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enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325735/whole-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-potential-novel-mechanisms-of-low-level-linezolid-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecalis
#1
Ruoyi Hua, Yun Xia, Wenyao Wu, Jia Yan, Mi Yang
Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic commonly used to treat serious infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. Recently, low-level linezolid resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains have emerged worldwide, but the resistant mechanisms remain undefined. Whole-transcriptome profiling was performed on an E. faecalis strain P10748 with low-level linezolid resistance in comparison with a linezolid-susceptible strain 3138 and the standard control strain ATCC29212. The functions of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were predicted, with some DEGs potentially involved in drug resistance were validated by PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
January 8, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285081/relevance-of-the-clustered-regularly-interspaced-short-palindromic-repeats-of-enterococcus-faecalis-strains-isolated-from-retreatment-root-canals-on-periapical-lesions-resistance-to-irrigants-and-biofilms
#2
Zhongchun Tong, Yu Du, Junqi Ling, Lijia Huang, Jinglei Ma
A high prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is observed in teeth with root canal treatment failures. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are widely distributed in prokaryotes that have adaptive immune systems against mobile elements, including pathogenic genes. The present study investigated the relevance of the CRISPR in E. faecalis strains isolated from retreated root canals on biofilms, periapical lesions and drug resistance. A total of 20 E. faecalis strains were extracted from the root canals of teeth referred for root canal retreatment...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280095/the-efficacy-of-tetrasodium-edta-on-biofilms
#3
S L Percival, A-M Salisbury
The aetiology of delayed wound healing characteristic of a chronic wound is relatively unknown but is thought to be due to a combination of the patient's underlying pathophysiology and external factors including infection and biofilm formation. The invasion of the wound by the hosts' resident microbiome and exogenous microorganisms can lead to biofilm formation. Biofilms have increased tolerance to antimicrobial interventions and constitute a concern to chronic wound healing. Consequently, anti-biofilm technologies with proven efficacy in areas outside of wound care need evaluation to determine whether their efficacy could be relevant to the control of biofilms in wounds...
December 27, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225595/characteristics-of-and-virulence-factors-associated-with-biofilm-formation-in-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-in-china
#4
Jin-Xin Zheng, Yang Wu, Zhi-Wei Lin, Zhang-Ya Pu, Wei-Ming Yao, Zhong Chen, Duo-Yun Li, Qi-Wen Deng, Di Qu, Zhi-Jian Yu
Enterococcus faecalis biofilm traits and distribution characteristics in China have not been clarified. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of E. faecalis biofilm formation in a sample of clinical isolates and to explore the virulence factors associated with biofilm formation in those isolates. A total of 265 E. faecalis isolates were collected from patients in Shenzhen, China. Virulence genes were detected within the genomes of the microbes by polymerase chain reaction. The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on housekeeping genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215338/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-durability-and-anti-biofilm-effects-in-urinary-catheters-against-enterococcus-faecalis-clinical-isolates-and-reference-strains
#5
Didem Kart, Ayşe Semra Kustimur, Meral Sağıroğlu, Ayşe Kalkancı
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans biofilms are major causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Antimicrobial-coated or impregnated urinary catheters are seen as a possible way to prevent these infections. AIMS: To determine the biofilm-forming ability of 89 E. faecalis isolates from urinary tract infections and to compare several urinary catheters for antimicrobial durability and the inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of different laboratory strains and clinical isolates of E...
December 1, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208399/association-between-extracellular-material-and-biofilm-formation-in-response-to-sodium-hypochlorite-by-clinical-isolates-of-enterococcus-faecalis
#6
Austin Yoo, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Stephen P Kidd, Anthony H Rogers, Peter S Zilm
INTRODUCTION: Extracellular material (ECM) surrounding Enterococcus faecalis may play a role in increasing resistance to environmental stresses. Our aim was to determine ECM levels in response to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (sub-MIC/NaOCl) or anaerobic growth and determine the impact on biofilm development. METHODS: From 37 E. faecalis clinical strains, 19 were selected according to their biofilm-producing ability by using a crystal violet biofilm assay: 10 strong, 4 intermediate, and 5 non-biofilm producers...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162873/rapid-in-situ-imaging-and-whole-genome-sequencing-of-biofilm-in-neonatal-feeding-tubes-a-clinical-proof-of-concept
#7
Pauline Ogrodzki, Chi Shing Cheung, Mohamed Saad, Khaled Dahmani, Rebecca Coxill, Haida Liang, Stephen J Forsythe
The bacterial flora of nasogastric feeding tubes and faecal samples were analysed for a low-birth weight (725 g) neonate EGA 25 weeks in intensive care. Samples were collected at age 6 and 8 weeks of life. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to visualise bacterial biofilms inside the nasogastric feeding tubes. The biofilm was heterogeneously distributed along the tube lumen wall, and had a depth of up to 500 µm. The bacterial biofilm and faecal samples included Enterococcus faecalis and Enterobacter hormaechei...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156349/biopolymer-gelatin-coated-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-showed-high-antibacterial-antibiofilm-and-anti-angiogenic-activity
#8
Mani Divya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Muthukumar Abinaya, Sekar Vijayakumar, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The use of natural polymers in drug design plays an important role in biomedical applications. Combinations of nanoparticles (NPs) and biopolymers have been shown to be useful for many purposes. This study focused on gelatin-coated zinc oxide NPs synthesized by co-precipitation. The particles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, showing a main peak at 375nm. The stability and crystalline nature of the particles was evaluated by Zeta potential and X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the possible functional groups of Ge-ZnO NPs, with strong bands at 3851, 3447, and 2923cm(-1)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148361/characterization-of-biofilm-formation-by-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-derived-from-urinary-tract-infections-in-china
#9
Jin-Xin Zheng, Bing Bai, Zhi-Wei Lin, Zhang-Ya Pu, Wei-Ming Yao, Zhong Chen, Duo-Yun Li, Xiang-Bin Deng, Qi-Wen Deng, Zhi-Jian Yu
PURPOSE: This study explored the prevalence and characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation by urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates in order to identify virulence factors associated with biofilm formation. METHODOLOGY: A total of 113 E. faecalis isolates were collected from UTI patients in Shenzhen, China. The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing based on housekeeping genes. Biofilms were detected by crystal violet staining and the expression levels of the E...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138082/synthesis-of-chitosan-alginate-microspheres-with-high-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-activity-against-multi-drug-resistant-microbial-pathogens
#10
Rajagopalan Thaya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Jeyachandran Sivakamavalli, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Mohammed N Al-Anbr, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The successful treatment of multi-drug resistant microbial pathogens represents a major challenge for public health management. Here, chitosan-alginate (CS/ALG) microspheres with narrow size distribution were fabricated by ionically cross linking method using Ca(2+) ions as agents for polymer solidification. The physicochemical properties of CS/ALG microspheres, such as surface morphology and size, were studied by SEM. The functional group interactions were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
November 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134108/host-and-bacterial-proteases-influence-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-in-a-murine-model-of-enterococcal-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection
#11
Wei Xu, Ana L Flores-Mireles, Zachary T Cusumano, Enzo Takagi, Scott J Hultgren, Michael G Caparon
Enterococcus faecalis is a leading causative agent of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), the most common hospital-acquired infection. Its ability to grow and form catheter biofilm is dependent upon host fibrinogen (Fg). Examined here are how bacterial and host proteases interact with Fg and contribute to virulence. Analysis of mutants affecting the two major secreted proteases of E. faecalis OG1RF (GelE, SprE) revealed that while the loss of either had no effect on virulence in a murine CAUTI model or for formation of Fg-dependent biofilm in urine, the loss of both resulted in CAUTI attenuation and defective biofilm formation...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039290/simulated-use-polytetrafluorethylene-biofilm-model-repeated-rounds-of-complete-reprocessing-lead-to-accumulation-of-organic-debris-and-viable-bacteria
#12
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Zoann Nugent, Donald Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
OBJECTIVE Biofilm has been implicated in bacterial persistence and survival after endoscope reprocessing. In this study, we assessed the impact of different methods of reprocessing on organic residues and viable bacteria after repeated rounds of biofilm formation when each was followed by full reprocessing. METHODS ATS-2015, an artificial test soil containing 5-8 Log10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used to form biofilm in polytetrafluroethylene channels overnight on 5 successive days...
October 17, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027384/survey-for-correlation-between-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-determinants-in-a-collection-of-pathogenic-and-fecal-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates
#13
Fereshteh Saffari, Mohammad Sadegh Dalfardi, Shahla Mansouri, Roya Ahmadrajabi
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that causes most of the enterococcal infections. Among the different factors implicated in the pathogenesis of these organisms, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance are the most important. The ability for biofilm formation has been attributed to the presence of some virulence genes. However, no definite correlation has been found. This study aimed to detect biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance patterns in E. faecalis isolates collected from clinical and fecal samples, and to investigate possible correlation between some virulence genes (esp, cyl, gelE) and biofilm formation...
September 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993457/the-electron-transport-chain-sensitises-staphylococcus-aureus-and-enterococcus-faecalis-to-the-oxidative-burst
#14
Kimberley L Painter, Alex Hall, Kam Pou Ha, Andrew M Edwards
Small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus typically lack a functional electron transport chain and cannot produce virulence factors such as leukocidins, hemolysins or the anti-oxidant staphyloxanthin. Despite this, SCVs are associated with persistent infections of the bloodstream, bones and prosthetic devices. The survival of SCVs in the host has been ascribed to intracellular residency, biofilm formation and resistance to antibiotics. However, the ability of SCVs to resist host defences is largely uncharacterised...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956355/the-synthetic-human-beta-defensin-3-c15-peptide-exhibits-antimicrobial-activity-against-streptococcus-mutans-both-alone-and-in-combination-with-dental-disinfectants
#15
Ki Bum Ahn, A Reum Kim, Kee-Yeon Kum, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Streptococcus mutans is a major etiologic agent of human dental caries that forms biofilms on hard tissues in the human oral cavity, such as tooth and dentinal surfaces. Human β-defensin-3 (HBD3) is a 45-amino-acid natural antimicrobial peptide that has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. A synthetic peptide consisting of the C-terminal 15 amino acids of HBD3 (HBD3-C15) was recently shown to be sufficient for its antimicrobial activity. Thus, clinical applications of this peptide have garnered attention...
October 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918989/improper-positioning-of-the-elevator-lever-of-duodenoscopes-may-lead-to-sequestered-bacteria-that-survive-disinfection-by-automated-endoscope-reprocessors
#16
Michelle J Alfa, Harminder Singh, Donald R Duerksen, Gale Schultz, Carol Reidy, Pat DeGagne, Nancy Olson
BACKGROUND: Some outbreaks associated with contaminated duodenoscopes have been attributed to biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether bacteria within an organic matrix could survive if the elevator lever was improperly positioned in the automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) after 1 round of reprocessing. METHODS: Duodenoscope lever cavities with an open or sealed elevator wire channel were inoculated with 6-7 Log10 of both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in ATS2015 (Healthmark Industries, Fraser, MI) and dried for 2 hours...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867453/the-effect-of-indocyanine-green-loaded-on-a-novel-nano-graphene-oxide-for-high-performance-of-photodynamic-therapy-against-enterococcus-faecalis
#17
Tayebeh Akbari, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Farzaneh Hosseini, Nasim Chiniforush, Elham Gholibegloo, Mehdi Khoobi, Sima Shahabi, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Recently developed photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gained attention for achieving effective root canal disinfection. Using an optimized nontoxic photosensitizer (PS), such as indocyanine green (ICG), is an imperative part of this technique. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to improve ICG photodynamic properties through incorporation of ICG into nano-graphene oxide (NGO) in order to produce NGO-ICG as a new PS and also to assess the antimicrobial effects of NGO-ICG against Enterococcus faecalis after photodynamic therapy...
August 31, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800779/proinflammatory-mg-63-cells-response-infection-with-enterococcus-faecalis-cps2-evaluated-by-the-expression-of-tlr-2-il-1%C3%AE-and-inos-mrna
#18
Boy M Bachtiar, Endang W Bachtiar
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that unencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis cps2 inhibits biofilm formation of Candida albicans, a fungus commonly found with E. faecalis in periapical lesion. In this study, we compared encapsulated and unencapsulated E. faecalis cps2 strains relationship with osteoblastic (MG-63) cells, whereas E. faecalis ATCC 29212 were used as a reference strain. RESULTS: The binding capacity of E. faecalis to MG-63 cells as shown by each tested strain was comparable, but the unencapsulated strain was less invasive compared to the encapsulated and the reference strains...
August 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797211/disulfide-bonds-a-key-modification-in-bacterial-extracytoplasmic-proteins
#19
S F Lee, L Davey
Disulfide bonds are a common posttranslational modification that contributes to the folding and stability of extracytoplasmic proteins. Almost all organisms, from eukaryotes to prokaryotes, have evolved enzymes to make and break these bonds. Accurate and efficient disulfide bond formation can be vital for protein function; therefore, the enzymes that catalyze disulfide bond formation are involved in multiple biological processes. Recent advances clearly show that oral bacteria also have the ability to from disulfide bonds, and this ability has an effect on a range of dental plaque-related phenotypes...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791824/anti-enterococcal-activities-of-pentacyclic-triterpenes
#20
Dorota Wojnicz, Dorota Tichaczek-Goska, Kamila Korzekwa, Marta Kicia, Andrzej Hendrich
BACKGROUND: Asiatic (AA) and ursolic (UA) acids are widely studied phytochemicals, but their antimicrobial properties are still poorly understood. Therefore our research has focused on their activity against uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to determine the influence of AA and UA on the growth, cell morphology, virulence factors and biofilm formation by E. faecalis strains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: AA and UA were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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