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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138545/activation-of-notch1-signaling-alleviates-dysfunction-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-extract
#1
Yi Cheng, Wen Gu, Guorui Zhang, Xiaoming Li, Xuejun Guo
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are considered attractive therapeutic agents for the treatment of COPD. However, little is known about the impact of Notch on the proliferation, migration, and survival of MSCs in a cigarette smoke (CS) microenvironment. Here, we used CS extract to mimic the CS microenvironment in vitro, with the intention to investigate the effect of Notch in regulating proliferation, migration, and survival of BM-MSCs. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were infected with lentivirus vector containing the intracellular domain of Notch1 (N1ICD) and challenged with CS extract...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138239/expanding-the-chondroitin-glycoproteome-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Fredrik Noborn, Alejandro Gomez Toledo, Waqas Nasir, Jonas Nilsson, Tabea Dierker, Lena Kjellén, Göran Larson
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are important structural components of connective tissues in essentially all metazoan organisms. In vertebrates, CSPGs are involved also in more specialized processes such as neurogenesis and growth factor signaling. In invertebrates, however, knowledge of CSPGs core proteins and proteoglycan-related functions is relatively limited, even for Caenorhabditis elegans. This nematode produces large amounts of non-sulfated chondroitin in addition to low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate chains...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135079/cigarette-smoke-extract-and-isoprene-resulted-in-the-induction-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-placenta-choriocarcinoma-jeg-3-cells
#3
Hae-Miru Lee, Kyung-Chul Choi
In this study, the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on the induction of apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) of JEG-3 human choriocarcinoma cells were examined to confirm the relationship between CS and placenta development. Upon TUNEL assay, CS extract (3R4F; 0.3 and 2.1 μM) increased JEG-3 apoptosis. Western blot assay revealed that the protein expressions of p53, Bax, and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) increased, while the levels of Bcl-2 were reduced following CS extract treatment...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130561/mechanism-of-action-of-camphoryl-benzene-sulfonamide-derivative-on-glucose-uptake-in-adipose-tissue
#4
Marisa Jádna Silva Frederico, Allisson Jhonatan Gomes Castro, Veronica Aiceles de Medeiros Pinto, Cristiane da Fonte Ramos, Fabíola Branco Filippin Monteiro, Alessandra Mascarello, Ricardo José Nunes, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of a sulfonamide derivative on glucose uptake in adipose tissue, as well as to characterize the effects of this compound on intestinal disaccharidases and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation. Camphoryl-benzene sulfonamide (CS) was able to stimulate glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes, adipose tissue and in soleus muscle. The stimulatory effect of the compound (10 μM) on glucose uptake on adipose tissue was blocked by diazoxide, wortmannin, U73122, colchicine, and N-ethylmaleimide...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128319/a-proteomic-investigation-into-mechanisms-underpinning-corticosteroid-effects-on-neural-stem-cells
#5
Rawaa S Al-Mayyahi, Luke D Sterio, Joanne B Connolly, Christopher F Adams, Wa'il A Al-Tumah, Jon Sen, Richard D Emes, Sarah R Hart, Divya M Chari
Corticosteroids (CSs) are widely used clinically, for example in pediatric respiratory distress syndrome, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of stem cell transplant populations in neural cell therapy. However, such treatment can be associated with adverse effects such as impaired neurogenesis and myelination, and increased risk of cerebral palsy. There is increasing evidence that CSs can adversely influence key biological properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) but the molecular mechanisms underpinning such effects are largely unknown...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123488/wearing-compression-tights-on-the-thigh-during-prolonged-running-attenuated-exercise-induced-increase-in-muscle-damage-marker-in-blood
#6
Sahiro Mizuno, Mari Arai, Fumihiko Todoko, Eri Yamada, Kazushige Goto
Purpose: To examine the effects of wearing a lower-body compression garment with different body coverage areas during prolonged running on exercise performance and muscle damage. Methods: Thirty male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) wearing a compression tights with 15 mmHg to thigh [n = 10, CT group], (2) wearing a compression socks with 15 mmHg to calf [n = 10, CS group], and (3) wearing a lower-body garment with < 5 mmHg to thigh and calf [n = 10, CON group]. The exercise consisted of 120 min of uphill running at 55% of [Formula: see text]O2max...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123031/structure-function-characterization-of-three-human-antibodies-targeting-the-vaccinia-virus-adhesion-molecule-d8
#7
Michael H Matho, Andrew Schlossman, Iuliia M Gilchuk, Greg Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, Matthias Hupfer, Jing Wang, Aruna Bitra, Xianghzi Meng, Yan Xiang, Tom Kaever, Tzanko Doukov, Klaus Ley, Shane Crotty, Bjoern Peters, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson, James E Crowe, Dirk M Zajonc
Vaccinia virus (VACV) envelope protein D8 is one of three glycosaminoglycan adhesion molecules and binds to the linear polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate (CS). D8 is also a target for neutralizing antibody responses that are elicited by the smallpox vaccine, which has enabled the first eradication of a human viral pathogen and is a useful model for studying antibody responses. However, to date, VACV epitopes targeted by human antibodies have not been characterized at atomic resolution. Here, we characterized the binding properties of several human anti-D8 antibodies and determined the crystal structures of three VACV-MAb variants, VACV-66, VACV-138, and VACV-304, separately bound to D8...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120736/mind-your-cs-and-gs
#8
Oliver I Fregoso
How can an innate immune sensor shape viral evolution? In recent work, Takata et al. (2017) determined that the antiviral protein ZAP recognizes CG dinucleotide composition to differentiate self from non-self. This pressure may have driven CG dinucleotide suppression in HIV-1 and other RNA viruses to evade host antiviral defenses.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119246/skeletal-muscle-and-performance-adaptations-to-high-intensity-training-in-elite-male-soccer-players-speed-endurance-runs-versus-small-sided-game-training
#9
Dan Fransson, Tobias Schmidt Nielsen, Karl Olsson, Tobias Christensson, Paul S Bradley, Ioannis G Fatouros, Peter Krustrup, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg, Magni Mohr
PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21) or a small-sided game group (SSG; n = 18). Over 4 weeks, thrice weekly, SET performed 6-10 × 30-s all-out runs with 3-min recovery, while SSG completed 2 × 7-9-min small-sided games with 2-min recovery...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117258/lung-epithelial-response-to-cigarette-smoke-and-modulation-by-the-nicotinic-alpha-7-receptor
#10
Lorise C Gahring, Elizabeth J Myers, Diane M Dunn, Robert B Weiss, Scott W Rogers
Cigarette smoking (CS) is a principal contributor to a spectrum of devastating lung diseases whose occurrence and severity may vary between individuals and not appear for decades after prolonged use. One explanation for the variability and delay in disease onset is that nicotine, the addictive component of CS, acts through the ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha7 (α7) to modulate anti-inflammatory protection. In this study we measured the impact α7 signaling has on the mouse distal lung response to side-stream CS exposure for mice of the control genotype (α7G) and those in which the α7-receptor signaling mechanisms are restricted by point mutation (α7E260A:G)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111769/xpc-deficiency-alters-cigarette-smoke-dna-damage-cell-fate-and-accelerates-emphysema-development
#11
Catherine R Sears, Huaxin Zhou, Matthew J Justice, Amanda J Fisher, Jacob Saliba, Isaac Lamb, Jessica Wicker, Kelly S Schweitzer, Irina Petrache
Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is a major risk factor for the development of emphysema, a common disease characterized by loss of cells comprising the lung parenchyma. The mechanisms of cell injury leading to emphysema are not completely understood but are thought to involve persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic DNA damage induced by CS. Using complementary cell culture and mouse models of CS exposure, we investigated the role of the DNA repair protein xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) on CS-induced DNA damage repair and emphysema...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111051/antimicrobial-activity-of-catechol-functionalized-chitosan-versus-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#12
Andrea Amato, Luisa Maria Migneco, Andrea Martinelli, Loris Pietrelli, Antonella Piozzi, Iolanda Francolini
Protein mussel-inspired adhesive polymers, characterized by the presence of catechol groups, possess superior muco-adhesive properties and have great potentiality in wound healing. Suitable materials for wound dressing should properly combine muco-adhesiveness and antimicrobial activity. In this work, catechol-functionalized chitosan was obtained by reaction with hydrocaffeic acid (HCAF), in order to investigate how catechol introduction at different content could affect the intrinsic antimicrobial activity of the polymer itself...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105481/different-therapeutic-options-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-due-to-bilateral-macronodular-adrenal-hyperplasia
#13
Nora M Albiger, Daniela Regazzo, Maurizio Iacobone, Carla Scaroni
Bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) is a relatively rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS). In recent years, growing evidence has shown that steroidogenesis is regulated by aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expression and their ligands, in a significant proportion of patients with BMAH. The screening of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrate the frequent expression of several GPCR that opened the option to potential therapeutic applications. Thus, several studies have demonstrated that targeting the involved receptor with specific antagonists, may result in a more or less effective control of cortisol excess...
November 3, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103285/the-effect-of-dietary-asparagine-supplementation-on-energy-metabolism-in-liver-of-weaning-pigs-when-challenged-with-lipopolysaccharide
#14
Ping Kang, Yulan Liu, Huiling Zhu, Jing Zhang, Haifeng Shi, Shuang Li, Dingan Pi, Weibo Leng, Xiuying Wang, Huanting Wu, Yongqing Hou
Objective: This experiment was conducted to investigate whether asparagine (Asn) could improve liver energy status in the weaning pigs when challenged with lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Forty-eight weaned pigs (Duroc × Large White × Landrace, 8.12±0.56 kg) were assigned to four treatments: 1) CTRL, piglets received a control diet and injected with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution; 2) LPSCC, piglets received the same control diet and injected with Escherichia coli LPS; 3) LPS + 0...
November 3, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098120/effects-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-on-p53-and-estrogen-receptor-in-breast-cancer-cells
#15
Katie Aleck, Kelly Hallman, Meghan Quigley, Victoria Lloyd, Monica Szmyd, Dana Ruskin, Tyler Bedgood, Sumi Dinda
The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormone is secreted by cardiac atrial myocytes and acts to regulate blood pressure homeostasis in humans. Previous research indicates ANP treatment significantly decreases the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and breast cancer cells. Minimal studies have been conducted with regard to ANP regulating tumor suppressor genes and steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer cells. Our study analyzed the effects of ANP in combination with 17β-estradiol (E2) and antiestrogen treatments on p53 and ERα levels in T-47D breast cancer cells...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098078/simulation-of-ecm-with-silk-and-chitosan-nanocomposite-materials
#16
Z Z Ding, J Ma, W He, Z L Ge, Q Lu, D L Kaplan
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a system used to model the design of biomaterial matrices for tissue regeneration. Various biomaterial systems have been developed to mimic the composition or microstructure of the ECM. However, emulating multiple facets of the ECM in these systems remains a challenge. Here, a new strategy is reported which addresses this need by using silk fibroin and chitosan (CS) nanocomposite materials. Silk fibroin was first assembled into ECM-mimetic nanofibers in water and then blended with CS to introduce the nanostructural cues...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097204/chitosan-coated-doxorubicin-nano-particles-drug-delivery-system-inhibits-cell-growth-of-liver-cancer-via-p53-prc1-pathway
#17
Bai-Liang Ye, Ru Zheng, Xiao-Jiao Ruan, Zhi-Hai Zheng, Hua-Jie Cai
BACKGROUND: Nano-particles have been widely used in target-specific drug delivery system and showed advantages in cancers treatment. This study aims to evaluate the effect of chitosan coated doxorubicin nano-particles drug delivery system in liver cancer. METHODS: The chitosan nano-particles were prepared by using the ionic gelation method. The characterizations of the nano-particles were determined by transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity was detected by MTT assay, and the endocytosis, cell apoptosis and cell cycle were examined by flow cytometry...
October 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095821/h55n-polymorphism-is-associated-with-low-citrate-synthase-activity-which-regulates-lipid-metabolism-in-mouse-muscle-cells
#18
Brendan M Gabriel, Mustafa Al-Tarrah, Yosra Alhindi, Audrius Kilikevicius, Tomas Venckunas, Stuart R Gray, Arimantas Lionikas, Aivaras Ratkevicius
The H55N polymorphism in the Cs gene of A/J mice has been linked to low activity of the enzyme in skeletal muscles. The aim of the study was to test this hypothesis and examine effects of low citrate synthase (CS) activity on palmitate metabolism in muscle cells. Results of the study showed that carriers of the wild type (WT) Cs (C57BL/6J and Balb/cByJ mouse strains) had higher CS activity (p < 0.01) than carriers of the A/J variant (B6.A-(rs3676616-D10Utsw1)/KjnB6 and A/J mouse strains) in the heart, liver and gastrocnemius muscle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094409/brownian-dynamic-study-of-an-enzyme-metabolon-in-the-tca-cycle-substrate-kinetics-and-channeling
#19
Yu-Ming M Huang, Gary A Huber, Nuo Wang, Shelley D Minteer, J Andrew McCammon
Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and citrate synthase (CS) are two pacemaking enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Oxaloacetate (OAA) molecules are the intermediate substrates that are transferred from the MDH to CS to carry out sequential catalysis. It is known that, to achieve a high flux of intermediate transport and reduce the probability of substrate leaking, a MDH-CS metabolon forms to enhance the OAA substrate channeling. In this study, we aim to understand the OAA channeling within possible MDH-CS metabolons that have different structural orientations in their complexes...
November 2, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089751/characteristics-and-potential-role-of-m2-macrophages-in-copd
#20
Shengyang He, Lihua Xie, Junjuan Lu, Shenghua Sun
BACKGROUND: COPD is a multi-pathogenesis disease mainly caused by smoking. A further understanding of the mechanism of smoking-related COPD might contribute to preventions and treatments of this disease in the early stages. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of M2 macrophages in COPD for a better understanding about their potential role. MATERIALS AND METHODS: COPD models were built in the C57BL/6 mouse by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure combined with intraperitoneal injection of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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