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Affective Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454010/how-economic-recessions-and-unemployment-affect-illegal-drug-use-a-systematic-realist-literature-review
#1
Gera E Nagelhout, Karin Hummel, Moniek C M de Goeij, Hein de Vries, Eileen Kaner, Paul Lemmens
BACKGROUND: Economic recessions may influence illegal drug use via different mechanisms, for example increased use due to more psychological distress or decreased use due to lower incomes and purchasing power. This paper reviews the literature on how economic recessions and unemployment affect the use of illegal drugs among adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic realist literature review, which is an explanatory method that aims to understand underlying mechanisms that connect an event to an outcome in a specific context...
April 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453836/commonly-transmitted-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-in-reverse-transcriptase-and-protease-in-antiretroviral-treatment-naive-patients-and-response-to-regimens-containing-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-or-tenofovir-alafenamide
#2
Nicolas A Margot, Pamela Wong, Rima Kulkarni, Kirsten White, Danielle Porter, Michael E Abram, Christian Callebaut, Michael D Miller
Background.: The presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients can adversely affect the outcome of ART. Methods.: Resistance testing was conducted in 6704 ART-naive subjects predominantly from the United States and Europe in 9 clinical studies conducted by Gilead Sciences from 2000 to 2013. Results.: The presence of TDRMs increased during this period (from 5.2% to 11.4%), primarily driven by an increase in nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations (from 0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453761/the-prevalence-and-incidence-of-axial-and-peripheral-spondyloarthritis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Maren C Karreman, Jolanda J Luime, Johanna M W Hazes, Angelique E A M Weel
Background and Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is a chronic disease which affects up to 0.5% of the population. Various extraintestinal manifestations occur, among which are rheumatic manifestations, grouped together under the name spondyloarthritis. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to give a systematic overview of the prevalence and incidence of spondyloarthritis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods: We systematically searched Embase, Pubmed, OvidSP, Scopus, and Web-of-Science databases from inception to August 2016...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453429/anti-microbial-coating-innovations-to-prevent-infectious-diseases-amici-cost-action-ca15114
#4
Colum P Dunne, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola, Anne Kahru, Birgit Teunissen, Hulya Olmez, Isabel Gouveia, Luis Melo, Kazimierz Murzyn, Martina Modic, Merja Ahonen, Pete Askew, Theofilos Papadopoulos, Christian Adlhart, Francy R L Crijns
Worldwide, millions of patients are affected annually by healthcare-associated infection (HCAI), impacting up to 80,000 patients in European Hospitals on any given day. This represents not only public health risk, but also an economic burden. Complementing routine hand hygiene practices, cleaning and disinfection, antimicrobial coatings hold promise based, in essence, on the application of materials and chemicals with persistent bactericidal or -static properties onto surfaces or in textiles used in healthcare environments...
April 28, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447837/the-state-of-social-and-personality-science-rotten-to-the-core-not-so-bad-getting-better-or-getting-worse
#5
Matt Motyl, Alexander P Demos, Timothy S Carsel, Brittany E Hanson, Zachary J Melton, Allison B Mueller, J P Prims, Jiaqing Sun, Anthony N Washburn, Kendal M Wong, Caitlyn Yantis, Linda J Skitka
The scientific quality of social and personality psychology has been debated at great length in recent years. Despite research on the prevalence of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) and the replicability of particular findings, the impact of the current discussion on research practices is unknown. The current studies examine whether and how practices have changed, if at all, over the last 10 years. In Study 1, we surveyed 1,166 social and personality psychologists about how the current debate has affected their perceptions of their own and the field's research practices...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445955/metformin-is-associated-with-survival-benefit-in-pancreatic-cancer-patients-with-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Ping-Ting Zhou, Bo Li, Fu-Rao Liu, Mei-Chao Zhang, Qian Wang, Yan-Yan Li, Ci Xu, Yuan-Hua Liu, Yuan Yao, Dong Li
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease with a poor prognosis while metformin has been associated with a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. Although the benefit of metformin was observed for pancreatic cancer prevention, it is not clear whether it can also affect the survival of pancreatic cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of metformin on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444828/labeling-and-defining-severe-and-enduring-anorexia-nervosa-a-systematic-review-and-critical-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Catherine Broomfield, Kristin Stedal, Stephen Touyz, Paul Rhodes
OBJECTIVE: With anorexia nervosa (AN) having various presentations, attention has been directed towards particularly durable forms of the condition in both research and clinical contexts. A major hindrance in terms of advancing the field is the inconsistent labeling and defining of this subgroup. This has two implications; first, the inconsistent recruitment of participants when researching this sample, and second, the misdiagnosing of patients who may or may not have a durable course of the disease...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443146/can-it-wait-a-systematic-review-of-immediate-vs-delayed-surgical-repair-of-penile-fractures
#8
Nathan Colin Wong, Shawn Dason, Rahul K Bansal, Timothy O Davies, Luis H Braga
INTRODUCTION: Penile fractures have classically been thought to require immediate surgical intervention; however, recent series have described acceptable outcomes with delayed repair. In this systematic review, we compared complication rates between immediate and delayed repair of penile fractures. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and Web of Science was performed with predefined search terms between 1974 and 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened prior to full-text review and quality appraisal by two independent investigators...
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440839/refugee-health-and-rehabilitation-challenges-and-response
#9
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya
BACKGROUND: The current global refugee crisis poses major challenges in providing effective healthcare to refugees, particularly for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) management and disability. This article provides an overview of refugee health and potential challenges from the rehabilitation perspective. METHODS: A literature search (both academic and grey literature) was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases and internet search engines (2001-2016)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440193/neurocognitive-correlates-in-driving-under-the-influence-of-cannabis
#10
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Manuela Pellegrini, Julia Klein, Natale Mario di Luca
Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis and is commonly identified in blood samples from arrested drivers assumed to drive under the influence of drugs. Changing social norms towards cannabis and higher acceptability towards the drug emphasize the need for comprehensive understanding of the severe neurocognitive and psychomotor effects caused by cannabis and how these effects are correlated to driving skills and performance. In this review, PubMed, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct and EMBASE databases were used to identify and select publications up to January 2017 dealing with acute and chronic neurocognitive effects induced by cannabis and ability to drive...
April 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439573/systematic-review-of-cyclosporin-a-induced-%C3%A2-gingival-overgrowth-and-genetic-predisposition
#11
Georgios S Chatzopoulos, Vasiliki P Koidou, Larry F Wolff
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to investigate the influence of gene polymorphisms on the development of gingival overgrowth in renal transplant patients treated with cyclosporin A. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Electronic and hand literature searches were conducted by two independent reviewers in MEDLINE-Pubmed, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and SCOPUS Elsevier for prospective (case-control studies, cohort studies), cross-sectional, and retrospective studies published up to June 2016 (first week) in any language...
April 24, 2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439405/the-start-back-tool-in-chiropractic-practice-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Yasmeen Khan
BACKGROUND: The Keele STarT Back Tool was designed for primary care medical physicians in the UK to determine the risk for persistent disabling pain in patients with musculoskeletal pain and to tailor treatments accordingly. In medical and physical therapy settings, STarT Back Tool's tailored care plans improved patients' low back pain outcomes and lowered costs. OBJECTIVE: Review studies using the STarT Back Tool in chiropractic patient populations. METHODS: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and Science Direct databases were searched...
2017: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438919/ecosystem-change-and-human-health-implementation-economics-and-policy
#13
REVIEW
S K Pattanayak, R A Kramer, J R Vincent
Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health, EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438823/association-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-variants-and-allopurinol-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-a-meta-analysis
#14
Xingang Li, Zhigang Zhao, Shu-Sen Sun
PURPOSE: The association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants and allopurinol-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) was evaluated through a pooled analysis of published studies. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in multiple databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and Science Direct. Studies investigating the association between HLA alleles with allopurinol-induced SJS or TEN were retrieved, and the data were independently extracted...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437466/stage-call-cardiovascular-reactivity-to-audition-stress-in-musicians
#15
Theerasak Chanwimalueang, Lisa Aufegger, Tricia Adjei, David Wasley, Cinzia Cruder, Danilo P Mandic, Aaron Williamon
Auditioning is at the very center of educational and professional life in music and is associated with significant psychophysical demands. Knowledge of how these demands affect cardiovascular responses to psychosocial pressure is essential for developing strategies to both manage stress and understand optimal performance states. To this end, we recorded the electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 16 musicians (11 violinists and 5 flutists) before and during performances in both low- and high-stress conditions: with no audience and in front of an audition panel, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436163/social-defeat-models-in-animal-science-what-we-have-learned-from-rodent-models
#16
REVIEW
Atsushi Toyoda
Studies on stress and its impacts on animals are very important in many fields of science, including animal science, because various stresses influence animal production and animal welfare. In particular, the social stresses within animal groups have profound impact on animals, with the potential to induce abnormal behaviors and health problems. In humans, social stress induces several health problems, including psychiatric disorders. In animal stress models, social defeat models are well characterized and used in various research fields, particularly in studies concerning mental disorders...
April 24, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436019/antibiotic-therapy-for-pelvic-inflammatory-disease
#17
REVIEW
Ricardo F Savaris, Daniele G Fuhrich, Rui V Duarte, Sebastian Franik, Jonathan Ross
BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection that affects 4% to 12% of young women, and is one of the most common causes of morbidity in this age group. The main intervention for acute PID is the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics which cover Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and anaerobic bacteria, administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or orally. In this review, we assessed the optimal treatment regimen for PID. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic regimens used to treat pelvic inflammatory disease...
April 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435881/the-memory-remains-understanding-collective-memory-in-the-digital-age
#18
Ruth García-Gavilanes, Anders Mollgaard, Milena Tsvetkova, Taha Yasseri
Recently developed information communication technologies, particularly the Internet, have affected how we, both as individuals and as a society, create, store, and recall information. The Internet also provides us with a great opportunity to study memory using transactional large-scale data in a quantitative framework similar to the practice in natural sciences. We make use of online data by analyzing viewership statistics of Wikipedia articles on aircraft crashes. We study the relation between recent events and past events and particularly focus on understanding memory-triggering patterns...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435691/interrupting-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-cure-research-scientific-and-ethical-considerations
#19
EDITORIAL
Samual A Garner, Stuart Rennie, Jintanat Ananworanich, Karine Dube, David M Margolis, Jeremy Sugarman, Randall Tressler, Adam Gilbertson, Liza Dawson
Over the past several years there has been intense activity directed at the possibility of achieving remission or eradication of HIV infection. Current assays for the measurement of latent HIV are insufficient to demonstrate complete clearance of replication-competent HIV. Therefore, the ultimate test for assessing whether investigational interventions have resulted in HIV remission or eradication is to interrupt standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a carefully controlled clinical trial setting. These procedures, known as analytic treatment interruptions (ATIs), raise important scientific and ethical questions...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435196/hemato-biochemical-alterations-and-urinalysis-in-dogs-suffering-from-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#20
M R Das, R C Patra, R K Das, P K Rath, B P Mishra
AIM: The study was designed to evaluate the hemato-biochemical alterations, urinalysis along with histomorphological and histological changes of prostate glands in dogs affected with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In toto, 445 dogs presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of the College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, one Government Veterinary Hospital and two pet clinics in and around Bhubaneswar screened for the presence of BPH...
March 2017: Veterinary World
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