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CS protein

Nicolas Rouleau, Lukasz M Karbowski, Michael A Persinger
Synthetic experimental substrates are indispensable tools which can allow researchers to model biological processes non-invasively in three-dimensional space. In this study, we investigated the capacities of an electroconductive material whose properties converge upon those of the brain. An electrically conductive material composed of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, ions, water, and trace amounts of other organic compounds and minerals was classically conditioned as inferred by electrophysiological measurements...
2016: PloS One
Ahmad Bani-Jaber, Iyad Alshawabkeh, Samaa Abdullah, Imad Hamdan, Adel Ardakani, Maha Habash
Due to its unique properties, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, high amphiphilic property, and micelle formation, casein (CS) has been increasingly studied for drug delivery. We used CS as a drug carrier in solid dispersions (SDs) and evaluated the effect of its degradation by trypsin on drug dissolution from the dispersions. SDs of CS and mefenamic acid (MA) were prepared by physical mixing, kneading, and coprecipitation methods. In comparison to pure MA, the dispersions were evaluated for drug-protein interaction, loss of drug crystalinity, and drug morphology by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy...
October 17, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Cuiling Wu, Dan Liu, Xinghao Yang, Ribang Wu, Jiang Zhang, Jiafeng Huang, Hailun He
Pseudoalteromonas sp. CSN423, a marine strain, can express a major protease designated as E423 and it was secreted into the supernatant. To improve the protease E423 yield, Pseudoalteromonas sp. CSN423 was subjected to mutagenesis using UV irradiation. Mutant strain with 5.1-fold higher protease yield was isolated and named as Pseudoalteromonas sp. CSN423-M. Three protease bands were detected by zymography with casein as substrate, and results of mass spectrometry (MS) showed that two lower molecular weight protein bands were the same protease but with different mature forms...
October 17, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
Satomi Nadanaka, Hiroki Kinouchi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are abundant extracellular and cell surface molecules that consist of a protein core to which highly sulfated CS chains are covalently attached. The CS backbone is composed of repeating disaccharide units [-GlcA-GalNAc-]n, and during synthesis the CS chains acquire structural variability due to the action of sulfotransferases. Specific sulfation patterns are recognized by a large variety of proteins, including growth factors, morphogens, and extracellular matrix proteins, and these interactions regulate key events in development and normal physiology...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Natália A Borges, Amanda F Barros, Lia S Nakao, Carla J Dolenga, Denis Fouque, Denise Mafra
OBJECTIVE: Protein-bound uremic toxins from gut microbiota tend to accumulate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and are poorly removed by current dialysis techniques. These toxins induce inflammation and are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to report the relationship between uremic toxins and inflammatory and cardiovascular markers in CKD patients. DESIGN: This was a cross sectional study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one nondialysis patients were included (43% men, 63...
November 2016: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Johann Lebon, Razieh Barsalani, Hélène Payette, Martin Brochu, Isabelle J Dionne
: Background/Study context: Determining whether C-reactive protein (CRP), blood lipids, total and trunk fat mass (FM), and waist circumference (WC) are associated with changes in physical capacity over 3 years (Δ) in elderly. METHODS: One hundred twenty-two men and women 68-83 years of age participated in a 3-year follow-up study. Physical capacity was measured using five objective tests: (1) Timed Up and Go (TUG), (2) chair stand (CS), (3) normal walking speed (NWS), (4) fast walking speed (FWS), and (5) one-leg stand (LS), along with physical performance score (PPS) at baseline (T1) and 3 years later (T4)...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Abirami Arasu, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Rajesh Palanisamy, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Munuswamy-Ramanujam Ganesh, Jesu Arockiaraj
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are innate molecules that are found in a wide variety of species ranging from bacteria to humans. In recent years, excessive usage of antibiotics resulted in development of multi-drug resistant pathogens which made researchers to focus on AMPs as potential substitute for antibiotics. Lily type mannose-binding lectin is an extended super-family of structurally and evolutionarily related sugar binding proteins. These lectins are well-known AMPs which play important roles in fish defense mechanism...
October 8, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Weili Yu, Tao Hu
Protein-based vaccines are of potential to deal with the severe situations posed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Due to inherently poor immunogenicity of Mtb protein antigens, a potent immunostimulatory adjuvant is needed to enhance the cellular and humoral immune response to Mtb protein antigens. Inulin and chitosan (Cs) are polysaccharide adjuvants that can be used as achieve such an objective. The inulin-Cs conjugate (inulin-Cs) acted as a potent adjuvant through a synergistic interaction of inulin and Cs...
October 10, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
María Belem Arce-Vázquez, Edith Ponce-Alquicira, Ezequiel Delgado-Fornué, Ruth Pedroza-Islas, Gerardo Díaz-Godínez, J Soriano-Santos
Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins (CDs) from starch and related carbohydrates, producing a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-CDs in different amounts. CGTase production, mainly by Bacillus sp., depends on fermentation conditions such as pH, temperature, concentration of nutrients, carbon and nitrogen sources, among others. Bacillus megaterium CGTase produces those three types of CDs, however, β-CD should prevail. Although, waxy corn starch (CS) is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, alternative sources such as amaranth starch (AS) could be used to accomplish those purposes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Praveen Mannam, Navin Rauniyar, TuKiet T Lam, Ruiyan Luo, Patty J Lee, Anup Srivastava
Cigarette smoking is the primary risk factor for COPD which is characterized by excessive inflammation and airflow obstruction of the lung. While inflammation is causally related to initiation and progression of COPD, the mitochondrial mechanisms that underlie the associated inflammatory responses are poorly understood. In this context, we have studied the role played by Mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase 3 (MKK3), a dual-specificity protein kinase, in cigarette smoke induced-inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction...
October 4, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Kimihiko Sugaya, Tomohisa Hirobe, Yoshie Ishihara, Sonoe Inoue
To determine whether the effects of low-dose-rate gamma (γ) irradiation are identifiable in the regeneration of murine hair follicles, we irradiated whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the first telogen phase of the hair cycle with (137)Cs γ-rays. The mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including number, morphology, and pigmentation in the second anagen phase. Effects of γ-radiation on melanocyte stem cells were also investigated by the indirect immunolabeling of tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Clara Pons, Cristina Martí, Javier Forment, Carlos H Crisosto, Abhaya M Dandekar, Antonio Granell
Peach fruits subjected to prolonged cold storage (CS) to delay decay and over-ripening often develop a form of chilling injury (CI) called mealiness/woolliness (WLT), a flesh textural disorder characterized by lack of juiciness. Transcript profiles were analyzed after different lengths of CS and subsequent shelf life ripening (SLR) in pools of fruits from siblings of the Pop-DG population with contrasting sensitivity to develop WLT. This was followed by quantitative PCR on pools and individual lines of the Pop-DG population to validate and extend the microarray results...
October 6, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Robert C Dunbar, Jonathan Martens, Giel Berden, Jos Oomens
The observed variety of metal-ion complexation sites offered by peptides reflects a basic tension between charge solvation of the ion by Lewis-basic chelating groups versus amide nitrogen deprotonation and formation of metal-nitrogen bonds. Gas-phase models of metal-ion coordination can illuminate the factors governing this choice in condensed-phase proteins and enzymes. Here, structures of gas-phase complexes of Ni(ii) and Cu(ii) with tri- and tetra-peptide ligands are mapped out using a combination of Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) computations...
September 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tadahisa Mikami, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains are a class of long linear polysaccharides that are covalently attached to multiple core proteins to form proteoglycans (PGs). PGs are major pericellular and extracellular matrix components that surround virtually all mammalian cell surfaces, and create conducive microenvironments for a number of essential cellular events, such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate decisions. The multifunctional properties of PGs are mostly mediated by their respective GAG moieties, including chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS) chains...
October 6, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
W T Su, Y J Liu, T Y Huang
Formation of hepatocyte spheroids is a necessary strategy for increasing liver-specific function in vitro. In this study, HepG2 cells showed good viability when grown on a polylactic acid-chitosan (PLA-CS) nanofiber and aggregated to form multicellular spheroids on the PLA-CS nanofibers with a diameter of approximately 100-200 mm in 5 days of culture, whereas no such aggregation was observed in cells cultured on 24-well plates. Hepatocyte spheroids formed on the PLA-CS nanofibers displayed excellent hepatic-related protein expression, such as albumin and urea, compared to HepG2 cells cultured on the 24-well plates...
August 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Tabea Dierker, Chun Shao, Tatjana Haitina, Joseph Zaia, Andrea Hinas, Lena Kjellén
Proteoglycans are proteins that carry sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They help form and maintain morphogen gradients, guiding cell migration and differentiation during animal development. While no sulfated GAGs have been found in marine sponges, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) have been identified in Cnidarians, Lophotrocozoans and Ecdysozoans. The general view that nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans, which belong to Ecdysozoa, produce HS but only chondroitin without sulfation has therefore been puzzling...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fredrik Noborn, Alejandro Gomez Toledo, Anders Green, Waqas Nasir, Carina Sihlbom, Jonas Nilsson, Göran Larson
Heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are complex polysaccharides that regulate important biological pathways in virtually all metazoan organisms. The polysaccharides often display opposite effects on cell functions with HS and CS structural motifs presenting unique binding sites for specific ligands. Still, the mechanisms by which glycan biosynthesis generates complex HS and CS polysaccharides required for the regulation of mammalian physiology remain elusive. Here we present a glycoproteomic approach that identifies and differentiates between HS and CS attachment sites and provides identity to the core proteins...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nadav Brandes, Dan Ofer, Michal Linial
Determining residue-level protein properties, such as sites of post-translational modifications (PTMs), is vital to understanding protein function. Experimental methods are costly and time-consuming, while traditional rule-based computational methods fail to annotate sites lacking substantial similarity. Machine Learning (ML) methods are becoming fundamental in annotating unknown proteins and their heterogeneous properties. We present ASAP (Amino-acid Sequence Annotation Prediction), a universal ML framework for predicting residue-level properties...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Valerio Rossi, Monica Lispi, Salvatore Longobardi, Maurizio Mattei, Francesca Di Rella, Antonietta Salustri, Massimo De Felici, Francesca G Klinger
Premature ovarian failure and female infertility are frequent side effects of anticancer therapies, owing to the extreme sensitivity of the ovarian reserve oocytes to the damaging effects of irradiation and chemotherapy on DNA. We report here a robust protective effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) on the primordial follicle pool of prepubertal ovaries against the cisplatin (Cs)-induced apoptosis. In vitro LH treatment of prepubertal ovarian fragments generated anti-apoptotic signals by a subset of ovarian somatic cells expressing LH receptor (LHR) through cAMP/PKA and Akt pathways...
September 30, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Dongqing Guo, Xiaowei Zhang, Qin Li, Lei Qian, Jiajia Xu, Ming Lu, Xihan Hu, Ming Zhu, Catherine C Y Chang, Baoliang Song, Tayuan Chang, Ying Xiong, Boliang Li
Acyl-coenzymeA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) is abundantly expressed in intestine and fetal liver of healthy human. Our previous studies have shown that in monocytic cells the low-level expression of human ACAT2 gene with specific CpG-hypomethylated promoter is regulated by the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factors. In this study, we further report that the ACAT2 gene expression is attributable to the C/EBPs in the human leukocytes and correlated with the excretion of fluorescent lipoproteins containing the ACAT2-catalyzed NBD22-steryl esters...
September 29, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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