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Behavioral Organization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922184/europium-iii-and-uranium-vi-complexation-by-natural-organic-matter-nom-effect-of-source
#1
Ralf Kautenburger, Jonas M Sander, Christina Hein
For the safe long-term storage of high level radioactive waste (HLW), detailed information about geo-chemical behavior of radioactive and toxic metal ions under environmental conditions is important. Natural organic matter (NOM) can play a crucial role in the immobilization or mobilization of these metal ions due to its complexation and colloid formation tendency. In this study, the complexation of europium (as chemical homologue of trivalent actinides like americium) and uranium (as main component of HLW) by ten humic acids (HA) from different sources and Suwannee NOM river extract has been analyzed...
December 6, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922032/chemically-induced-oxidative-stress-affects-ash-neuronal-function-and-behavior-in-c-elegans
#2
Eleni Gourgou, Nikos Chronis
Oxidative stress (OS) impact on a single neuron's function in vivo remains obscure. Using C. elegans as a model organism, we report the effect of paraquat (PQ)-induced OS on wild type worms on the function of the ASH polymodal neuron. By calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging, we quantified ASH activation upon stimulus delivery. PQ-treated worms displayed higher maximum depolarization (peak of the Ca(2+) transients) compared to untreated animals. PQ had a similar effect on the ASH neuron response time (rising slope of the Ca(2+) transients), except in very young worms...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921292/cranial-joint-histology-in-the-mallard-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-new-insights-on-avian-cranial-kinesis
#3
Alida M Bailleul, Lawrence M Witmer, Casey M Holliday
The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920964/the-apprentice-an-innovative-approach-to-meet-the-behavior-analysis-certification-board-s-supervision-standards
#4
Breanne K Hartley, William T Courtney, Mary Rosswurm, Vincent J LaMarca
The Behavior Analysis Certification Board continues to increase the standards for supervision of trainees, which is needed in order for the field to continually improve. However, this presents a challenge for organizations to meet the needs of both their clients and their supervisees based on these increasing standards. Throughout the ages, experts in all trades have passed along their knowledge and skill through apprenticeship opportunities. An apprenticeship supervision model is described that allows Board Certified Behavior Analysts to supervise future behavior analysts by mentoring, educating, and training supervisees on the science of human behavior in a format that is mutually beneficial...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920958/refining-supervisory-practices-in-the-field-of-behavior-analysis-introduction-to-the-special-section-on-supervision
#5
Linda A LeBlanc, James K Luiselli
The rapid growth in the number of behavior analysts and aspiring behavior analysts creates an imperative for effective and efficient supervisory practices. Many behavior analysts receive little to no explicit instruction and mentoring in supervision practices while they are in training themselves. Those behavior analysts may then be expected to provide supervision for a range of individuals soon after graduation and certification and throughout the remainder of their career. The papers included in this special issue offer guidance for establishing and maintaining supervisory relationships, understanding the importance of each of the ethical guidelines for supervision, structuring group supervision experiences, managing problems that can arise during the course of a supervisory relationship, and arranging models of supervision within human service organizations...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920666/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-the-evolution-of-the-amygdalar-hippocampal-habenular-connectivity-in-vertebrates
#6
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking) and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing) behavior are essential for all free moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Therefore, even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must have been capable of generating these behaviors. The current article describes the evolution of the forebrain with special reference to the development of the misery-fleeing system. Although, the earliest vertebrate ancestor already possessed a dorsal pallium, which corresponds to the human neocortex, the structure and function of the neocortex was acquired quite recently within the mammalian evolutionary line...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920214/the-role-of-leadership-support-for-health-promotion-in-employee-wellness-program-participation-perceived-job-stress-and-health-behaviors
#7
Jennifer Hoert, Ann M Herd, Marion Hambrick
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between leadership support for health promotion and job stress, wellness program participation, and health behaviors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used. SETTING: Four worksites with a range of wellness programs were selected for this study. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in this study were employees (n = 618) at 4 organizations (bank, private university, wholesale supplier, and public university) in the southeastern United States, each offering an employee wellness program...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919701/evaluation-of-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-chronic-embryonic-exposure-with-inorganic-mercury-on-motor-and-anxiety-like-responses-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#8
Noraini Abu Bakar, Nurul Syafida Asma' Mohd Sata, Nurul Farhana Ramlan, Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai
Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918862/reexamining-the-relationship-between-mortality-salience-and-prosocial-behavior-in-chinese-context
#9
Qianguo Xiao, Weijie He, Yi Zhu
Given the mixed findings regarding the relationship between Mortality Salience (MS) and prosocial behavior, the present research retested how MS influences prosocial behaviors in Chinese culture. Results showed that although participants have different level of death thought accessibility between an organ donation scenario and a general charity scenario, their willingness for prosocial behaviors were not significantly different between the two scenarios, indicating that under the influence of Chinese culture MS did not decrease prosocial behaviors...
December 5, 2016: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918859/the-mediating-role-of-temporal-considerations-on-the-effects-of-self-affirmation-on-responses-to-organ-donation-messages
#10
Xiao Wang, Xiaoquan Zhao
Previous self-affirmation research has shown that individuals who are allowed to reflect on their values and self-worth are less likely to exhibit message derogation and are more likely to accept risk information and change their behaviors compared to those who are not. However, the underlying mechanisms for the effect are unclear. Based on a randomized experiment (N = 331), we examined the mediating role of temporal considerations in participants' health-related cognitions and emotional responses. We found that self-affirmed participants (vs...
December 5, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918540/in-vivo-quantification-of-spatially-varying-mechanical-properties-in-developing-tissues
#11
Friedhelm Serwane, Alessandro Mongera, Payam Rowghanian, David A Kealhofer, Adam A Lucio, Zachary M Hockenbery, Otger Campàs
The mechanical properties of the cellular microenvironment and their spatiotemporal variations are thought to play a central role in sculpting embryonic tissues, maintaining organ architecture and controlling cell behavior, including cell differentiation. However, no direct in vivo and in situ measurement of mechanical properties within developing 3D tissues and organs has yet been performed. Here we introduce a technique that employs biocompatible, magnetically responsive ferrofluid microdroplets as local mechanical actuators and allows quantitative spatiotemporal measurements of mechanical properties in vivo...
December 5, 2016: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918125/conductance-switch-of-a-bromoplumbate-bistable-semiconductor-by-electron-transfer-thermochromism
#12
Cai Sun, Ming-Sheng Wang, Pei-Xin Li, Guo-Cong Guo
Electron-transfer (redox) thermochromism was successfully used for switching the conductance of semiconductors, by introducing a thermally active organic component into an inorganic semiconducting framework. A moisture-resistant semiconductor {(MV)2 [Pb7 Br18 ]}n (MV(2+) =methyl viologen cation) has been prepared through an in situ synthetic method for MV(2+) . It features a rare 3D haloplumbate open framework and unprecedented electron-transfer thermochromic behavior in haloplumbates. The electrical conductivity of this compound dropped significantly after coloration and restored after decoloration, which was satisfactorily explained by valence band XPS and theoretical data...
December 5, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918043/thermoresponsive-structured-emulsions-based-on-the-fibrillar-self-assembly-of-natural-saponin-glycyrrhizic-acid
#13
Zhili Wan, Yingen Sun, Lulu Ma, Jian Guo, Jinmei Wang, Shouwei Yin, Xiaoquan Yang
We report the novel use of the naturally occurring saponin, glycyrrhizic acid (GA) as a structuring material to transform liquid oil into a soft-solid structured emulsion system. The GA nanofibrils from the anisotropic self-assembly of GA molecules were first used as stabilizers to fabricate olive oil-in-water emulsions using a facile one-step emulsification at high temperature. Then, the obtained emulsions were further self-organized into the emulsion gel by applying a subsequent cooling to trigger the gel network formation, which is mostly due to the enhanced noncovalent interactions among GA fibrils in the continuous phase as well as at the droplet surface...
December 5, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918030/solvation-behavior-of-carbonate-based-electrolytes-in-sodium-ion-batteries
#14
Arthur V Cresce, Selena M Russell, Oleg Borodin, Joshua A Allen, Marshall A Schroeder, Michael Dai, Jing Peng, Mallory P Gobet, Steven G Greenbaum, Reginald E Rogers, Kang Xu
Sodium ion batteries are on the cusp of being a commercially available technology. Compared to lithium ion batteries, sodium ion batteries can potentially offer an attractive dollar-per-kilowatt-hour value, though at the penalty of reduced energy density. As a materials system, sodium ion batteries present a unique opportunity to apply lessons learned in the study of electrolytes for lithium ion batteries; specifically, the behavior of the sodium ion in an organic carbonate solution and the relationship of ion solvation with electrode surface passivation...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917322/bioinformatical-analysis-of-eukaryotic-shugoshins-reveals-meiosis-specific-features-of-vertebrate-shugoshins
#15
Tatiana M Grishaeva, Darya Kulichenko, Yuri F Bogdanov
BACKGROUND: Shugoshins (SGOs) are proteins that protect cohesins located at the centromeres of sister chromatids from their early cleavage during mitosis and meiosis in plants, fungi, and animals. Their function is to prevent premature sister-chromatid disjunction and segregation. The study focused on the structural differences among SGOs acting during mitosis and meiosis that cause differences in chromosome behavior in these two types of cell division in different organisms. METHODS: A bioinformatical analysis of protein domains, conserved amino acid motifs, and physicochemical properties of 32 proteins from 25 species of plants, fungi, and animals was performed...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917173/live-imaging-of-immune-responses-in-experimental-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Barbara Rossi, Gabriela Constantin
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most common animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by multifocal perivascular infiltrates that predominantly comprise lymphocytes and macrophages. During EAE, autoreactive T cells first become active in the secondary lymphoid organs upon contact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and then gain access to CNS parenchyma, through a compromised blood-brain barrier, subsequently inducing inflammation and demyelination...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916716/effects-of-a-non-competitive-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-antagonist-tiletamine-in-adult-zebrafish
#17
Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Vadim A Shevyrin, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
Tiletamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist chemically related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A common veterinary anesthetic drug, tiletamine is currently a Schedule III controlled substance. This compound exerts sedative effects in humans and animals, also having an abuse potential, toxicity and dissociative hallucinogenic properties clinically. However, the neurotropic profile of tiletamine remains poorly understood, necessitating novel models and in-vivo screens, including non-mammalian species...
December 1, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916651/pharmacological-and-immunological-targeting-of-tumor-mesenchymalization
#18
REVIEW
Justin M David, Charli Dominguez, Claudia Palena
Controlling the spread of carcinoma cells to distant organs is the foremost challenge in cancer treatment, as metastatic disease is generally resistant to therapy and is ultimately incurable for the majority of patients. The plasticity of tumor cell phenotype, in which the behaviors and functions of individual tumor cells differ markedly depending upon intrinsic and extrinsic factors, is now known to be a central mechanism in cancer progression. Our expanding knowledge of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypic states in tumor cells, and the dynamic nature of the transitions between these phenotypes has created new opportunities to intervene to better control the behavior of tumor cells...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916390/chromatographic-behavior-of-selected-antibiotic-drugs-supported-by-quantitative-structure-retention-relationships
#19
Malgorzata Szultka-Mlynska, Boguslaw Buszewski
As antibiotic drugs have a wide variety of applications, there is a growing demand for their selective determination, a task for which chromatographic methods seem to be appropriate. With this end in view, chromatographic measurements were performed with the use of six different HPLC columns (ACE 5C18, IAM.PC.DD.2, octadecyl, phenyl, alkylamide and cholesteryl-alkylamide) to determine the logkw of selected antibiotic drugs (amoxicillin, cefatoxime, ciprofloxacin, fluconazole, gentamicin, clindamycin, linezolid and metronidazole)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915155/vertically-oriented-structure-and-its-fracture-behavior-of-the-indonesia-white-pearl-oyster
#20
Guowei Chen, Hongyun Luo, Shunfei Luo, Zhenying Lin, Yue Ma
Structural calcites, aragonites, and the bonding organic network decide the growth, structure and mechanical properties of the mollusk bivalvia shell. Here, it was found out that the calcite prisms together with the coated organics construct another kind of 'brick and mortar' structure similar to the aragonite tablets. The calcite layer can be divided into three sublayers and direct evidences show that the calcite prisms are produced by two methods: nucleation and growing in the first sublayer; or fusing from the aragonites, which is quite different from some previous reports...
November 3, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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