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Affective Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317209/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-expression-of-canine-regulatory-t-cell-markers
#1
Noemi Tarpataki, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Cezmi A Akdis, Beate Rückert, Marina L Meli, Nina M Fischer, Claude Favrot, Ana Rostaher
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells have been described as key regulators in various immunological processes and are of growing interest in veterinary allergy. Cryopreservation of immune cells is performed routinely in human basic science research and in clinical studies. As such, it allows batch testing of collected samples at a single time point, resulting in a significant reduction in sample variability. Data which describe the effects of cryopreservation on Treg cell frequency and functionality in the canine species are important to inform future research...
March 19, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317146/immunization-of-looked-after-children-and-young-people-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
S Walton, H Bedford
BACKGROUND: Numbers of looked-after children and young people (LACYP) in the UK have risen over the last seven years. Looked-after children and young people should receive regular health assessments, including establishing immunization status and, if needed, developing a health plan to achieve full immunization. The Department for Education publish data on immunizations among LACYP to monitor both how well they are immunized and service performance. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using four databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science) on immunization status of LACYP, factors affecting uptake and challenges to immunization, and interventions to improve immunization rates...
March 19, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316226/-basic-characteristics-and-survival-analysis-of-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
C T Guan, H Zhao, X Q Li, C X Qu, J Q Cai, W W Wei, Y L Qiao
Objective: To analyze the basic characteristics of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and further explore the major factors affecting the prognosis of HCC patients. Methods: A total of 800 HCC patients were randomly selected from the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Their clinical and follow-up information was obtained from medical record. Univariate analysis of variance, Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the patients' age at diagnosis and survival time, etc...
March 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315547/how-can-i-change-my-patients-treatment-decision-making-by-becoming-a-nurse-scientist-%C3%A2
#4
Tamryn F Gray
"What would you do?" I have heard this question numerous times throughout my nursing career by patients and families affected by cancer. As a pediatric blood and marrow transplantation nurse, I have often seen patients and their families wrestle with difficult treatment decisions. I have witnessed parents struggle between beginning end-of-life care for their child, or pursuing a risky but potentially life-saving clinical trial. With science driving advances in cancer treatments and patients playing more active roles in their care, uncertainty around cancer treatment decisions will only become more complicated...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303750/the-gut-microbiome-obesity-and-weight-control-in-women-s-reproductive-health
#5
K Leigh Greathouse, Mary Ann Faucher, Marie Hastings-Tolsma
The microbes residing in the human gut, referred to as the microbiome, are intricately linked to energy homeostasis and subsequently obesity. Integral to the origins of obesity, the microbiome is believed to affect not only health of the human gut but also overall health. This microbiome-obesity association is mediated through the process of energy extraction, metabolism, and cross talk between the brain and the gut microbiome. Host exposures, including diet, that potentially modify genetic predisposition to obesity and affect weight management are reviewed...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303212/periodontitis-and-systemic-disease-association-or-causality
#6
REVIEW
Lewis Winning, Gerard J Linden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim was to assess recent evidence that diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity impact the progression of periodontitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Electronic searches using Embase, Medline, and Web of Science were carried out for epidemiological studies on humans, published between 2014 and 2016. A small number of prospective studies and systematic reviews were identified that in general provide further support for the hypothesis that diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity can adversely affect the periodontal condition...
2017: Current Oral Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301692/vitamin-c-supplementation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Lena Al-Khudairy, Nadine Flowers, Rebecca Wheelhouse, Obadah Ghannam, Louise Hartley, Saverio Stranges, Karen Rees
BACKGROUND: Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient and powerful antioxidant. Observational studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin C intake and major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results from clinical trials are less consistent. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of vitamin C supplementation as a single supplement for the primary prevention of CVD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases on 11 May 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase Classic and Embase (Ovid); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database in the Cochrane Library...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301427/national-institutes-of-health-research-plan-on-rehabilitation
#8
(no author information available yet)
One in five Americans experiences disability that affects their daily function because of impairments in mobility, cognitive function, sensory impairment, or communication impairment. The need for rehabilitation strategies to optimize function and reduce disability is a clear priority for research to address this public health challenge. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently published a Research Plan on Rehabilitation that provides a set of priorities to guide the field over the next 5 years. The plan was developed with input from multiple Institutes and Centers within the NIH, the National Advisory Board for Medical Rehabilitation Research, and the public...
April 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300736/the-melaka-hospital-cataract-complications-study-analysis-of-12-992-eyes
#9
Thanigasalam Thevi, Zin Maizura, Adinegara Lutfi Abas
INTRODUCTION: As in all surgeries, complications during cataract surgery are unavoidable and cause distress to the surgeon and the patient. This study was conducted to know the factors contributing to complications in our settings, to be able to counsel patients about complications and outcomes and to reduce litigations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Eye Database from 2007 to 2014. Demographic features, ocular comorbidities, technique of surgery, grade of surgeons, types of intraoperative complications, and reasons for not obtaining good visual acuity following intraoperative complications were studied...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298494/student-perceptions-of-online-radiologic-science-courses
#10
Erika Papillion, Laura Aaron
PURPOSE: To evaluate student perceptions of the effectiveness of online radiologic science courses by examining various learning activities and course characteristics experienced in the online learning environment. METHODS: A researcher-designed electronic survey was used to obtain results from students enrolled in the clinical portion of a radiologic science program that offers online courses. The survey consisted of elements associated with demographics, experience, and perceptions related to online radiologic science courses...
March 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298268/effects-of-dietary-flavonoids-on-reverse-cholesterol-transport-hdl-metabolism-and-hdl-function
#11
REVIEW
Courtney L Millar, Quinn Duclos, Christopher N Blesso
Strong experimental evidence confirms that HDL directly alleviates atherosclerosis. HDL particles display diverse atheroprotective functions in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic processes. In certain inflammatory disease states, however, HDL particles may become dysfunctional and proatherogenic. Flavonoids show the potential to improve HDL function through their well-documented effects on cellular antioxidant status and inflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the basic science and clinical research examining the effects of dietary flavonoids on RCT and HDL function...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298198/maternal-and-neonatal-service-usage-and-determinants-in-fragile-and-conflict-affected-situations-a-systematic-review-of-asia-and-the-middle-east
#12
Saji S Gopalan, Ashis Das, Natasha Howard
BACKGROUND: Fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS) in Asia and the Middle-East contribute significantly to global maternal and neonatal deaths. This systematic review explored maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services usage and determinants in FCS in Asia and the Middle-East to inform policy on health service provision in these challenging settings. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using a standardised protocol. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and selected development agency websites were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria...
March 15, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296901/cumulative-advantages-and-social-capabilities-in-scientific-mobility-in-the-health-sciences-the-spanish-case
#13
Pedro Aceituno-Aceituno, Lorenzo Melchor, Joaquín Danvila-Del-Valle, Carlos Bousoño-Calzón
BACKGROUND: The big problem in global public health, arising from the international migration of physicians from less-developed to more-developed countries, increases if this migration also affects scientists dedicated to health areas. This article analyzes critical variables in the processes of Spanish scientific mobility in Health Sciences to articulate effective management policies for the benefit of national public health services and the balance between local and global science. METHODS: This study develops a survey to measure and analyze the following crucial variables: research career, training, funding, working with a world-class team, institutional prestige, wages, facilities/infrastructure, working conditions in the organization of the destination country, fringe benefits in the organization of the destination country and social responsibility in the organization of the departure country...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295696/probing-a-device-s-active-atoms
#14
Michał Studniarek, Ufuk Halisdemir, Filip Schleicher, Beata Taudul, Etienne Urbain, Samy Boukari, Marie Hervé, Charles-Henri Lambert, Abbass Hamadeh, Sebastien Petit-Watelot, Olivia Zill, Daniel Lacour, Loïc Joly, Fabrice Scheurer, Guy Schmerber, Victor Da Costa, Anant Dixit, Pierre André Guitard, Manuel Acosta, Florian Leduc, Fadi Choueikani, Edwige Otero, Wulf Wulfhekel, François Montaigne, Elmer Nahuel Monteblanco, Jacek Arabski, Philippe Ohresser, Eric Beaurepaire, Wolfgang Weber, Mébarek Alouani, Michel Hehn, Martin Bowen
Materials science and device studies have, when implemented jointly as "operando" studies, better revealed the causal link between the properties of the device's materials and its operation, with applications ranging from gas sensing to information and energy technologies. Here, as a further step that maximizes this causal link, the paper focuses on the electronic properties of those atoms that drive a device's operation by using it to read out the materials property. It is demonstrated how this method can reveal insight into the operation of a macroscale, industrial-grade microelectronic device on the atomic level...
March 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290160/risk-scoring-for-the-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#15
REVIEW
Kunal N Karmali, Stephen D Persell, Pablo Perel, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Mark A Berendsen, Mark D Huffman
BACKGROUND: The current paradigm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasises absolute risk assessment to guide treatment decisions in primary prevention. Although the derivation and validation of multivariable risk assessment tools, or CVD risk scores, have attracted considerable attention, their effect on clinical outcomes is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of evaluating and providing CVD risk scores in adults without prevalent CVD on cardiovascular outcomes, risk factor levels, preventive medication prescribing, and health behaviours...
March 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289265/contact-structure-mobility-environmental-impact-and-behaviour-the-importance-of-social-forces-to-infectious-disease-dynamics-and-disease-ecology
#16
REVIEW
Ronan F Arthur, Emily S Gurley, Henrik Salje, Laura S P Bloomfield, James H Jones
Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287812/views-and-decisions-of-physicians-in-encountering-neonates-with-poor-prognosis
#17
Fatemeh Nayeri, Fariba Asghari, Ali Baser, Leila Janani, Mamak Shariat, Bita Eabrhim
BACKGROUND: With the development of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), new issues have emerged for physicians working in this area, including the ethical aspects of providing invasive and advanced care to neonates with extremely poor prognosis. This research was undertaken with the aim of investing the factors affecting physicians' practice in management of newborns in such complicated circumstances. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 5 months (Jan 2012 to Jun 2012) in 9 different tertiary levels and academic NICUs affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran...
March 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286474/parameters-and-measures-in-assessment-of-motor-learning-in-neurorehabilitation-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Nataliya Shishov, Itshak Melzer, Simona Bar-Haim
Upper limb function, essential for daily life, is often impaired in individuals after stroke and cerebral palsy (CP). For an improved upper limb function, learning should occur, and therefore training with motor learning principles is included in many rehabilitation interventions. Despite accurate measurement being an important aspect for examination and optimization of treatment outcomes, there are no standard algorithms for outcome measures selection. Moreover, the ability of the chosen measures to identify learning is not well established...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286164/changing-children-s-eating-behaviour-a-review-of-experimental-research
#19
REVIEW
Patricia DeCosta, Per Møller, Michael Bom Frøst, Annemarie Olsen
The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice...
March 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285726/construct-validity-current-issues-and-recommendations-for-future-hand-hygiene-research
#20
REVIEW
Jun Rong Jeffrey Neo
Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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