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Affective Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911489/palliative-care-interventions-in-advanced-dementia
#1
REVIEW
Edel Murphy, Katherine Froggatt, Sheelah Connolly, Eamon O'Shea, Elizabeth L Sampson, Dympna Casey, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic, progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease. Advanced dementia is characterised by profound cognitive impairment, inability to communicate verbally and complete functional dependence. Usual care of people with advanced dementia is not underpinned universally by a palliative approach. Palliative care has focused traditionally on care of people with cancer but for more than a decade, there have been increased calls worldwide to extend palliative care services to include all people with life-limiting illnesses in need of specialist care, including people with dementia...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911022/membrane-defects-and-genetic-redundancy-are-we-at-a-turning-point-for-dyt1-dystonia
#2
REVIEW
Ana Cascalho, Julie Jacquemyn, Rose E Goodchild
Heterozygosity for a 3-base pair deletion (ΔGAG) in TOR1A/torsinA is one of the most common causes of hereditary dystonia. In this review, we highlight current understanding of how this mutation causes disease from research spanning structural biochemistry, cell science, neurobiology, and several model organisms. We now know that homozygosity for ΔGAG has the same effects as Tor1a(KO) , implicating a partial loss of function mechanism in the ΔGAG/+ disease state. In addition, torsinA loss specifically affects neurons in mice, even though the gene is broadly expressed, apparently because of differential expression of homologous torsinB...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909415/imagining-change-an-integrative-approach-toward-explaining-the-motivational-role-of-mental-imagery-in-pro-environmental-behavior
#3
Christine Boomsma, Sabine Pahl, Jackie Andrade
Climate change and other long-term environmental issues are often perceived as abstract and difficult to imagine. The images a person associates with environmental change, i.e., a person's environmental mental images, can be influenced by the visual information they come across in the public domain. This paper reviews the literature on this topic across social, environmental, and cognitive psychology, and the wider social sciences; thereby responding to a call for more critical investigations into people's responses to visual information...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907230/reverse-geroscience-how-does-exposure-to-early-diseases-accelerate-the-age-related-decline-in-health
#4
Ronald A Kohanski, Steven G Deeks, Claudia Gravekamp, Jeffrey B Halter, Kevin High, Arti Hurria, Rebecca Fuldner, Paige Green, Robin Huebner, Francesca Macchiarini, Felipe Sierra
Aging is the major risk factor for both the development of chronic diseases and loss of functional capacity. Geroscience provides links among the biology of aging, the biology of disease, and the physiology of frailty, three fields where enormous progress has been made in the last few decades. While, previously, the focus was on the role of aging in susceptibility to disease and disability, the other side of this relationship, which is the contribution of disease to aging, has been less explored at the molecular/cellular level...
December 1, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907194/preservation-of-multiple-mammalian-tissues-to-maximize-science-return-from-ground-based-and-spaceflight-experiments
#5
Sungshin Choi, Hami E Ray, San-Huei Lai, Joshua S Alwood, Ruth K Globus
BACKGROUND: Even with recent scientific advancements, challenges posed by limited resources and capabilities at the time of sample dissection continue to limit the collection of high quality tissues from experiments that can be conducted only infrequently and at high cost, such as in space. The resources and time it takes to harvest tissues post-euthanasia, and the methods and duration of long duration storage, potentially have negative impacts on sample quantity and quality, thereby limiting the scientific outcome that can be achieved...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906135/seed-germination-and-biochemical-profile-of-silybum-marianum-exposed-to-monometallic-and-bimetallic-alloy-nanoparticles
#6
Muhammad Salman Khan, Mehreen Zaka, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Latifur- Rahman, Afzal Shah
In recent years nanotechnology has become increasingly important in almost every field. The new and improved physical, chemical and biological properties of material at nanoscale have far reaching implications in the fields of science and technology. Nanoparticles' effect on various plant species must be investigated to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. The current study strives to evaluate the effects of nine types of metal nanoparticles including monometallic and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles [Ag, Au, Cu, AgCu (1:3), AgCu (3:1), AuCu (1:3), AuCu (3:1), AgAu (1:3), AgAu (3:1)] on seed germination, root and shoot growth and biochemical profile of Silybum marianum plant...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904626/respect-for-woman-s-decision-making-in-spontaneous-birth-a-thematic-synthesis-study
#7
Firoozeh MirzaeeRabor, Fattaneh Mirzaee, Khadigeh MirzaiiNajmabadi, Ali Taghipour
BACKGROUND: Participation of woman in decision-making processes is one of the key indicators of an appropriate relationship between a woman and the health care professionals. This study aimed to recognize the factors facilitating respect for woman's decision-making in spontaneous birth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper employed a meta-synthesis on articles published in four biomedical databases including MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. All qualitative studies published after 1990 and directly or indirectly discussing the women's and the health care professional's attitudes toward respect for woman's decision-making in spontaneous birth were searched...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904598/the-effects-of-low-carbohydrate-diets-on-liver-function-tests-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#8
REVIEW
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Pamela J Surkan, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND: Although several observational and experimental studies have examined the effects of low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), there are considerable inconsistencies among studies. We summarized the effect of LCDs on liver function tests, including intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in patients with NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant publications until July 2014, resulting in ten relevant papers that were included in meta-analysis...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899835/use-of-an-online-game-to-evaluate-health-professions-students-attitudes-toward-people-in-poverty
#9
Carriann E Richey Smith, Priscilla Ryder, Ann Bilodeau, Michele Schultz
Objective. To determine baseline attitudes of pharmacy, physician assistant studies, and communication science and disorders students toward people in poverty and to examine the effectiveness of using the online poverty simulation game SPENT to affect these attitudes. Methods. Students completed pre/postassessments using the validated Undergraduate Perceptions of Poverty Tracking Survey (UPPTS). Students played the online, open access, SPENT game alone and/or in pairs in a 50-minute class. Results. Significant improvements in scale scores were seen in students after playing SPENT...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899733/scientific-eminence-where-are-the-women
#10
Alice H Eagly, David I Miller
Women are sparsely represented among psychologists honored for scientific eminence. However, most currently eminent psychologists started their careers when far fewer women pursued training in psychological science. Now that women earn the majority of psychology Ph.D.'s, will they predominate in the next generation's cadre of eminent psychologists? Comparing currently active female and male psychology professors on publication metrics such as the h index provides clues for answering this question. Men outperform women on the h index and its two components: scientific productivity and citations of contributions...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894912/hearing-thresholds-at-high-frequency-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-systematic-review
#11
Debora T M Caumo, Lúcia B Geyer, Adriana R Teixeira, Sérgio S M Barreto
INTRODUCTION: High-frequency audiometry may contribute to the early detection of hearing loss caused by ototoxic medications. Many ototoxic drugs are widely used in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis. Early detection of hearing loss should allow known harmful drugs to be identified before the damage affects speech frequencies. The damage caused by ototoxicity is irreversible, resulting in important social and psychological consequences. In children, hearing loss, even when restricted to high frequencies, can affect the development of language...
November 9, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893575/variations-in-burn-excision-and-grafting-a-survey-of-the-american-burn-association
#12
Jacqueline S Israel, David G Greenhalgh, Angela L Gibson
It is unknown whether variations in burn care affect outcomes or affect the success of emerging therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to assess burn surgeons' preferences in excision and grafting to determine if surgical technique affects outcomes. A 71-item survey evaluating skin grafting techniques was emailed to members of the American Burn Association in July and August 2015. The survey was anonymous and voluntary. Relationships between variables were evaluated using Fisher's exact test. A P-value of ≤...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892673/survival-rate-of-breast-cancer-in-iran-a-meta-analysis
#13
Ghasem Abedi, Ghasem Janbabai, Mahmood Mosazadeh, Fereshte Farshidi, Mohammad Amiri, Ahmad Khosravi
Background: There has not been a general estimation about survival rates of breast cancer cases in Iran. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess survival using a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: International credible databases such as Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Science direct and Google Scholar and Iranian databases such as Magiran, Irandoc and SID, from 1997 to 2015 were searched. All articles covering survival rate of breast cancer were entered into the study without any limits. Quality assessment of the articles and data extraction were performed by two researchers using the modified STROBE checklist, which includes 12 questions...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891457/prevalence-of-dental-caries-among-primary-school-children-of-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Anand Hiremath, Vikneshan Murugaboopathy, Anil V Ankola, Mamata Hebbal, Suganya Mohandoss, Pratibha Pastay
INTRODUCTION: In India, the trend indicates an increase in oral health problems especially dental caries, which has been consistently increasing both in prevalence and in severity. Children of all age groups are affected by dental caries. It becomes imperative to collect the data on prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs to provide preventive care. AIM: To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs of 6-11years old Indian school children...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889383/a-systematic-review-examining-factors-predicting-favourable-outcome-in-cognitive-behavioural-interventions-for-psychosis
#15
REVIEW
J O'Keeffe, R Conway, B McGuire
Psychosis is a debilitating mental health condition affecting approximately 4 persons per 1000. Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) has been shown to be an effective treatment for psychosis and is recommended by several national guidelines. CBTp does not work equally well with everyone, however, with some 50% of clients receiving little benefit. This review sets out to systematically assess the literature and methodological quality of a number of studies, which examine factors predicting successful outcome in CBTp...
November 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885362/current-rural-drug-use-in-the-us-midwest
#16
Kirk Dombrowski, Devan Crawford, Bilal Khan, Kimberly Tyler
The nature and challenge of illicit drug use in the United States continues to change rapidly, evolving in reaction to myriad social, economic, and local forces. While the use of illicit drugs affects every region of the country, most of our current information about drug use comes from large urban areas. Data on rural drug use and its harms justify greater attention. Record overdose rates, unexpected outbreaks of HIV, and a dearth of treatment facilities point to a rapidly worsening health situation. While health sciences have made considerable progress in understanding the etiology of drug use and uncovering the link between drug use and its myriad associated harms, this promising scientific news has not always translated to better health outcomes...
2016: Journal of Drug Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885160/how-unemployment-and-precarious-employment-affect-the-health-of-young-people-a-scoping-study-on-social-determinants
#17
REVIEW
Mihaela Vancea, Mireia Utzet
BACKGROUND: The impact of unemployment and precarious employment on the health of young people is not well understood. However, according to social causation, higher socio-economic positions and thus better working conditions are beneficial to health in general. We tried to synthesize the results of studies that test this hypothesis in the case of young people. METHODS: We conducted a scoping study mapping all the academic articles published in the period 2006-2016 in Europe...
November 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885080/importance-of-engaging-in-dialogue-with-the-population-after-a-nuclear-accident
#18
Hans Vanmarcke
Human behaviour is primarily driven by perceptions and this is particularly important in the aftermath of a nuclear accident. One of the main lessons we can draw from the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents is that once the acute phase of the accident is over, it is important to engage in dialogue with the affected population. Science-based government measures, imposed from above, give rise to much opposition. Examples of this are the aversion of having to live in a contaminated territory, the reluctance of consumers to buy even slightly contaminated food and the opposition of most evacuees to return to their old homes...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885038/design-fiction-and-the-medical-humanities
#19
Christopher Gordon Strachan
This paper sets out to explore the similarities between the developing discipline of speculative and critical design (SCD) and science fiction, and their relevance to the medical humanities. SCD looks beyond 'commercial design' to consider what sort of things we should, or should not, be designing in order to create preferable futures. It does so by extrapolating from current social, economic, political and scientific knowledge, designing artefacts, experiences and scenarios which communicate futures and alternative realities in tangible ways...
December 2016: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884523/the-anthroposphere-as-an-anticipatory-system-open-questions-on-steering-the-climate
#20
Rocco Scolozzi, Davide Geneletti
Climate change research and action counteracting it affect everyone and would involve cross-societal transformations reshaping the anthroposphere in its entirety. Scrutinizing climate-related science and policies, we recognize attempts to steer the evolution of climate according to expected (or modelled) futures. Such attempts would turn the anthroposphere into a large "anticipatory system", in which human society seeks to anticipate and, possibly, to govern climate dynamics. The chief aim of this discussion paper is to open a critical debate on the climate change paradigm (CCP) drawing on a strategic and systemic framework grounded in the concept of anticipatory system sensu Rosen (1991)...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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