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Affective Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232491/anhedonia-is-associated-with-suicidal-ideation-independently-of-depression-a-meta-analysis
#1
Déborah Ducasse, Gwenolé Loas, Déborah Dassa, Carla Gramaglia, Patrizia Zeppegno, Sébastien Guillaume, Emilie Olié, Philippe Courtet
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is considered a suicide risk factor in patients with major affective disorders. Here, we wanted to quantify the association between anhedonia and current suicidal ideation according to the absence/presence of between-group differences for depressive scores and psychiatric disorders. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of data on studies retrieved from Medline, Web of Science, and PsycINFO from 1965 to 2016 using, among others, the terms (suicid* or depression) and anhedonia...
December 12, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232375/a-persistent-lack-of-international-representation-on-editorial-boards-in-environmental-biology
#2
Johanna Espin, Sebastian Palmas, Farah Carrasco-Rueda, Kristina Riemer, Pablo E Allen, Nathan Berkebile, Kirsten A Hecht, Kay Kastner-Wilcox, Mauricio M Núñez-Regueiro, Candice Prince, Constanza Rios, Erica Ross, Bhagatveer Sangha, Tia Tyler, Judit Ungvari-Martin, Mariana Villegas, Tara T Cataldo, Emilio M Bruna
The scholars comprising journal editorial boards play a critical role in defining the trajectory of knowledge in their field. Nevertheless, studies of editorial board composition remain rare, especially those focusing on journals publishing research in the increasingly globalized fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Using metrics for quantifying the diversity of ecological communities, we quantified international representation on the 1985-2014 editorial boards of 24 environmental biology journals...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231958/medical-issues-in-playing-the-oboe-a-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Sofia Banzhoff, Maria Del Mar Ropero, Gabriele Menzel, Tatjana Salmen, Manfred Gross, Philipp P Caffier
Playing a musical instrument can affect physical and mental health. A literature review was conducted to determine the prevalence of health problems among oboists, which medical conditions can be caused or exacerbated by playing, whether oboe playing can be a protective factor, and whether recommendations are possible as to who should or should not play the oboe. Searches in 7 databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SocIndex, PsyIndex, Psychinfo) yielded a total of 950 studies; after exclusion of duplicates and those not meeting eligibility criteria, 37 articles were selected for final analysis...
December 2017: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230461/formation-of-new-polymorphs-and-control-of-crystallization-in-molecular-glass-formers-by-electric-field
#4
K Adrjanowicz, M Paluch, R Richert
Static electric fields were observed to modify the crystallization behavior in a simple supercooled liquid, leading to a new crystal polymorph that could not be obtained in the absence of a field, even under high-pressure conditions. Using different thermal protocols and field amplitudes in the range from 40 to 200 kV cm-1, changes in both nucleation and crystal growth rates of 4-vinyl-propylene carbonate (vinyl-PC) are revealed. Remarkably, all field-induced changes in the crystallization behaviour were found to be fully reversible and do not affect dynamics of the tested liquid...
December 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228288/outcome-measures-used-in-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review
#5
Ana L Oliveira, Alda S Marques
Background: Conflicting results about the effects of community-based pulmonary rehabilitation in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) exist, possibly because the variety of outcome measures used and the lack of appropriate measurement properties hinder the development of pulmonary rehabilitation guidelines. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and review the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and clinical outcome measures of AECOPD that are used in pulmonary rehabilitation and that can be easily applied in a community setting...
December 6, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226775/corrigendum-the-wisdom-in-virtue-pursuit-of-virtue-predicts-wise-reasoning-about-personal-conflicts
#6
(no author information available yet)
Original Article: Huynh, A. C., Oakes, H., Shay, G. R., & McGregor, I. (2017). The wisdom in virtue: Pursuit of virtue predicts wise reasoning about personal conflicts. Psychological Science, 28, 1848-1856. doi:10.1177/0956797617722621 In this article, results for the Pursuit of Virtue × Conflict Type interaction in Study 2 were incorrectly reported. The final paragraph on page 1854 stated, "As in Study 1, we found a significant Pursuit of Virtue × Conflict Type interaction, F(1, 353) = 4.61, p = .032, η p2 = ...
December 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218624/motivation-for-launching-a-cancer-metastasis-inhibition-cmi-program
#7
REVIEW
Jill M Pulley, Rebecca N Jerome, Martin L Ogletree, Gordon R Bernard, Robert R Lavieri, Nicole M Zaleski, Charles C Hong, Jana K Shirey-Rice, Carlos L Arteaga, Ingrid A Mayer, Kenneth J Holroyd, Rebecca S Cook
Metastatic cancers impose significant burdens on patients, affecting quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Even during remission, microscopic metastases can lurk, but few therapies directly target tumor cell metastasis. Agents that interfere with this process would represent a new paradigm in cancer management, changing the 'waiting game' into a time of active prevention. These therapies could take multiple forms based on the pathways involved in the metastatic process. For example, a phenome-wide association study showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene TBXA2R is associated with increased metastasis in multiple primary cancers (P = 0...
December 7, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217949/the-effect-of-psychosocial-factors-and-patients-perception-of-tuberculosis-treatment-non-adherence-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#8
Habteyes Hailu Tola, Gholamreza Garmaroudi, Davoud Shojaeizadeh, Azar Tol, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Luche Tadesse Ejeta, Abebaw Kebede, Desta Kassa
Background: Although there are several studies reported on factors affecting tuberculosis (TB) treatment non-adherence, there is information gap on psychosocial and patients' perceptions aspects. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of psychosocial factors and patients' perceptions on TB treatment non-adherence in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa from May to December, 2014. Thirty one health facilities were randomly selected and 698 TB patients, who had been on treatment, were enrolled consecutively using patient registration number...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217938/sociodemographic-correlates-of-hiv-discordant-and-concordant-couples-in-anambra-state-nigeria
#9
Chinomnso Nnebue, Adaeze Anaekwe, Chidebe Anaekwe
Background: The contribution of discordant partnerships to the burden of HIV/AIDS is significant. An understanding of the characteristics of HIV-affected couples will help modify preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to compare the HIV discordant and concordant partnerships for sociodemographic determinants in comprehensive health centers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods: This was an institution based case-control study of 289 (148 HIV-concordant and 141 HIV-discordant) couples, selected using multistage sampling technique...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217396/a-2018-horizon-scan-of-emerging-issues-for-global-conservation-and-biological-diversity
#10
REVIEW
William J Sutherland, Stuart H M Butchart, Ben Connor, Caroline Culshaw, Lynn V Dicks, Jason Dinsdale, Helen Doran, Abigail C Entwistle, Erica Fleishman, David W Gibbons, Zhigang Jiang, Brandon Keim, Xavier Le Roux, Fiona A Lickorish, Paul Markillie, Kathryn A Monk, Diana Mortimer, James W Pearce-Higgins, Lloyd S Peck, Jules Pretty, Colleen L Seymour, Mark D Spalding, Femke H Tonneijck, Rosalind A Gleave
This is our ninth annual horizon scan to identify emerging issues that we believe could affect global biological diversity, natural capital and ecosystem services, and conservation efforts. Our diverse and international team, with expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, as well as conservation science, practice, and policy, reviewed 117 potential issues. We identified the 15 that may have the greatest positive or negative effects but are not yet well recognised by the global conservation community...
November 27, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216596/understanding-social-and-behavioral-drivers-and-impacts-of-air-quality-sensor-use
#11
Bryan J Hubbell, Amanda Kaufman, Louie Rivers, Kayla Schulte, Gayle Hagler, Jane Clougherty, Wayne Cascio, Dan Costa
BACKGROUND: Lower-cost air quality sensors (hundreds to thousands of dollars) are now available to individuals and communities. This technology is undergoing a rapid and fragmented evolution, resulting in sensors that have uncertain data quality, measure different air pollutants and possess a variety of design attributes. Why and how individuals and communities choose to use sensors is arguably influenced by social context. For example, community experiences with environmental exposures and health effects and related interactions with industry and government can affect trust in traditional air quality monitoring...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214566/improved-diagnosis-and-care-for-rare-diseases-through-implementation-of-precision-public-health-framework
#12
Gareth Baynam, Faye Bowman, Karla Lister, Caroline E Walker, Nicholas Pachter, Jack Goldblatt, Kym M Boycott, William A Gahl, Kenjiro Kosaki, Takeya Adachi, Ken Ishii, Trinity Mahede, Fiona McKenzie, Sharron Townshend, Jennie Slee, Cathy Kiraly-Borri, Anand Vasudevan, Anne Hawkins, Stephanie Broley, Lyn Schofield, Hedwig Verhoef, Tudor Groza, Andreas Zankl, Peter N Robinson, Melissa Haendel, Michael Brudno, John S Mattick, Marcel E Dinger, Tony Roscioli, Mark J Cowley, Annie Olry, Marc Hanauer, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Domenica Taruscio, Manuel Posada de la Paz, Hanns Lochmüller, Kate Bushby, Rachel Thompson, Victoria Hedley, Paul Lasko, Kym Mina, John Beilby, Cynthia Tifft, Mark Davis, Nigel G Laing, Daria Julkowska, Yann Le Cam, Sharon F Terry, Petra Kaufmann, Iiro Eerola, Irene Norstedt, Ana Rath, Makoto Suematsu, Stephen C Groft, Christopher P Austin, Ruxandra Draghia-Akli, Tarun S Weeramanthri, Caron Molster, Hugh J S Dawkins
Public health relies on technologies to produce and analyse data, as well as effectively develop and implement policies and practices. An example is the public health practice of epidemiology, which relies on computational technology to monitor the health status of populations, identify disadvantaged or at risk population groups and thereby inform health policy and priority setting. Critical to achieving health improvements for the underserved population of people living with rare diseases is early diagnosis and best care...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214222/reasons-to-pursue-a-career-in-medicine-a-qualitative-study-in-sierra-leone
#13
Aniek Woodward, Suzanne Thomas, Mohamed Bella Jalloh, John Rees, Andrew Leather
Background: Many low-income and crises-affected countries like Sierra Leone struggle with the recruitment and retention of their health professionals, particularly nurses and doctors. There are multiple factors that influence the 'recruitment to retention' pipeline. The first stage of an exploration into the issues influencing the availability of qualified health care workers may focus on the aspects which influence their entry into relevant educational programmes. This paper explores the reasons given by junior doctors in Sierra Leone for wanting to become a doctor...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214151/association-between-depression-and-factors-affecting-career-choice-among-jordanian-nursing-students
#14
Said Yousef, Mariam Athamneh, Emad Masuadi, Haitham Ahmad, Tom Loney, Hamdy F Moselhy, Fatma Al-Maskari, Iffat ElBarazi
Background: Although stress reaction is high among nursing staff and nursing students in the Middle East and its effect on life is known, there are scant studies reporting on these clinical and social features. In addition, there are no studies reporting on factors that influence career choice among this group. Aim: This study aimed to investigate factors that influence career choice among nursing students and their possible association with depressive symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213075/suppression-of-stochastic-domain-wall-pinning-through-control-of-gilbert-damping
#15
T J Broomhall, T J Hayward
Finite temperature micromagnetic simulations were used to investigate the magnetisation structure, propagation dynamics and stochastic pinning of domain walls in rare earth-doped Ni80Fe20 nanowires. We first show how the increase of the Gilbert damping, caused by the inclusion rare-earth dopants such as holmium, acts to suppress Walker breakdown phenomena. This allows domain walls to maintain consistent magnetisation structures during propagation. We then employ finite temperature simulations to probe how this affects the stochastic pinning of domain walls at notch-shaped artificial defect sites...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212464/sexual-dysfunction-and-mode-of-delivery-in-chinese-primiparous-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Dazhi Fan, Song Li, Wen Wang, Guo Tian, Li Liu, Song Wu, Xiaoling Guo, Zhengping Liu
BACKGROUND: Up to now, there is controversy over the effect of delivery mode cesarean delivery and spontaneous vaginal delivery on sexual function. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis in postpartum women to explore the mode of delivery, cesarean delivery, and spontaneous vaginal delivery and differences in postpartum sexual function (short- and long-term) in Chinese primiparous women. METHODS: Comprehensive electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biological Medical Literature database and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database were conducted to identify any study in each database published to August 31, 2017...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212385/living-environment-and-its-relationship-to-depressive-mood-a-systematic-review
#17
Nina Rautio, Svetlana Filatova, Heli Lehtiniemi, Jouko Miettunen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The notion that environment affects mental health has a long history; in this systematic review, we aimed to study whether the living environment is related to depressive mood. METHODS: We searched databases of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for population-based original studies prior to October 2016. We included studies that measured depressive symptoms or depression and had measures of urbanization, population density, aesthetics of living environment, house/built environment, green areas, walkability, noise, air pollution or services...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211969/use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-immediately-after-an-injury-did-not-improve-ligament-healing-and-increasing-platelet-concentrations-was-detrimental-in-an-in-vivo-animal-model
#18
Robert F LaPrade, Laurie R Goodrich, Jennifer Phillips, Grant J Dornan, Travis Lee Turnbull, Michael L Hawes, Kimi D Dahl, Ashley N Coggins, John Kisiday, David Frisbie, Jorge Chahla
BACKGROUND: Limited information in basic science and clinical trials exists to determine if ligament healing may be accelerated with the use of biological adjuvants, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP). However, there has been widespread acceptance of PRP for use in clinical practice, despite an inadequate understanding of its biological mechanism of action. PURPOSE: To determine whether a single dose of PRP could accelerate ligament healing and correspondingly improve histological characteristics and biomechanical properties when injected immediately postoperatively into the injured medial collateral ligament (MCL) of New Zealand White rabbits...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209666/novel-duplication-mutation-of-the-dysf-gene-in-a-pakistani-family-with-miyoshi-myopathy
#19
Muhammad I Ullah, Arsalan Ahmad, Milena Zarkovic, Syed S Shah, Abdul Nasir, Saqib Mahmood, Wasim Ahmad, Christian A Hubner, Muhammad J Hassan
To identify the underlying gene mutation in a large consanguineous Pakistani family.  Methods: This is an observational descriptive study carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Shifa International Hospital, Quaid-i-Azam University, and Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013-2016. Genomic DNA of all recruited family members was extracted and the Trusight one sequencing panel was used to assess genes associated with a neuro-muscular phenotype...
December 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209341/the-challenge-of-improving-soil-fertility-in-yam-cropping-systems-of-west-africa
#20
REVIEW
Emmanuel Frossard, Beatrice A Aighewi, Sévérin Aké, Dominique Barjolle, Philipp Baumann, Thomas Bernet, Daouda Dao, Lucien N Diby, Anne Floquet, Valérie K Hgaza, Léa J Ilboudo, Delwende I Kiba, Roch L Mongbo, Hassan B Nacro, Gian L Nicolay, Esther Oka, Yabile F Ouattara, Nestor Pouya, Ravinda L Senanayake, Johan Six, Orokya I Traoré
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is a tuber crop grown for food security, income generation, and traditional medicine. This crop has a high cultural value for some of the groups growing it. Most of the production comes from West Africa where the increased demand has been covered by enlarging cultivated surfaces while the mean yield remained around 10 t tuber ha-1. In West Africa, yam is traditionally cultivated without input as the first crop after a long-term fallow as it is considered to require a high soil fertility...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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