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Affective Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820231/interventions-for-treating-persistent-pain-in-survivors-of-torture
#1
REVIEW
Emma Baird, Amanda C de C Williams, Leslie Hearn, Kirstine Amris
BACKGROUND: Persistent (chronic) pain is a frequent complaint in survivors of torture, particularly but not exclusively pain in the musculoskeletal system. Torture survivors may have no access to health care; where they do, they may not be recognised when they present, and the care available often falls short of their needs. There is a tendency in state and non-governmental organisations' services to focus on mental health, with poor understanding of persistent pain, while survivors may have many other legal, welfare, and social problems that take precedence over health care...
August 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818272/on-human-parthenogenesis
#2
Gabriel Jose de Carli, Tiago Campos Pereira
Spontaneous parthenogenetic and androgenetic events occur in humans, but they result in tumours: the ovarian teratoma and the hydatidiform mole, respectively. However, the observation of fetiform (ovarian) teratomas, the serependious identification of several chimeric human parthenotes and androgenotes in the last two decades, along with the creation of viable bi-maternal mice in the laboratory based on minor genetic interferences, raises the question of whether natural cases of clinically healthy human parthenotes have gone unnoticed to science...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813362/people-have-feelings-exercise-psychology-in-paradigmatic-transition
#3
REVIEW
Panteleimon Ekkekakis
Exercise psychology has yet to produce intervention methods capable of increasing exercise and physical activity behavior in a sustainable manner. This situation is forcing a critical reevaluation of current conceptual models, especially the assumption that behavioral decisions are driven solely by the rational evaluation of information. Like other behavioral sciences, exercise psychology is transitioning to dual-process models that acknowledge the importance of non-reflective processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the pleasure or displeasure experienced during exercise may influence subsequent physical activity...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812686/interactions-of-microplastic-debris-throughout-the-marine-ecosystem
#4
REVIEW
Tamara S Galloway, Matthew Cole, Ceri Lewis
Marine microscopic plastic (microplastic) debris is a modern societal issue, illustrating the challenge of balancing the convenience of plastic in daily life with the prospect of causing ecological harm by careless disposal. Here we develop the concept of microplastic as a complex, dynamic mixture of polymers and additives, to which organic material and contaminants can successively bind to form an 'ecocorona', increasing the density and surface charge of particles and changing their bioavailability and toxicity...
April 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809661/international-educational-interactions-and-students-critical-consciousness-a-pilot-study
#5
Rebecca M Aldrich, Lenin C Grajo
Online technologies facilitate connections between students around the world, but their impact on occupational science and occupational therapy students' critical consciousness about culture is underexplored. In this article we present research on five groups of occupational science and occupational therapy students across two cohorts at one Midwestern university. We used a pretest-posttest group design and the Multicultural Experiences Questionnaire to investigate the potential influence of students' exposure to international educational interactions on their multicultural experiences and desires...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809453/a-meta-analysis-micrornas-prognostic-function-in-patients-with-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Na Yu, Qingjun Zhang, Qing Liu, Jiayu Yang, Sheng Zhang
Accumulating papers have demonstrated that microRNAs play an important role in the progression of lung cancer, mainly as oncogenic and tumor suppressive. Therefore, microRNAs may influence the survival of lung cancer patients. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the role of microRNAs in affecting the overall survival in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, which may provide valuable information for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer. We used keywords to retrieve literatures from online databases PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science and included 12 studies into our investigation according to pre-set criteria...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809092/particle-targeting-in-complex-biological-media
#7
REVIEW
Qiong Dai, Nadja Bertleff-Zieschang, Julia A Braunger, Mattias Björnmalm, Christina Cortez-Jugo, Frank Caruso
Over the past few decades, nanoengineered particles have gained increasing interest for applications in the biomedical realm, including diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. When functionalized with targeting ligands, these particles have the potential to interact with specific cells and tissues, and accumulate at desired target sites, reducing side effects and improve overall efficacy in applications such as vaccination and drug delivery. However, when targeted particles enter a complex biological environment, the adsorption of biomolecules and the formation of a surface coating (e...
August 15, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809007/method-to-identify-silent-codon-mutations-that-may-alter-peptide-elongation-kinetics-and-co-translational-protein-folding
#8
Ronald Worthington, Elijah Ball, Brentsen Wolf, Gregory Takacs
Due to the redundancy of the protein genetic code, mutational changes in the second or third nucleotide of an existing codon may not change the amino acid specification of the resulting modified codon. When peptide primary sequence is unchanged by mutation, that mutation is assumed to have no functional consequences. However, for one key gene involved in drug transport, MDR-1, several silent, synonymous mutations have been shown to alter protein structure and substrate affinity (Kimchi-Sarfaty et al., Science 315:525-528, 2007)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806269/affective-disorders-and-sexual-function-from-neuroscience-to-clinic
#9
Bernardo C de Abreu Barata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual dysfunction is a frequent issue in patients with affective disorders, affecting its quality of life and posing challenges to the approach of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, human sexuality has attracted interest from the scientific community, and today we have a much deeper knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the sexual response. Paraphilias or sexual dysfunctions like low sexual desire, premature ejaculation, and erectile dysfunction, are frequent in affective disorders, and the frequency of each sexual problem varies according to the affective disorder...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805567/nutrition-and-nonmotor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Laurie K Mischley
To date, no guidelines exist for the screening, evaluation, and management of nutritional status in PD. Dozens of studies demonstrate an association between diet in adulthood with subsequent risk of developing PD. Individuals with PD are at increased risk of malnutrition due to the increased metabolic demands and disease pathophysiology. Risk of malnutrition is further complicated by anosmia, swallowing difficulties, constipation, and drug-nutrient interactions. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the intestinal tract is affected early in the disease, creating therapeutic opportunities for early intervention...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805188/managing-faecal-incontinence-in-people-with-advanced-dementia-resident-in-care-homes-finch-study-a-realist-synthesis-of-the-evidence
#11
Claire Goodman, Christine Norton, Marina Buswell, Bridget Russell, Danielle Harari, Rowan Harwood, Brenda Roe, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Vari M Drennan, Mandy Fader, Michelle Maden, Karen Cummings, Frances Bunn
BACKGROUND: Eighty per cent of care home residents in the UK are living with dementia. The prevalence of faecal incontinence (FI) in care homes is estimated to range from 30% to 50%. There is limited evidence of what is effective in the reduction and management of FI in care homes. OBJECTIVE: To provide a theory-driven explanation of the effectiveness of programmes that aim to improve FI in people with advanced dementia in care homes. DESIGN: A realist synthesis...
August 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805172/the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-and-sustainable-development-goals-mapping-the-way-forward
#12
N Kajee, E Sobngwi, A Macnab, A S Daar
In this paper, meant to stimulate debate, we argue that there is considerable benefit in approaching together the implementation of two seemingly separate recent developments. First, on the global development agenda, we have the United Nations General Assembly's 2015 finalized list of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Several of the SDGs are related to health. Second, the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) has garnered enough compelling evidence demonstrating that early exposures in life affect not only future health, but that the effects of that exposure can be transmitted across generations - necessitating that we begin to focus on prevention...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804788/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220-to-balance-brain-reward-circuitry-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#13
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, David Baron, Eric R Braverman, Kristina Dushaj, Mona Li, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
We are faced with a worldwide opiate/opioid epidemic that is devastating. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at least 127 people, young and old, are dying every day in America due to narcotic overdose. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Medication-Assisted Treatments (MATs) for opiate/opioids as well as alcohol and nicotine. The mechanism of action of most MATS favors either blocking of dopaminergic function or a form of Opiate Substitution Therapy (OST). These treatment options are adequate for short-term treatment of the symptoms of addiction and harm reduction but fail long-term to deal with the cause or lead to recovery...
2017: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome and Addiction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802940/fatigue-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Benzi M Kluger
Fatigue is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD), affecting approximately half of all patients. Fatigue is a significant contributor to reduction in quality of life and is a leading cause of disability. Despite the clear impact of fatigue on persons living with PD, research progress has been slow in this area in terms of uncovering the mechanisms of fatigue and there are currently no evidence-based treatments. Although fatigue is often viewed as a subjective and nonspecific symptom which cannot be studied rigorously, there is an emerging science of fatigue which is based on a careful and precise taxonomy of the construct of fatigue...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801178/impact-of-head-and-neck-radiotherapy-on-the-mechanical-behavior-of-composite-resins-and-adhesive-systems-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Cristhian Camilo Madrid Troconis, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Thaís Bianca Brandão, Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Mario Fernando de Goes
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the evidence regarding the impact of head and neck radiotherapy (HNRT) on the mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems. METHODS: Searches were conducted on PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases using "Radiotherapy", "Composite resins" and "Adhesive systems" as keywords. Selected studies were written in English and assessed the mechanical behavior of composite resins and/or adhesive systems when bonding procedure was conducted before and/or after a maximum radiation dose ≥50Gy, applied under in vitro or in vivo conditions...
August 8, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799488/environment-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-an-update-on-mirna-role
#16
Margherita Ferrante, Gea Oliveri Conti
INTRODUCTION: The importance of neurodegenerative diseases on the management of public health is growing and the real role of the environment and miRNA in their occurrence is still unclear. miRNA can affect significantly the regulatory network. The complex variety and gene-regulatory capacity of miRNAs is particularly valuable in the brain, being a very complex organ with a functional specialization of neurons highly adaptable to environmental stimuli. In particular a miRNAs role is demonstrated in neurological diseases as the effect to toxic and mutagenic substances exposure by the environment...
August 11, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799377/ice-formation-on-kaolinite-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#17
Gabriele C Sosso, Gareth A Tribello, Andrea Zen, Philipp Pedevilla, Angelos Michaelides
The formation of ice affects many aspects of our everyday life as well as important technologies such as cryotherapy and cryopreservation. Foreign substances almost always aid water freezing through heterogeneous ice nucleation, but the molecular details of this process remain largely unknown. In fact, insight into the microscopic mechanism of ice formation on different substrates is difficult to obtain even if state-of-the-art experimental techniques are used. At the same time, atomistic simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation frequently face extraordinary challenges due to the complexity of the water-substrate interaction and the long time scales that characterize nucleation events...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799002/intolerance-and-violence-against-doctors
#18
REVIEW
Meharban Singh
Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics...
August 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795752/coordination-change-lability-and-hemilability-in-metal-organic-frameworks
#19
REVIEW
Russell E Morris, Lee Brammer
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are some of the most exciting materials in current science. Their utility and diversity of applications depends on a combination of their chemistry, their framework topology and the spatial dimensions of their pores. In this review we concentrate on the chemistry of MOFs. Specifically we bring together many aspects of MOFs that underpin their stability, reactivity and dynamic behaviour within a common theme related to (changes in) metal-ligand bonding. In each area we provide examples to illustrate the behaviour and discuss it in the context of metal lability and coordination changes...
August 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793981/attitudes-of-crohn-s-disease-patients-infodemiology-case-study-and-sentiment-analysis-of-facebook-and-twitter-posts
#20
Marco Roccetti, Gustavo Marfia, Paola Salomoni, Catia Prandi, Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Faustine Linda Gningaye Kengni, Franco Bazzoli, Marco Montagnani
BACKGROUND: Data concerning patients originates from a variety of sources on social media. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to show how methodologies borrowed from different areas including computer science, econometrics, statistics, data mining, and sociology may be used to analyze Facebook data to investigate the patients' perspectives on a given medical prescription. METHODS: To shed light on patients' behavior and concerns, we focused on Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and the specific therapy with the biological drug Infliximab...
August 9, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
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