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Affective Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231177/the-goal-of-adequate-nutrition-can-it-be-made-affordable-sustainable-and-universal
#1
REVIEW
Ian McFarlane
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area...
November 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230821/circulating-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells-in-patients-affected-by-chornobyl-accident
#2
N M Bilko, I S Dyagil, I Z Russu, D I Bilko
: High radiation sensitivity of stem cells and their ability to accumulate sublethal radiation damage provides the basis for investigation of hematopoietic progenitors using in vivo culture methodology. Unique samples of peripheral blood and bone marrow were derived from the patients affected by Chornobyl accident during liquidation campaign. AIM: To investigate functional activity of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells from peripheral blood and bone marrow of cleanup workers in early and remote periods after the accident at Chornobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP)...
December 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229540/introduction-to-special-issue-self-regulation-of-appetite-it-s-complicated
#3
Deborah Young-Hyman
OBJECTIVE: A meeting of multidisciplinary biobehavioral scientists and National Institutes of Health (NIH) program staff was convened by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, Office of the Director, NIH to examine mechanisms associated with humans' ability to self-regulate appetite and appetitive behavior. METHODS: Based upon prior discussions of the NIH Obesity Research Task Force Behavioral Phenotyping Work Group, the premise was adopted that, in modern society, multiple factors on multiple levels interact to create circumstances wherein self-control of appetite is difficult, leading to overconsumption of unhealthy foods versus healthy eating patterns, contributing to our current levels of obesity...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228347/effect-of-hyaluronic-acid-on-the-regulation-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-osteoarthritis-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
V Iturriaga, T Bornhardt, C Manterola, P Brebi
Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent pathologies affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). There is evidence that the use of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) for the treatment of this disorder achieves positive effects through a reduction in inflammatory mediators. A systematic review of the available evidence regarding the regulation of inflammatory mediators when applying HA in osteoarthritis of the TMJ in humans was performed. The Web of Science, Embase, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, Scopus, EBSCOhost, and LILACS databases, SciELO library, and search engine Trip Database were searched systematically...
February 19, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227254/a-data-science-approach-for-quantifying-spatio-temporal-effects-to-graft-failures-in-organ-transplantation
#5
Diego Pinheiro, Farag Hamad, Martin Cadeiras, Ronaldo Menezes, Nezamoddin Nezamoddini-Kachouie, Diego Pinheiro, Farag Hamad, Martin Cadeiras, Ronaldo Menezes, Nezamoddin Nezamoddini-Kachouie, Farag Hamad, Martin Cadeiras, Diego Pinheiro, Ronaldo Menezes, Nezamoddin Nezamoddini-Kachouie
The transplantation of solid organs is one of the most important accomplishments of modern medicine. Yet, organ shortage is a major public health issue; 8,000 people died while waiting for an organ in 2014. Meanwhile, the allocation system currently implemented can lead to organs being discarded and the medical community still investigates factors that affects early graft failure such as distance and ischemic time. In this paper, we investigate early graft failure under a spatio-temporal perspective using a data science unified approach for all six organs that is based on complementary cumulative analysis of both distance and ischemic time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223548/association-between-ercc2-lys751gln-polymorphism-and-the-risk-of-pancreatic-cancer-especially-among-asians-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#6
Yang Wu, Zi-Peng Lu, Jing-Jing Zhang, Dong-Fang Liu, Guo-Dong Shi, Chun Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Qin, Jian-Zhong Zhang, Yuan He, Peng-Fei Wu, Yi Miao, Kui-Rong Jiang
: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) gene are suspected to affect the risk of pancreatic cancer. Many studies have reported the association between ERCC2 Lys751Gln polymorphism (rs13181) and the susceptibility to pancreatic cancer, but the outcomes remained controversial. To comprehensively determine this association, we conducted a meta-analysis based on a total of eight studies. Evidence for this association was obtained from the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221065/the-american-psychological-association-task-force-assessment-of-violent-video-games-science-in-the-service-of-public-interest
#7
Sandra L Calvert, Mark Appelbaum, Kenneth A Dodge, Sandra Graham, Gordon C Nagayama Hall, Sherry Hamby, Lauren G Fasig-Caldwell, Martyna Citkowicz, Daniel P Galloway, Larry V Hedges
A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013...
February 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220474/buprenorphine-for-managing-opioid-withdrawal
#8
REVIEW
Linda Gowing, Robert Ali, Jason M White, Dalitso Mbewe
BACKGROUND: Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of substitution treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of buprenorphine versus tapered doses of methadone, alpha2-adrenergic agonists, symptomatic medications or placebo, or different buprenorphine regimens for managing opioid withdrawal, in terms of the intensity of the withdrawal syndrome experienced, duration and completion of treatment, and adverse effects...
February 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220399/leibniz-the-microscope-and-the-concept-of-preformation
#9
Alessandro Becchi
In recent years a certain emphasis has been put by some scholars on Leibniz's concern about empirical sciences and the relations between such concern and the development of his mature metaphysical system. In this paper I focus on Leibniz's interest for the microscope and the astonishing discoveries that such instrument made possible in the field of the life sciences during the last part of the Seventeenth century. The observation of physical bodies carried out by the "magnifying glasses" revealed a matter swarming everywhere with life and activity, contrary to the cartesian and atomistic view of matter as something sterile and passive...
March 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220089/emotion-regulation-therapy-a-mechanism-targeted-treatment-for-disorders-of-distress
#10
Megan E Renna, Jean M Quintero, David M Fresco, Douglas S Mennin
"Distress disorders," which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219991/impacts-on-global-health-from-nursing-research
#11
Kimberly Baltzell, Monica McLemore, Mona Shattell, Sally Rankin
Infectious disease continues to adversely affect populations in low- and middle-income countries. Investments in solutions often focus on technology, yet health-care workers remain in short supply. Nurses are the largest cadre of health-care workers and are largely responsible for patient care around the world. In fact, it is estimated that nurses care for nine out of every 10 patients seen. Importantly, sound nursing science contributes to solutions that directly impact patient care, especially, those that pertain to infectious disease...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219280/disability-diversity-and-autism-philosophical-perspectives-on-health
#12
Lidia Ripamonti
This paper aims to explore the connection between health and developmental disorders, particularly in regard to the notion of 'neurodiversity', which considers high-functioning autism not as a lifelong disability but a neurological form within a diversity of human minds. In recent years, autistic activist movements have called for a more positive, humanizing, identity-first language when describing this condition, rejecting negative language such as 'disorder', 'deficit', and 'impairment', and instead describing autism as a way of being, part of one's personal identity, which does not always need to be cured...
April 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218871/a-systematic-review-of-influences-on-development-of-athletes-with-disabilities
#13
Nima Dehghansai, Srdjan Lemez, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker
Compared with mainstream sport athletes, relatively little is known regarding the factors affecting the development of athletes with a disability. Sport-specific training programs are essential to athletes' successful performance; to create appropriate programs and strategies, a clear understanding of the nuances of development of athletes with a disability is important. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize existing research on development in athletes with a disability and examine the key determinants of successful development and sporting performance...
January 2017: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218831/new-possibilities-for-magnetic-control-of-chemical-and-biochemical-reactions
#14
Anatoly Buchachenko, Ronald G Lawler
Chemistry is controlled by Coulomb energy; magnetic energy is lower by many orders of magnitude and may be confidently ignored in the energy balance of chemical reactions. The situation becomes less clear, however, when reaction rates are considered. In this case, magnetic perturbations of nearly degenerate energy surface crossings may produce observable, and sometimes even dramatic, effects on reactions rates, product yields, and spectroscopic transitions. A case in point that has been studied for nearly five decades is electron spin-selective chemistry via the intermediacy of radical pairs...
February 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217849/how-long-bones-grow-children-mechanistic-paths-to-variation-in-human-height-growth
#15
REVIEW
Michelle Lampl, Meriah Schoen
OBJECTIVES: Eveleth and Tanner's descriptive documentation of worldwide variability in human growth provided evidence of the interaction between genetics and environment during development that has been foundational to the science of human growth. There remains a need, however, to describe the mechanistic foundations of variability in human height growth patterns. METHODS: A review of research documenting cellular activities at the endochondral growth plate aims to show how the unique microenvironment and cell functions during the sequential phases of the chondrocyte lifecycle affect long bone elongation, a fundamental source of height growth...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217679/effect-of-calcium-on-premenstrual-syndrome-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Fatemeh Shobeiri, Fahimeh Ezzati Araste, Reihaneh Ebrahimi, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Mansour Nazari
OBJECTIVE: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects millions of women and is known as the most important disorder among them. The very aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low dose calcium on severity of PMS. METHODS: This study can be considered as a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Female students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences diagnosed with PMS in 2014 participated in the present study. Sixty-six female students diagnosed with PMS were involved in the experimental and control groups...
January 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217540/correlating-the-clinical-assessment-of-impacted-mandibular-third-molars-with-panoramic-radiograph-and-intraoral-periapical-radiograph
#17
P Vani Priya, Fazil A Nasyam, M Ramprasad, Narendra V Penumatsa, Syed Akifuddin, Sandeep
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to compare the clinical assessment of impacted third molars of mandible with panaromic radiograph (OPG) and intraoral periapical radiograph (IOPA) and to assess the efficacy of IOPA and. Moreover, we corroborated the OPG and IOPA findings of impacted mandiblar third molar root apex to inferior alveolar canal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 200 patients with pericoronitis were examined who were indicated for surgical extraction, among which 50 patients were selected for the study...
December 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216844/effect-of-technique-and-impression-material-on-the-vertical-misfit-of-a-screw-retained-three-unit-implant-bridge-an-in-vitro-study
#18
Hamidreza Rajati Haghi, Masoud Shiehzadeh, Mohammadreza Nakhaei, Fatemeh Ahrary, Saeid Sabzevari
INTRODUCTION: A dental impression is a negative imprint of an oral structure that can be used to produce a positive cast of a patient's teeth as a permanent record. The accuracy of the impression affects the accuracy of the cast, and a precise impression is needed in order to create prosthesis with optimal fitting. Minimization of misfit is an important aim in prosthesis science and dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the materials and techniques used to take an impression on the vertical misfit of implant-supported, screw-retained, three-unit bridges...
January 2017: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216719/diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-pruritus-an-expert-consensus-review
#19
REVIEW
Murlidhar Rajagopalan, Abir Saraswat, Kiran Godse, D S Krupa Shankar, Sanjiv Kandhari, Shrutakirthi D Shenoi, Sushil Tahiliani, V Vijay Zawar
The aim of this study is to formulate the best clinical practice in the diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus (CP). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the WHO's regional databases, for studies on "Diagnosis and management of chronic pruritus" from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015. We included programmatic reports and hand-searched references of published reviews and articles. Two independent reviewers screened articles and extracted data. We screened 87 of 95 studies that contained qualitative data...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215890/effect-of-oral-calcium-administration-on-the-cure-and-reproductive-performance-of-holstein-cows-diagnosed-with-puerperal-metritis
#20
Pablo Pinedo, Juan Velez, Gilberto Solano, Nelson Rodriguez, Julianne Naves, Gustavo M Schuenemann, Carlos Risco
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of oral calcium administration on clinical cure, survival, subsequent presentation of peripartal health disorders, and reproductive performance of Holstein cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis (PM) under certified organic management. A second objective was to evaluate the metabolic status at calving and at the time of PM diagnosis (d 0) in affected and matched healthy cows. Cows diagnosed with PM (n = 200) were assigned randomly to receive 1 of 2 treatments: (1) control received 3...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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