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Behavioral Organization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551585/lethal-and-sub-lethal-evaluation-of-indigo-carmine-dye-and-byproducts-after-tio2-photocatalysis-in-the-immune-system-of-eisenia-andrei-earthworms
#1
Patrícia Christina Genázio Pereira, Roberta Valoura Reimão, Thelma Pavesi, Enrico Mendes Saggioro, Josino Costa Moreira, Fábio Veríssimo Correia
The Indigo carmine (IC) dye has been widely used in textile industries, even though it has been considered toxic for rats, pigs and humans. Owing to its toxicity, wastes containing this compound should be treated to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the biota. As an alternative to wastewater treatment, advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) have been highlighted due to their high capacity to destruct organic molecules. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate Indigo Carmine toxicity to soil organisms using the earthworm Eisenia andrei as a model-organism and also verify the efficiency of AOP in reducing its toxicity to these organisms...
May 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551285/insights-into-the-unique-torpor-of-botrylloides-leachi-a-colonial-urochordate
#2
Hyams Yosef, Paz Guy, Rabinowitz Claudette, Rinkevich Baruch
Rough environmental conditions make the survival of many multi-cellular organisms almost impossible, enforcing behavioral, morphological, physiological and reproductive rejoinders that can cope with harsh times and hostile environments, frequently through down-regulation of metabolism into basal states of dormancy, or torpor. This study examines one of the most unique torpor strategies seen within the phylum Chordata, exhibited by the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi, which enters a state of hibernation or aestivation in response to thermal stress, during which all of its functional colonial units (zooids) are entirely absorbed and the colony survives as small remnants of the vasculature, lacking both feeding and reproduction organs...
May 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551202/rapidly-growing-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-infection-of-prosthetic-knee-joints-a-report-of-two-cases
#3
Manyoung Kim, Chul-Won Ha, Jae Won Jang, Yong-Beom Park
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause prosthetic knee joint infections in rare cases. Infections with rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) are difficult to treat due to their aggressive clinical behavior and resistance to antibiotics. Infections of a prosthetic knee joint by RGNTM have rarely been reported. A standard of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of the condition. In previous reports, diagnoses of RGNTM infections in prosthetic knee joints took a long time to reach because the condition was not suspected, due to its rarity...
May 24, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551028/bidirectional-interactions-between-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Mitsuru Shinohara, Naoyuki Sato
Clinical studies have indicated that diabetes is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been fully elucidated. Diabetes causes neurodegeneration by inducing changes in vascular function and structure, glucose metabolism, and insulin signaling, as well as by modifying β-amyloid (Aβ)/tau metabolisms. In turn, AD influences systemic glucose metabolism by inducing behavioral changes, memory disturbances, hypothalamic dysfunction, frailty and possibly plasma/peripheral Aβ level changes...
May 24, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549320/light-emission-miracle-in-the-sea-and-preeminent-applications-of-bioluminescence-in-recent-new-biotechnology
#5
Sana Sharifian, Ahmad Homaei, Roohullah Hemmati, Khosro Khajeh
Bioluminescence is referred to the light emission by a living organism due to a specific biochemical reaction. This interesting feature of the organisms could highly influences behavioral and ecosystem dynamics. Luminescence, mostly observed in marine species, is generally higher in deep-living genera than in benthic or shallow organisms. However, among creatures living in land, fireflies, beetles, springtails and fungi have shown some bioluminescent activities. Classically, the emission of light is catalyzed by luciferase from a substrate...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548841/light-absorption-by-brown-carbon-in-the-southeastern-united-states-is-ph-dependent
#6
Sabrina M Phillips, Aleia D Bellcross, Geoffrey D Smith
Light-absorbing organic material, or "brown carbon" (BrC), can significantly influence the effect that aerosols have on climate. Here, we investigate how changing pH affects the absorption spectra of water-soluble BrC from ambient particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm collected in Athens, Georgia, in the spring and fall of 2016, including samples from nearby wildfires. We find that absorption increases 10% per pH unit from pH 2 to pH 12 with a broad, featureless tail at visible wavelengths, where the largest fractional increase is also observed...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548609/a-pilot-study-to-validate-measures-of-the-theory-of-reasoned-action-for-organ-donation-behavior
#7
Shui Hung Wong, Amy Yin Man Chow
The present study aimed at taking the first attempt in validating the measures generated based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA). A total of 211 university students participated in the study, 95 were included in the exploratory factor analysis and 116 were included in the confirmatory factor analysis. The TRA measurements were established with adequate psychometric properties, internal consistency and construct validity. Findings also suggested that attitude towards organ donation has both a cognitive and affective nature, while the subjective norm of the family seems to be important to students' views on organ donation...
May 26, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548169/photophysicochemical-characterization-of-mycosporine-like-amino-acids-in-micellar-solutions
#8
D E Orallo, S G Bertolotti, M S Churio
The properties and photochemical and photophysical behavior of the mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) shinorine and porphyra-334 were experimentally evaluated in solutions of direct ionic micelles as simple biomimicking environments. The preferential partition of the natural molecules in the aqueous phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) micellar systems is confirmed. Although the proton dissociation of the carboxylic groups in the MAAs is slightly inhibited in CTAC solutions, the molecules are predicted to be in the form of zwitterions in all the explored media around physiological pH...
May 26, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548140/photobleaching-of-chromophoric-dissolved-organic-matter-cdom-in-the-yangtze-river-estuary-kinetics-and-effects-of-temperature-ph-and-salinity
#9
Guisheng Song, Yijie Li, Suzheng Hu, Guiju Li, Ruihua Zhao, Xin Sun, Huixiang Xie
The kinetics and temperature-, pH- and salinity-dependences of photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Yangtze River estuary (YRE) were evaluated using laboratory solar-simulated irradiation and compared to those of Suwannee River humic substances (SRHSs). Nearly all CDOM in water at the head of the estuary (headwater herein) was photobleachable in both summer and winter, while significant fractions of CDOM (13-29%) were resistant to photobleaching in saltier waters. The photobleaching rate constant in the headwater was 25% higher in summer than that in winter...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547768/avian-brains-insights-from-development-behaviors-and-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Tadashi Nomura, Ei-Ichi Izawa
Birds are an extensively specialized animal group with unique anatomical, physiological and ecological characteristics. Sophisticated social behaviors and remarkable cognitive abilities are present in several avian lineages, driven by their enlarged brains and intricate neural networks. These unique traits could be a result of adaptive evolution under the wide range of environmental constraints; however, the intrinsic mechanisms of avian brain development and evolution remain unclear. Here, we introduce recent findings regarding developmental aspects of avian brain organization and neuronal networks for specific avian behaviors, which provide an insight into the link between the evolution of brain development and complex cognitive functions...
May 26, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547726/stroke-induces-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-to-infarcted-brain-areas-via-cxcr4-and-c-met-signaling
#11
Oh Young Bang, Gyeong Joon Moon, Dong Hee Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Sooyoon Kim, Jeong Pyo Son, Yeon Hee Cho, Won Hyuk Chang, Yun-Hee Kim
Mesenchymal stem cells circulate between organs to repair and maintain tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured with fetal bovine serum have therapeutic effects when intravenously administered after stroke. However, only a small number of mesenchymal stem cells reach the brain. We hypothesized that the serum from stroke patients increases mesenchymal stem cells trophism toward the infarcted brain area. Mesenchymal stem cells were grown in fetal bovine serum, normal serum from normal rats, or stroke serum from ischemic stroke rats...
May 25, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546644/engaging-gatekeepers-optimizing-decision-making-and-mitigating-bias-design-specifications-for-systemic-diversity-interventions
#12
Claartje J Vinkenburg
In this contribution to the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Special Issue on Understanding Diversity Dynamics in Systems: Social Equality as an Organization Change Issue, I develop and describe design specifications for systemic diversity interventions in upward mobility career systems, aimed at optimizing decision making through mitigating bias by engaging gatekeepers. These interventions address the paradox of meritocracy that underlies the surprising lack of diversity at the top of the career pyramid in these systems...
June 2017: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546067/are-there-consistent-behavioral-differences-between-sexes-and-male-color-morphs-in-pelvicachromis-pulcher
#13
Cheryl M Sedlak Seaver, Peter L Hurd
Adult sex ratios in the kribensis cichlid (Pelvicachromis pulcher) are influenced by environmental conditions during early development. These environmental sex-determining factors may also organize life-long variation in social behavior within each sex. If this is true, then individual differences in behavior may be, at least in part, expressions of the relative strength of sexual differentiation of that individual. As adults, kribensis males take on one of four alternative color morphs. Males of the yellow morph tend toward breeding monogamously and are produced at higher frequency under female-biasing environmental conditions, while males of the red morph tend more towards breeding polygynously and are produced more frequently by male-biasing early environments...
May 10, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545898/risk-averse-personalities-have-a-systemically-potentiated-neuroendocrine-stress-axis-a-multilevel-experiment-in-parus-major
#14
Alexander T Baugh, Rebecca A Senft, Marian Firke, Abigail Lauder, Julia Schroeder, Simone L Meddle, Kees van Oers, Michaela Hau
Hormonal pleiotropy-the simultaneous influence of a single hormone on multiple traits-has been hypothesized as an important mechanism underlying personality, and circulating glucocorticoids are central to this idea. A major gap in our understanding is the neural basis for this link. Here we examine the stability and structure of behavioral, endocrine and neuroendocrine traits in a population of songbirds (Parus major). Upon identifying stable and covarying behavioral and endocrine traits, we test the hypothesis that risk-averse personalities exhibit a neuroendocrine stress axis that is systemically potentiated-characterized by stronger glucocorticoid reactivity and weaker negative feedback...
May 22, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545844/rise-and-fall-of-the-two-visual-systems-theory
#15
Yves Rossetti, Laure Pisella, Robert D McIntosh
Among the many dissociations describing the visual system, the dual theory of two visual systems, respectively dedicated to perception and action, has yielded a lot of support. There are psychophysical, anatomical and neuropsychological arguments in favor of this theory. Several behavioral studies that used sensory and motor psychophysical parameters observed differences between perceptive and motor responses. The anatomical network of the visual system in the non-human primate was very readily organized according to two major pathways, dorsal and ventral...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545578/the-effect-of-a-mindfulness-based-intervention-in-cognitive-functions-and-psychological-well-being-applied-as-an-early-intervention-in-schizophrenia-and-high-risk-mental-state-in-a-chilean-sample-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Álvaro I Langer, Carlos Schmidt, Rocío Mayol, Marcela Díaz, Javiera Lecaros, Edwin Krogh, Aída Pardow, Carolina Vergara, Guillermo Vergara, Bernardita Pérez-Herrera, María José Villar, Alejandro Maturana, Pablo A Gaspar
BACKGROUND: According to the projections of the World Health Organization, 15% of all disabilities will be associated with mental illnesses by 2020. One of the mental disorders with the largest social impacts due to high personal and family costs is psychosis. Among the most effective psychological approaches to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders at the world level is cognitive behavioral therapy. Recently, cognitive behavioral therapy has introduced several tools and strategies that promote psychological processes based on acceptance and mindfulness...
May 25, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545492/non-participants-in-policy-efforts-to-promote-evidence-based-practices-in-a-large-behavioral-health-system
#17
Rebecca E Stewart, Danielle R Adams, David S Mandell, Gayatri Nangia, Lauren Shaffer, Arthur C Evans, Ronnie Rubin, Shawna Weaver, Trevor R Hadley, Rinad S Beidas
BACKGROUND: System-wide training initiatives to support and implement evidence-based practices (EBPs) in behavioral health systems have become increasingly widespread. Understanding more about organizations who do not participate in EBP training initiatives is a critical piece of the dissemination and implementation puzzle if we endeavor to increase access in community settings. METHODS: We conducted 30 1-h semi-structured interviews with leaders in non-participating agencies who did not formally participate in system-wide training initiatives to implement EBPs in the City of Philadelphia, with the goal to understand why they did not participate...
May 25, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544995/intrauterine-exposure-to-tobacco-and-executive-functioning-in-high-school
#18
Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Mark A Richardson, Kathryn Buchanan-Howland, Clara A Chen, Howard Cabral, Timothy C Heeren, Jane Liebschutz, Leah Forman, Deborah A Frank
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544898/aerosol-and-snow-transfer-processes-an-investigation-on-the-behavior-of-water-soluble-organic-compounds-and-ionic-species
#19
Elena Barbaro, Roberta Zangrando, Sara Padoan, Ornela Karroca, Giuseppa Toscano, Warren R L Cairns, Carlo Barbante, Andrea Gambaro
The concentrations of water-soluble compounds (ions, carboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars, phenolic compounds) in aerosol and snow have been determined at the coastal Italian base "Mario Zucchelli" (Antarctica) during the 2014-2015 austral summer. The main aim of this research was to investigate the air-snow transfer processes of a number of classes of chemical compounds and investigate their potential as tracers for specific sources. The composition and particle size distribution of Antarctic aerosol was measured, and water-soluble compounds accounted for 66% of the PM10 total mass concentration...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544887/silver-nanoparticles-in-seawater-a-dynamic-mass-balance-at-part-per-trillion-silver-concentrations
#20
Claudio Toncelli, Kyriaki Mylona, Ioanna Kalantzi, Anastasia Tsiola, Paraskevi Pitta, Manolis Tsapakis, Spiros A Pergantis
This study investigates the dynamic processes affecting silver (Ag) nanoparticles that have been spiked into seawater at environmentally relevant concentrations (200 and 2000ngAgL(-1)). Seawater samples were taken at regular time intervals from multiple microcosm tanks and analysed rapidly, without any sample preparation, using a recently developed flow injection on-line dilution single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Dissolution was found to be the predominant process of Ag nanoparticle transformation, with its rate being influenced by the type and thickness of the nanoparticle organic coating...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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