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enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation

Damien Keogh, Wei Hong Tay, Yao Yong Ho, Jennifer L Dale, Siyi Chen, Shivshankar Umashankar, Rohan B H Williams, Swaine L Chen, Gary M Dunny, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis is frequently associated with polymicrobial infections of the urinary tract, indwelling catheters, and surgical wound sites. E. faecalis co-exists with Escherichia coli and other pathogens in wound infections, but mechanisms that govern polymicrobial colonization and pathogenesis are poorly defined. During infection, bacteria must overcome multiple host defenses, including nutrient iron limitation, to persist and cause disease. In this study, we investigated the contribution of E. faecalis to mixed-species infection when iron availability is restricted...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Elizabeth R Hughes, Sebastian E Winter
Many infectious diseases involve polymicrobial infections, which are characterized by synergistic interactions between different microorganisms colonizing a host. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Keogh et al. (2016) show that Enterococcus faecalis promotes Escherichia coli biofilm formation in low-iron conditions, thus facilitating polymicrobial growth.
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
R Večeřová, K Bogdanová, D Rejman, J Gallo, M Kolář
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at determining the ability of lipophosphonoxin DR5026 to inhibit the formation of bacterial biofilm on the bone cement surface and assessing potential development of bacterial resistance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bone cement (Hi-Fatigue Bone Cement 2x40, aap Biomaterials GmbH, Germany) was polymerized with lipophosphonoxin DR5026. Cement samples were cultured using bacterial suspension containing Staphylococcus epidermidis CCM7221 at an inoculum density of 106 CFU/mL...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Weixu Chen, Jingping Liang, Zhiyan He, Wei Jiang
ABSTACT This study aimed to investigate the dynamic changes that occur in the chemical composition of an Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilm under conditions of starvation and in an alkaline environment and to explore the function of chemical composition changes in the resistance of the E. faecalis biofilm to an extreme environment. This study established an in vitro E. faecalis biofilm model under starvation and in an alkaline environment. During the formation of the biofilm, the pH value and nutritional condition of the culture medium were changed, and the changes in chemical composition were observed using biochemical measures...
September 30, 2016: Bioengineered
Nasim Chiniforush, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Steven Parker, Sima Shahabi, Abbas Bahador
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of washing and non-washing of indocyanine green (ICG) as photosensitizer (PS) on bacterial count, biofilm formation, development and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis. METHODS: The anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm formation, anti-biofilm development and biofilm degradation of anti-microbial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against E. faecalis was determined at concentrations of 3 to 2000μg/mL of ICG, subject to 18J/cm(2) dose of diode laser (808nm) in washing and non-washing producers...
September 15, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Leron Khalifa, Mor Shlezinger, Shaul Beyth, Yael Houri-Haddad, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Dae Ho Kim, Yeon Soo Chung, Young Kyung Park, Soo-Jin Yang, Suk Kyung Lim, Yong Ho Park, Kun Taek Park
Antimicrobial-resistant (AR) enterococci have emerged as leading nosocomial pathogens. Transmission of AR Enterococci from animals to humans has been demonstrated. However, there is limited information on the transmission of enterococci from horses to humans. To address this issue, we characterized 260 enterococci isolated from horse-associated samples in Korea in 2013 based on their AR profiles and virulence traits. AR profiling revealed an average ratio of AR enterococci of 23.8%. Seven isolates (2.7%) were multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Edson Yukio Komiyama, Laura Soares Souto Lepesqueur, Cinthia Gomes Yassuda, Lakshman P Samaranayake, Nipuna B Parahitiyawa, Ivan Balducci, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito
Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4-11 yrs, adolescents 12-17 yrs, young adults 18-29 yrs, adults 30-59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing...
2016: PloS One
Jung Eun Baik, Hyuk-Il Choe, Sun Woong Hong, Seok-Seong Kang, Ki Bum Ahn, Kun Cho, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Enterococcus faecalis is associated with refractory apical periodontitis and its lipoteichoic acid (Ef.LTA) is considered as a major virulence factor. Although the binding proteins of Ef.LTA may play an important role for mediating infection and immunity in the oral cavity, little is known about Ef.LTA-binding proteins (Ef.LTA-BPs) in saliva. In this study, we identified salivary Ef.LTA-BPs with biotinylated Ef.LTA (Ef.LTA-biotin) through mass spectrometry. The biotinylation of Ef.LTA was confirmed by binding capacity with streptavidin-FITC on CHO/CD14/TLR2 cells...
September 2016: Molecular Immunology
Dorota Wojnicz, Dorota Tichaczek-Goska, Kamila Korzekwa, Marta Kicia, Andrzej B Hendrich
Drinking of cranberry fruit juice and application of commercial preparations containing the cranberry extracts are recommended in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), especially in women with recurrent UTIs. Many studies focus on the activity of cranberries against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. However, the knowledge of the cranberry effect on Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to establish the activity of commercial concentrated cranberry extract on the growth, virulence factors and biofilm formation of E...
December 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Do-Won Jeong, Bitnara Lee, Jae-Young Her, Kwang-Geun Lee, Jong-Hoon Lee
To select starters for the production of meju and doenjang, traditional Korean fermented soybean foods, we assessed the safety and technological properties of their predominant isolates, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus succinus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance, hemolysis and biofilm formation were strain-specific. None of the S. succinus isolates exhibited antibiotic resistance or hemolytic activities. Thirty-three selected strains, identified through safety assessments of 81 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates, produced cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine, but not histamine in the laboratory setting...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
M Pourhajibagher, N Chiniforush, S Shahabi, R Ghorbanzadeh, A Bahador
BACKGROUND: During photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of a primary endodontic infection, it is extremely likely that microorganisms would be exposed to sub-lethal doses of PDT (sPDT). Although sPDT cannot kill microorganisms, it can considerably influence microbial virulence. This study was conducted to characterize the effect of sPDT using toluidine blue O (TBO), methylene blue (MB), and indocyanine green (ICG) on biofilm formation ability and metabolic activity of Enterococcus faecalis...
September 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Yan Gao, Xiaoqiong Jiang, Dongjia Lin, Yanhuo Chen, Zhongchun Tong
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is the most frequently detected species in root canal-treated teeth, and it is able to survive under starvation conditions. However, persistent periapical disease is often caused by multispecies. The aim of this study was to explore the survival of E. faecalis in starvation conditions and biofilm formation with the 4 common pathogenic species. METHODS: A dual-species model of Candida albicans, Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces viscosus, or Lactobacillus acidophilus in combination with E...
August 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Ahmed K Al Atya, Yanath Belguesmia, Gabrielle Chataigne, Rozenn Ravallec, Anne Vachée, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Djamel Drider
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a worrisome superbug. This work aimed at studying the effects of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93 as anti-MRSA agents. Thus, these bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chromatography and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-Staphylococcal activity was shown in vitro by the assessment of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), followed by a checkerboard and time-kill kinetics experiments...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ana M Guzman Prieto, Willem van Schaik, Malbert R C Rogers, Teresa M Coque, Fernando Baquero, Jukka Corander, Rob J L Willems
Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are found in plants, soil and as commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, mammals, and insects. Despite their commensal nature, they have also become globally important nosocomial pathogens. Within the genus Enterococcus, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis are clinically most relevant. In this review, we will discuss how E. faecium and E. faecalis have evolved to become a globally disseminated nosocomial pathogen. E. faecium has a defined sub-population that is associated with hospitalized patients and is rarely encountered in community settings...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lihua Chen, Qianqian Bu, Huan Xu, Yuan Liu, Pengfei She, Ruichen Tan, Yong Wu
Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is one of the major causes of biofilm infections. Berberine hydrochloride (BBH) has diverse pharmacological effects; however, the effects and mechanisms of BBH on E. faecalis biofilm formation and dispersion have not been reported. In this study, 99 clinical isolates from the urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected and identified. Ten strains of E. faecalis with biofilm formation ability were studied. BBH inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and promoted the biofilm dispersion of E...
May 2016: Microbiological Research
Shariq Qayyum, Divakar Sharma, Deepa Bisht, Asad U Khan
Enterococcus faecalis is a member of human gut microflora causing nosocomial infection involving biofilm formation. Ethyl methyl sulfonate induced mutants were analysed using crystal violet assay, SEM and CLSM microscopy which confirmed AK-E12 as biofilm efficient and AK-F6 as biofilm deficient mutants. Growth curve pattern revealed AK-E12 was fast growing whereas, AK-F6 was found slow growing mutant. 2D-Electrophorosis and MALDI-TOF analysis revealed over and underexpression of many translation-elongation associated proteins in mutants compared to wild type...
June 10, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tommaso Cai, Luca Gallelli, Francesca Meacci, Anna Brugnolli, Letizia Prosperi, Stefani Roberta, Cristina Eccher, Sandra Mazzoli, Paolo Lanzafame, Patrizio Caciagli, Gianni Malossini, Riccardo Bartoletti
We evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. We used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (control group); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 1); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg) (group 2); and 5 catheters were incubated with E...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Mohankandhasamy Ramasamy, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee
The objective of this study was to develop a bimetallic nanoparticle with enhanced antibacterial activity that would improve the therapeutic efficacy against bacterial biofilms. Bimetallic gold-silver nanoparticles were bacteriogenically synthesized using γ-proteobacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The antibacterial activities of gold-silver nanoparticles were assessed on the planktonic and biofilm phases of individual and mixed multi-cultures of pathogenic Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus), respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
María de Los Á Bulacio, Lucas R Galván, Cristina Gaudioso, Rosa Cangemi, Marta I Erimbaue
Biofilm produced by Enterococcus faecalis isolated from root canals was detected by growing it on microplates and using 10% crystal violet stain, elution with alcohol and three procedures: no fixation, heat fixation and 10% formaldehyde fixation. The biofilm was evaluated using a Versamax Microplate Reader (USA). Twenty sterile root portions were incubated in TS broth with E. faecalis (108) for 48 hours, 4, 7, 14 and 30 days, after which they were processed and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
December 2015: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
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