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Affective Science

Thamer Alkhadra
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to consider the available evidence regarding early extraction of permanent first molars (PFMs) in different mixed dentition stages that affect the integrity of occlusion and the implications for treatment planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic database, including PubMed and Science Direct, searches were conducted for available evidence. Key terms used in the search were "extraction," " first permanent molar," and "mixed dentition...
September 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Tiffany C Veinot, Charles R Senteio, David Hanauer, Julie C Lowery
Objective: To describe a new, comprehensive process model of clinical information interaction in primary care (Clinical Information Interaction Model, or CIIM) based on a systematic synthesis of published research. Materials and Methods: We used the "best fit" framework synthesis approach. Searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Library and Information Science Abstracts, Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts, and Engineering Village...
September 2, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
William J Moss, Andrey Finegersh, Aria Jafari, Bharat Panuganti, Charles S Coffey, Adam DeConde, Jacob Husseman
BACKGROUND: Isolated sphenoid sinus opacifications (ISSOs) represent a relatively uncommon disease with the potential for serious complications. To better understand this disease, we performed a systematic review to further characterize the underlying pathologies, associated symptoms, and treatment outcomes of patients with ISSOs. METHODS: A systematic review of ISSO case series was performed utilizing the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases in accordance with guidelines established by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)...
October 12, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Khemayanto Hidayat, Chun-Mei Yang, Bi-Min Shi
While there is convincing evidence that excess body fatness in adulthood is positively associated with colorectal cancer risk, the association between body fatness at an early age (≤30 years) and the risk of colorectal cancer has been equivocal. The present meta-analysis was performed to clarify this association. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant studies that investigated this association. The risk estimates from each study were transformed into a continuous variable for each 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index (BMI)...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Robert H Ong, Andrew J C King, Jaap A Kaandorp, Benjamin J Mullins, M Julian Caley
A long-standing interest in marine science is in the degree to which environmental conditions of flow and irradiance, combined with optical, thermal and morphological characteristics of individual coral colonies, affects their sensitivity of thermal microenvironments and susceptibility to stress-induced bleaching within and/or among colonies. The physiological processes in Scleractinian corals tend to scale allometrically as a result of physical and geometric constraints on body size and shape. There is a direct relationship between scaling to thermal stress, thus, the relationship between allometric scaling and rates of heating and cooling in coral microenvironments is a subject of great interest...
2017: PloS One
S M Nizam Uddin, Yuki Nagao
Controllable synthesis of organic thin film materials on solid surfaces is a challenging issue in the research field of surface science as it is affected by several physical parameters. In this work, we demonstrated a solution-based molecular layer deposition (MLD) approach to prepare porphyrin-based covalent organic molecular networks on a 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) modified substrate surface using the urea coupling reaction between 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate (1,4-PDI) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (H2TAPP) at room temperature (22 ± 2 ºC)...
October 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Clarence R Manuel, Charles R Ashby, Sandra E Reznik
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is a multifactorial syndrome occurring before the 37th week of full-term pregnancy [1]. Babies delivered preterm experience short-term and long-term complications affecting multiple organ systems, and serious maternal complications include hemorrhage and infection. Each year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and complications from prematurity are the leading cause of death among children up to 5 years of age [2]. With another increase in PTB rates over the last several years, the United States continues to have the highest incidence of any industrialized country [3]...
October 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Chung-Yang Huang, Aurelio Bonasera, Lachezar Hristov, Yves Garmshausen, Bernd M Schmidt, Denis Jacquemin, Stefan Hecht
Some rare indigo derivatives have been known for a long time to be photochromic upon irradiation with red light, which should be advantageous for many applications. However, the absence of strategies to tune their thermal half-lives by modular molecular design as well as the lack of proper synthetic methods to prepare a variety of such molecules from the parent indigo dye have so far precluded their use. In this work, several synthetic protocols for N-functionalization have been developed, and a variety of N-alkyl and N-aryl indigo derivatives have been prepared...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Travis Anderson, Laurie Wideman
BACKGROUND: The cortisol awakening response (CAR) has been used as a biomarker of stress response in a multitude of psychological investigations. While a myriad of biochemical responses have been proposed to monitor responses to exercise training, the use of CAR within the exercise and sports sciences is currently limited and is a potentially underutilized variable. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to collate studies that incorporate both exercise and CAR, in an effort to better understand (a) whether CAR is a useful marker for monitoring exercise stress and (b) how CAR may be most appropriately used in future research...
October 10, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
Jian Zhao, Yun Zhao, Mengran Du, Colin W Binns, Andy H Lee
Objectives To ascertain the association between caesarean delivery and breastfeeding practices in China. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Electronic databases of CNKI, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ProQuest and Science Direct were searched and screened to identify relevant articles from January 1990 to June 2015. Both fixed and random effect meta-analysis techniques were used to estimate the pooled effect size between caesarean delivery and breastfeeding outcomes at different time points...
October 10, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Adán Miguel-Puga, Gabriel Villafuerte, José Salas-Pacheco, Oscar Arias-Carrión
BACKGROUND: Vascular parkinsonism (VP) is defined as the presence of parkinsonian syndrome, evidence of cerebrovascular disease, and an established relationship between the two disorders. However, the diagnosis of VP is problematic, particularly for the clinician confronted with moving from diagnosis to treatment. Given the different criteria used in the diagnosis of VP, the effectiveness of available therapeutic interventions for this disease are currently unknown. METHODS: To assess the clinical response of all published therapeutic interventions for VP that have been reported in the literature, we conducted a systematic review looking for VP subjects treated with any therapeutic intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Maik Bieleke, Wanja Wolff
Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are routinely assessed in exercise science and RPE is substantially associated with physiological criterion measures. According to the psychobiological model of endurance, RPE is a central limiting factor in performance. While RPE is known to be affected by psychological manipulations, it remains to be examined whether RPE can be self-regulated during static muscular endurance exercises to enhance performance. In this experiment, we investigate the effectiveness of the widely used and recommended self-regulation strategy of if-then planning (i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Michelle N Shiota, Belinda Campos, Christopher Oveis, Matthew J Hertenstein, Emiliana Simon-Thomas, Dacher Keltner
While trait positive emotionality and state positive-valence affect have long been the subject of intense study, the importance of differentiating among several "discrete" positive emotions has only recently begun to receive serious attention. In this article, we synthesize existing literature on positive emotion differentiation, proposing that the positive emotions are best described as branches of a "family tree" emerging from a common ancestor mediating adaptive management of fitness-critical resources (e...
October 2017: American Psychologist
Thomas O Mason, Thomas C T Michaels, Aviad Levin, Christopher M Dobson, Ehud Gazit, Tuomas P J Knowles, Alexander K Buell
The self-assembly of peptides into ordered supramolecular structures, such as fibrils and crystals, is of relevance in such diverse areas as molecular medicine and materials science. However, little information is available about the fundamental thermodynamic driving forces of these types of self-assembly processes. Here we investigate in detail the thermodynamics of assembly of diphenylalanine. This dipeptide forms the central motif of the Aβ polypeptides which are associated with Alzheimer's disease through their presence in amyloid plaques in the nervous systems of affected individuals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Reza Tabrizi, Maryam Akbari, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Kamran B Lankarani, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Fariba Kolahdooz, Ali Akbar Mohammadi, Azade Shabani, Bita Badehnoosh, Mehri Jamilian, Amin Assarian, Zatollah Asemi
This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to summarize the effect of selenium administration on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles among patients with diseases related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We searched the following databases up to May 2017: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The relevant data were extracted and assessed for quality of the studies according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were pooled using the inverse variance method and expressed as standardized mean difference (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)...
October 9, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
S Cipullo, G Prpich, P Campo, F Coulon
Understanding the distribution, behaviour and interactions of complex chemical mixtures is key for providing the evidence necessary to make informed decisions and implement robust remediation strategies. Much of the current risk assessment frameworks applied to manage land contamination are based on total contaminant concentrations and the exposure assessments embedded within them do not explicitly address the partitioning and bioavailability of chemical mixtures. These oversights may contribute to an overestimation of both the eco-toxicological effects of the fractions and the mobility of contaminants...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Christiane Hagel, Felix Weidemann, Stephan Gauch, Suzanne Edwards, Peter Tinnemann
INTRODUCTION: The 2014/2015 West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak attracted global attention. Numerous opinions claimed that the global response was impaired, in part because, the EVD research was neglected, although quantitative or qualitative studies did not exist. Our objective was to analyse how the EVD research landscape evolved by exploring the existing research network and its communities before and during the outbreak in West Africa. METHODS/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Social network analysis (SNA) was used to analyse collaborations between institutions named by co-authors as affiliations in publications on EVD...
October 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Katarzyna Skrypnik, Joanna Suliburska
The aim of this review is to present the most recent scientific evidence of interactions between the intestinal microbiota and minerals, and the effect of this interaction on the health of the host. The Web of Science database from the years 2013-2017 on this topic was reviewed. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that iron significantly affects the intestinal microbiota. However, Bifidobacteriaceae are capable of binding iron in the large intestine, thereby limiting the formation of free radicals synthesized in the presence of iron, and thus reducing the risk of colorectal cancer...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Vinny Bhasin, Madhavi Singh, Manish Goutam, Shuchi Singh, Adamya S Nigam, Aditya Joshi
INTRODUCTION: There exist a number of factors that affect the outcome of orthodontic treatment. These factors can be assessed by various gingival markers. One such maker is myeloperoxidase (MPO). Hence, we planned the present study to assess and compare the MPO activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment by different aligning arch wires. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included assessment of patients who underwent orthodontic treatment for crowding of anterior teeth...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Vinayak Narayan, Shyamal C Bir, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
INTRODUCTION: The giant intracranial meningioma [GIM] constitutes a different spectrum of brain tumors which invade the vital neurovascular structures and makes the primary mode of treatment, surgery, a technically challenging one. The surgery of GIM is unique due to its large size, prominent vascularity, entangling and limited visualisation of various neurovascular structures and severe cerebral edema. The study reports the authors surgical experience of 80 GIM cases, the operative challenges and surgical outcome...
October 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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