococcus faecalis after photodynamic therapy...
August 31, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800779/proinflammatory-mg-63-cells-response-infection-with-enterococcus-faecalis-cps2-evaluated-by-the-expression-of-tlr-2-il-1%C3%AE-and-inos-mrna
#3
Boy M Bachtiar, Endang W Bachtiar
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that unencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis cps2 inhibits biofilm formation of Candida albicans, a fungus commonly found with E. faecalis in periapical lesion. In this study, we compared encapsulated and unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 strains relationship with osteoblastic (MG-63) cells, whereas E. faecalis ATCC 29212 were used as a reference strain. RESULTS: The binding capacity of E. faecalis to MG-63 cells as shown by each tested strain was comparable, but the unencapsulated strain was less invasive compared to the encapsulated and the reference strains...
August 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797211/disulfide-bonds-a-key-modification-in-bacterial-extracytoplasmic-proteins
#4
S F Lee, L Davey
Disulfide bonds are a common posttranslational modification that contributes to the folding and stability of extracytoplasmic proteins. Almost all organisms, from eukaryotes to prokaryotes, have evolved enzymes to make and break these bonds. Accurate and efficient disulfide bond formation can be vital for protein function; therefore, the enzymes that catalyze disulfide bond formation are involved in multiple biological processes. Recent advances clearly show that oral bacteria also have the ability to from disulfide bonds, and this ability has an effect on a range of dental plaque-related phenotypes...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791824/anti-enterococcal-activities-of-pentacyclic-triterpenes
#5
Dorota Wojnicz, Dorota Tichaczek-Goska, Kamila Korzekwa, Marta Kicia, Andrzej Hendrich
BACKGROUND: Asiatic (AA) and ursolic (UA) acids are widely studied phytochemicals, but their antimicrobial properties are still poorly understood. Therefore our research has focused on their activity against uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to determine the influence of AA and UA on the growth, cell morphology, virulence factors and biofilm formation by E. faecalis strains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: AA and UA were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720810/biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-genotype-phenotype-correlations-and-inhibition-by-vancomycin
#6
Yomna A Hashem, Heba M Amin, Tamer M Essam, Aymen S Yassin, Ramy K Aziz
Enterococci are nosocomial pathogens that can form biofilms, which contribute to their virulence and antibiotic resistance. Although many genes involved in biofilm formation have been defined, their distribution among enterococci has not been comprehensively studied on a genome scale, and their diagnostic ability to predict biofilm phenotypes is not fully established. Here, we assessed the biofilm-forming ability of 90 enterococcal clinical isolates. Major patterns of virulence gene distribution in enterococcal genomes were identified, and the differentiating virulence genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 31 of the clinical isolates...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719346/virulence-genes-in-biofilm-producer-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-from-root-canal-infections
#7
M Akbari Aghdam, M H Soroush Barhaghi, M Aghazadeh, F Jafari, M Beomide Hagh, M Haghdoost, M Y Memar, M Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, H Samadi Kafil
Enterococcus faecalis is occurring in opportunistic infections involving the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of E. faecalis virulence genes in dental root canal isolates recovered from advanced chronic periodontitis patients. One hundred E. faecalis isolated from dental root canal during July 2015 to Oct 2016. After analysis of biofilm formation by the semi-quantitative determination in 96-well flat bottom polystyrene plates, the presence of asa, esp, efaA, ace, ebpR, gel and hyl gene were studied by PCR...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685097/restructuring-of-enterococcus-faecalis-biofilm-architecture-in-response-to-antibiotic-induced-stress
#8
Jennifer L Dale, Jennifer L Nilson, Aaron M T Barnes, Gary M Dunny
Bacterial biofilms are intrinsically resistant to antimicrobial treatment, which contributes to microbial persistence in clinical infections. Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that readily forms biofilms and is the most prevalent enterococcal species identified in healthcare-associated infections. Since intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics is common for enterococci, and antibiotic resistance is elevated in biofilm populations, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms involved. Previously, we identified two glycosyltransferase genes whose disruption resulted in impaired nascent biofilm formation in the presence of antibiotic concentrations subinhibitory for parent growth and biofilm formation...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683409/thymus-vulgaris-l-extract-has-antimicrobial-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-the-absence-of-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity
#9
Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Daiane de Jesus Viegas, Ana Paula Réquia Martins, Cláudio Antonio Talge Carvalho, Cristina Pacheco Soares, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the biological effects of the T. vulgaris L. extract., such as antimicrobial activity on planktonic cultures and mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory activity and genotoxicity. METHODS: Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed by C. albicans with each bacterium were formed for 48h and exposed for 5min to the plant extract...
October 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659548/pathogenicity-of-enterococci
#10
REVIEW
Yasuyoshi Ike
Enterococci belong to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of a wide variety of animals from insects and to human, and the commensal organism in humans and animals. The commensal/probiotic role of enterococci has evolved through thousands of years in mutual coexistence. Enterococcus have many favorable traits that have been appreciated in food fermentation and preservation, and many serve as probiotics to promote health. While lactobacillus have been shown to confer numerous benefits on and often regarded as health bringing organisms, enterococci have become more recognized as emerging human pathogens in recent years...
2017: Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622484/bactericidal-effect-of-er-yag-laser-activated-sodium-hypochlorite-irrigation-against-biofilms-of-enterococcus-faecalis-isolate-from-canal-of-root-filled-teeth-with-periapical-lesions
#11
Xiaogang Cheng, Doudou Xiang, Wenxi He, Jun Qiu, Bing Han, Qing Yu, Yu Tian
OBJECTIVE: This study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of Er:YAG laser-activated sodium hypochlorite irrigation (Er:YAG + NaOCl) on biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate. BACKGROUND DATA: It was reported that Er:YAG + NaOCl had effective bactericidal effect on laboratory-adapted E. faecalis strain, while no study has reported its effect on the clinical isolate. METHODS: Eighteen E. faecalis strains were isolated from 39 root-filled teeth with periapical lesions, and their biofilm formation abilities were evaluated using the crystal violet staining method...
July 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560581/antimicrobial-and-anti-biofilm-properties-of-polypropylene-meshes-coated-with-metal-containing-dlc-thin-films
#12
Elisa M Cazalini, Walter Miyakawa, Guilherme R Teodoro, Argemiro S S Sobrinho, José E Matieli, Marcos Massi, Cristiane Y Koga-Ito
A promising strategy to reduce nosocomial infections related to prosthetic meshes is the prevention of microbial colonization. To this aim, prosthetic meshes coated with antimicrobial thin films are proposed. Commercial polypropylene meshes were coated with metal-containing diamond-like carbon (Me-DLC) thin films by the magnetron sputtering technique. Several dissimilar metals (silver, cobalt, indium, tungsten, tin, aluminum, chromium, zinc, manganese, tantalum, and titanium) were tested and compositional analyses of each Me-DLC were performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry...
June 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551023/a-novel-polytetrafluoroethylene-channel-model-which-simulates-low-levels-of-culturable-bacteria-in-buildup-biofilm-after-repeated-endoscope-reprocessing
#13
Michelle J Alfa, Maira M Ribeiro, Cristiana da Costa Luciano, Rodrigo Franca, Nancy Olson, Pat DeGagne, Harminder Singh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clinical studies have shown variable culture results from flexible endoscope channels possibly because of low levels of bacteria that are difficult to extract. The aim of this study was to develop a simulated-use buildup biofilm (BBF) model that mimics low levels of viable bacteria after repeated rounds of aldehyde fixation and accumulation. METHODS: New endoscope channels were exposed to 8 days of repeated rounds of biofilm formation using ATS2015 containing Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rinsing, fixation with glutaraldehyde, and rinsing...
September 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483600/phenotypic-and-genotypic-study-of-biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections
#14
F Fallah, M Yousefi, M R Pourmand, A Hashemi, A Nazari Alam, D Afshar
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent types of nosocomial and community acquired infections in humans. Management of multidrug-resistant Enterococci UTI due to the limited therapeutic options is a great challenge for physicians and clinical microbiologists. The role of bacterial biofilms in recurrent urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance has great importance for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern as well as the phenotypic and genotypic biofilm formation ability of Enterococci isolates from patients with UTI...
July 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473710/a-short-artificial-antimicrobial-peptide-shows-potential-to-prevent-or-treat-bone-infections
#15
N Bormann, A Koliszak, S Kasper, L Schoen, K Hilpert, R Volkmer, J Kikhney, B Wildemann
Infection of bone is a severe complication due to the variety of bacteria causing it, their resistance against classical antibiotics, the formation of a biofilm and the difficulty to eradicate it. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring peptides and promising candidates for treatment of joint infections. This study aimed to analyze the effect of short artificial peptides derived from an optimized library regarding (1) antimicrobial effect on different bacterial species, (2) efficacy on biofilms, and (3) effect on osteoblast‑like cells...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457636/transcriptomics-analysis-reveals-putative-genes-involved-in-biofilm-formation-and-biofilm-associated-drug-resistance-of-enterococcus-faecalis
#16
Chaminda J Seneviratne, Tanujaa Suriyanarayanan, Sanjay Swarup, Kuan Hui Burton Chia, Niranjan Nagarajan, Chengfei Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive bacterium associated with endodontic infections and is capable of forming biofilms that can confer drug resistance to the bacterium, resulting in treatment failure. Current knowledge on E. faecalis drug resistance is of a limited and conflicting nature. The present study examined the genetic basis of E. faecalis biofilm formation and drug resistance using a RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)-based transcriptome approach. METHODS: Eighteen clinical isolates of E...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438824/comparison-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-lock-solutions-with-and-without-heparin-against-biofilm-producing-bacteria
#17
Megan K Luther, Leonard A Mermel, Kerry L LaPlante
PURPOSE: The activity of linezolid and vancomycin lock solutions against biofilm-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis was studied. METHODS: Two strains each of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and S. epidermidis, and 1 strain of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecalis and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis were tested against vancomycin and linezolid to assess prevention of biofilm formation and eradication of these pathogens within a formed biofilm...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410367/nitric-oxide-charged-catheters-as-a-potential-strategy-for-prevention-of-hospital-acquired-infections
#18
David Margel, Mark Mizrahi, Gili Regev-Shoshani, Mary Ko, Maya Moshe, Rachel Ozalvo, Liat Shavit-Grievink, Jack Baniel, Daniel Kedar, Ofer Yossepowitch, David Lifshitz, Andrei Nadu, David Greenberg, Yossef Av-Gay
BACKGROUND: Catheter-Associated Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAI's) are caused by biofilm-forming bacteria. Using a novel approach, we generated anti-infective barrier on catheters by charging them with Nitric Oxide (NO), a naturally-produced gas molecule. NO is slowly released from the catheter upon contact with physiological fluids, and prevents bacterial colonization and biofilm formation onto catheter surfaces. AIMS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to assess the anti-infective properties of NO-charged catheters exposed to low concentration (up to 103 CFU/ml) of microbial cells in-vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396417/enterococcus-faecalis-bacteriocin-entv-inhibits-hyphal-morphogenesis-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-of-candida-albicans
#19
Carrie E Graham, Melissa R Cruz, Danielle A Garsin, Michael C Lorenz
Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive bacterium, and Candida albicans, a fungus, occupy overlapping niches as ubiquitous constituents of the gastrointestinal and oral microbiome. Both species also are among the most important and problematic, opportunistic nosocomial pathogens. Surprisingly, these two species antagonize each other's virulence in both nematode infection and in vitro biofilm models. We report here the identification of the E. faecalis bacteriocin, EntV, produced from the entV (ef1097) locus, as both necessary and sufficient for the reduction of C...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389898/influence-of-sucrose-on-growth-and-sensitivity-of-candida-albicans-alone-and-in-combination-with-enterococcus-faecalis-and-streptococcus-mutans-to-photodynamic-therapy
#20
Fernanda Malagutti Tomé, Lucas De Paula Ramos, Fernanda Freire, Cristiane Aparecida Pereira, Ingrid Christine Barbosa de Oliveira, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
This study has evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using erythrosine as photosensitizer and green light-emitting diode (LED) on biofilms of Candida albicans alone and in combination with Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans. We have also evaluated the effect of sucrose on biofilm formation and bacterial growth and sensitivity to PDI. Biofilms were formed in suspension of 10(6) cells/ml on plates before being grown in broth culture with and without sucrose and incubated for 48 h...
August 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
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