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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522217/celastrol-inhibits-chondrosarcoma-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-through-suppression-cip2a-c-myc-signaling-pathway
#1
Jinhui Wu, Muchen Ding, Ningfang Mao, Yungang Wu, Chao Wang, Jiabin Yuan, Xiong Miao, Jingfeng Li, Zhicai Shi
Chondrosarcomas (CS) is the second most frequent tumors of cartilage origin. A small compound extracted from Thunder God Vine (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F.) called celastrol can directly bound CIP2A protein and effectively inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, little knowledge is concern about the important role of CIP2A in CS patients and the therapeutic value of celastrol on CS. Our results showed that CIP2A and c-MYC were verified to be oncoproteins by detecting their mRNA and protein expression in 10 human CS tissues by qRT-PCR and Western blots...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514842/gender-difference-in-radiotherapy-induced-carotid-stenosis
#2
Y Yang, W Yang, T J Wang
Radiotherapy (RT) is often the first choice of treatment for cancer of the larynx. Studies have shown that the incidence of carotid stenosis (CS) after radiotherapy of laryngeal cancer is increasing, and that gender difference in radiotherapy-induced side effects exist. Thus, we examined the gender difference in the incidence of CS and the impact of microinflammatory factors after radiotherapy. We reported this study on patients who received radiotherapy as part of the treatment for laryngeal cancer in the Jilin Province in China...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505269/new-mutations-in-non-syndromic-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-patients-identified-via-whole-exome-sequencing
#3
Liliana Catherine Patiño, Isabelle Beau, Carolina Carlosama, July Constanza Buitrago, Ronald González, Carlos Fernando Suárez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Brigitte Delemer, Jacques Young, Nadine Binart, Paul Laissue
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to identify new mutations potentially associated with non-syndromic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) via whole-exome sequencing (WES)? SUMMARY ANSWER: WES is an efficient tool to study genetic causes of POI as we have identified new mutations, some of which lead to protein destablization potentially contributing to the disease etiology. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: POI is a frequently occurring complex pathology leading to infertility...
May 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502835/the-adma-ddah-no-pathway-in-human-vein-endothelial-cells-exposed-to-arsenite
#4
Citlalli Osorio-Yáñez, Miguel Chin-Chan, Luz C Sánchez-Peña, Octavio G Atzatzi-Aguilar, Jesus A Olivares-Reyes, José Segovia, Luz M Del Razo
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is related to cardiovascular disease, which is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and nitric oxide (NO) depletion. The mechanisms underlying NO depletion as related to iAs exposure are not fully understood. The endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), might be a molecular target of iAs. ADMA concentrations are regulated by proteins involved in its synthesis (arginine methyl transferase 1 [PRMT-1]) and degradation (dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase [DDAH])...
May 11, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501017/golgi-independent-routes-support-protein-disulfide-isomerase-externalization-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
Thaís L S Araujo, Carolina G Fernandes, Francisco R M Laurindo
Extracellular pools of intracellular molecular chaperones are increasingly evident. The peri/epicellular(pec) pool of the endoplasmic reticulum redox chaperone protein disulfide isomerase-A1(PDI) is involved in thrombosis and vascular remodeling, while PDI externalization routes remain elusive. In endothelial cells, vesicular-type PDI secretion involves classical and unconventional pathways, while in platelets PDI exocytosis involves actin cytoskeleton. However, little is known about pecPDI in vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMC)...
May 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498493/involvement-of-microglia-in-early-axoglial-alterations-of-the-optic-nerve-induced-by-experimental-glaucoma
#6
Melina P Bordone, María F González Fleitas, Laura A Pasquini, Alejandra Bosco, Pablo H Sande, Ruth E Rosenstein, Damián Dorfman
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness, characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve (ON) damage. Cumulative evidence suggests glial cell involvement in the degeneration of the ON and RGCs. We analyzed the contribution of microglial reactivity to early axoglial alterations of the ON in an induced model of ocular hypertension. For this purpose, vehicle or chondroitin sulfate (CS) were weekly injected into the eye anterior chamber from Wistar rats for different intervals. The amount of Brn3a(+) RGC significantly decreased in CS-injected eyes for 10 and 15 (but not 6) weeks...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496323/a-novel-nanoemulsion-based-method-to-produce-ultrasmall-water-dispersible-nanoparticles-from-chitosan-surface-modified-with-cell-penetrating-peptide-for-oral-delivery-of-proteins-and-peptides
#7
Ghullam Reza Barbari, Farid Abedin Dorkoosh, Mohsen Amini, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Fateme Atyabi, Saeed Balalaie, Niyousha Rafiee Tehrani, Morteza Rafiee Tehrani
A simple and reproducible water-in-oil (W/O) nanoemulsion technique for making ultrasmall (<15 nm), monodispersed and water-dispersible nanoparticles (NPs) from chitosan (CS) is reported. The nano-sized (50 nm) water pools of the W/O nanoemulsion serve as "nano-containers and nano-reactors". The entrapped polymer chains of CS inside these "nano-reactors" are covalently cross-linked with the chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG), leading to rigidification and formation of NPs. These NPs possess excessive swelling properties in aqueous medium and preserve integrity in all pH ranges due to chemical cross-linking with PEG...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489928/identification-and-analysis-of-the-%C3%AE-catenin1-gene-in-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#8
Ying Zhu, Qiaomu Hu, Wenteng Xu, Hailong Li, Hua Guo, Liang Meng, Min Wei, Sheng Lu, Changwei Shao, Na Wang, Guanpin Yang, Songlin Chen
β-catenin is a key signalling molecule in the canonical Wnt pathway, which plays a role in cell adhesion, embryogenesis and sex determination. However, little is known about its function in teleosts. We cloned and characterized the full-length β-catenin1 gene from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), which was designated CS-β-catenin1. The CS-β-catenin1 cDNA consists of 2,346 nucleotides and encodes a protein with 782 amino acids. Although CS-β-catenin1 was transcribed in the gonads of both sexes, the level was significantly higher in ovaries compared to testes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487195/evaluation-of-nanofibrous-scaffolds-obtained-from-blends-of-chitosan-gelatin-and-polycaprolactone-for-skin-tissue-engineering
#9
Susana Gomes, Gabriela Rodrigues, Gabriel Martins, Célia Henriques, Jorge Carvalho Silva
Polymer blending is a strategy commonly used to obtain hybrid materials possessing properties better than those of the individual constituents regarding their use in scaffolds for Tissue Engineering. In the present work, the scaffolds produced by electrospinning solutions of polymeric blends obtained using a polyester (polycaprolactone, PCL), a polysaccharide (chitosan, CS) and a protein (gelatin extracted from cold water fish skin, GEL), were investigated. Solutions conductivity, shear viscosity and surface tension were determined...
May 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486700/dysregulation-of-the-adam17-notch-signalling-pathways-in-endometriosis-from-oxidative-stress-to-fibrosis
#10
Iñaki González-Foruria, Pietro Santulli, Sandrine Chouzenoux, Francisco Carmona, Charles Chapron, Frédéric Batteux
STUDY QUESTION: Is oxidative stress associated with the A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAM) metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17)/Notch signalling pathway and fibrosis in the development of endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oxidative stress is correlated with hyperactivation of the ADAM17/Notch signalling pathway and a consequent increase in fibrosis in patients with endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It is nowadays accepted that oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of endometriosis...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484252/wnt-inhibitory-factor-1-wif1-methylation-and-its-association-with-clinical-prognosis-in-patients-with-chondrosarcoma
#11
Pei Liu, Jacson K Shen, Francis J Hornicek, Fuyun Liu, Zhenfeng Duan
Chondrosarcoma (CS) is a rare cancer, but it is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor and highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter CpG island of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) has been observed in different cancers. However, no studies have shown the relationship between WIF1 methylation and CS. In this study, we found promoter methylated WIF1 in both CS cell lines (CS-1 and SW1353) and tumor tissues. Western blot analysis confirmed loss WIF1 expression and activation of Wnt pathway proteins (Wnt5a/b, LRP6, and Dvl2)...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481056/the-tumor-promoter-activated-protein-kinase-cs-are-a-system-for-regulating-filopodia
#12
Carol A Heckman, Pratima Pandey, Marilyn L Cayer, Tania Biswas, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Nancy S Boudreau
Different protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have distinct roles in regulating cell functions. The conventional (α, β, γ) and novel (δ, ε, η, θ) classes are targets of phorbol ester tumor promoters, which are surrogates of endogenous second messenger, diacylglycerol. The promoter-stimulated disappearance of filopodia was investigated by use of blocking peptides (BPs) that inhibit PKC maturation and/or docking. Filopodia were partially rescued by a peptide representing PKC ε hydrophobic sequence, but also by a myristoylated PKC α/β pseudosubstrate sequence, and an inhibitor of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP)...
May 8, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477248/fluoxetine-an-antidepressant-drug-inhibited-cigarette-smoke-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#13
Zhiyong Cai, Jindi Liu, Hongliang Bian, Jinlan Cai, Qing Jin, Jijing Han
The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of fluoxetine (Flu) against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, CS group, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) group, and flu (2 mg/kg). H&E staining demonstrated that Flu inhibited CS-induced pathological injury. In addition, Flu could restore the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum...
May 5, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465283/expression-of-micrornas-and-target-proteins-in-skeletal-muscle-of-rats-selectively-bred-for-high-and-low-running-capacity
#14
Samuel Pinto, Séverine Lamon, Erin J Stephenson, Ming Kalanon, Jasmine Mikovic, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
Impairments in mitochondrial function and substrate metabolism are implicated in the etiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can degrade mRNA or repress protein translation and have been implicated in the development of such disorders. We used a contrasting rat model system of selectively bred high- (HCR) or low- (LCR) intrinsic running capacity with established differences in metabolic health to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which miRNAs regulate target proteins mediating mitochondrial function and substrate oxidation processes...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463588/the-lactate-dehydrogenase-inhibitor-gossypol-inhibits-radiation-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Jennifer L Judge, Shannon H Lacy, Wei-Yao Ku, Kristina M Owens, Eric Hernady, Thomas H Thatcher, Jacqueline P Williams, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime, R Matthew Kottmann
Exposure of the lung to ionizing radiation that occurs in radiotherapy, as well as after accidental or intentional mass casualty incident can result in pulmonary fibrosis, which has few treatment options. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by an accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that create scar tissue. Although the mechanisms leading to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain poorly understood, one frequent observation is the activation of the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)...
May 2, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457207/early-and-marked-enhancement-of-new-bone-quality-by-alendronate-loaded-collagen-sponge-combined-with-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-at-high-dose-a-long-term-study-in-calvarial-defects-in-a-rat-model
#16
Tae Hyung Cho, In Sook Kim, Beomseok Lee, Si-Nae Park, Jae-Hyung Ko, Soon Jung Hwang
Choice of appropriate biomaterial is a key factor for the success of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 therapy. Inspired by the osteogenic cell differentiating and osteoclast suppressing capabilities of alendronate (ALN), we manufactured a composite type of ALN-loaded collagen sponge (ALN-CS) which controls the early detrimental effect of high-dose rhBMP-2. This study aimed to evaluate ALN-CS as a high-dose rhBMP-2 carrier by investigating its initial bio-molecular effect and efficacy on intramembranous ossification at 1, 4, 8 and 24 weeks using a rat calvarial defect model, compared with non-loaded CS...
April 29, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456571/erythropoietin-activates-sirt1-to-protect-human-cardiomyocytes-against-doxorubicin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-toxicity
#17
Lan Cui, Jiabin Guo, Qiang Zhang, Jian Yin, Jin Li, Wei Zhou, Tingfen Zhang, Haitao Yuan, Jun Zhao, Li Zhang, Paul L Carmichael, Shuangqing Peng
The hormone erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to protect against chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. We hypothesized that silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), an NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), plays a crucial role in regulating mitochondrial function and mediating the beneficial effect of EPO. Our study in human cardiomyocyte AC16 cells showed that DOX-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction, as manifested by decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased mitochondrial superoxide accumulation, can be mitigated by EPO pretreatment...
April 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455524/mechanisms-underlying-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-for-costello-syndrome-are-distinct-from-other-rasopathy-mouse-models
#18
Jadwiga Schreiber, Laura-Anne Grimbergen, Iris Overwater, Thijs van der Vaart, Jeffrey Stedehouder, Alberto J Schuhmacher, Carmen Guerra, Steven A Kushner, Dick Jaarsma, Ype Elgersma
RASopathies, characterized by germline mutations in genes encoding proteins of the RAS-ERK signaling pathway, show overlapping phenotypes, which manifest themselves with a varying severity of intellectual disability. However, it is unclear to what extent they share the same downstream pathophysiology that underlies the cognitive deficits. Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare RASopathy caused by activating mutations in the HRAS gene. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying the cognitive deficits of HRas (G12V/G12V) mice...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452894/severe-trauma-and-chronic-stress-activates-extramedullary-erythropoiesis
#19
Ines G Alamo, Kolenkode B Kannan, Tyler J Loftus, Harry Ramos, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic injury is associated with bone marrow dysfunction that manifests as impaired erythropoiesis and prolonged hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) mobilization from the bone marrow. Extramedullary erythropoiesis, the development of red blood cells outside the bone marrow, has not been studied following severe injury and critical illness. This study examined the influence of lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock (LCHS) followed by chronic stress (CS) on the rodent spleen and to investigate the involvement of the splenic erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor and BMP4 signaling...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448944/platelet-cytochrome-oxidase-and-citrate-synthase-activities-in-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-carrier-and-non-carrier-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#20
Heather M Wilkins, Scott J Koppel, Rebecca Bothwell, Jonathan Mahnken, Jeffrey M Burns, Russell H Swerdlow
A degradation product of APOE ε4-encoded apolipoprotein E protein targets mitochondria and inhibits cytochrome oxidase (COX), and autopsy brains from young adult APOE ε4 carriers show reduced COX activity. To further explore relationships between APOE alleles and COX, we measured platelet mitochondria COX activity in AD subjects with (n=8) and without (n=7) an APOE ε4 allele and found the mean COX activity, when normalized to sample total protein, was lower in the APOE ε4 carriers (p<0.05). Normalizing COX activity to citrate synthase (CS) activity eliminated this difference, but notably the mean CS activity was itself lower in the APOE ε4 carriers (p<0...
April 13, 2017: Redox Biology
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