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CS protein

Airi Ohsaki, Yuki Miyano, Rei Tanaka, Sei-Ichi Tanuma, Shuji Kojima, Mitsutoshi Tsukimoto
Skin inflammation is caused by excessive production of cytokines and chemokines in response to an external stimulus, such as radiation, but the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism of γ-irradiation-induced IL-6 production mediated by P2Y11 receptors in epidermal cells. After irradiation of HaCaT cells derived from human epidermal keratinocytes with 5 Gy of γ-rays (137 Cs : 0.78 Gy/min), IL-6 production was unchanged at 24 h after γ-irradiation, but was increased at 48 h...
March 16, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Barbara Pascucci, Alessandra Fragale, Veronica Marabitti, Giuseppe Leuzzi, Angelo Salvatore Calcagnile, Eleonora Parlanti, Annapaola Franchitto, Eugenia Dogliotti, Mariarosaria D'Errico
CS proteins have been involved in the repair of a wide variety of DNA lesions. Here, we analyse the role of CS proteins in DNA break repair by studying histone H2AX phosphorylation in different cell cycle phases and DNA break repair by comet assay in CS-A and CS-B primary and transformed cells. Following methyl methane sulphate treatment a significant accumulation of unrepaired single strand breaks was detected in CS cells as compared to normal cells, leading to accumulation of double strand breaks in S and G2 phases...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Yuan-Jun Xia, Hong Xia, Ling Chen, Qing-Shui Ying, Xiang Yu, Li-Hua Li, Jian-Hua Wang, Ying Zhang
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) serves an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. However, administration of BMP-2 protein alone by intravenous delivery is not very effective. Sustained delivery of stabilized BMP-2 by carriers has been proven necessary to improve the osteogenesis effect of BMP-2. The present study constructed a novel drug delivery system using dextran sulfate (DS)-chitosan (CS) microspheres and investigated the efficiency of the delivery system on recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jeffrey Earl Gotts, Lauren F Chun, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Naoki Takasaki, Stephen L Nishimura, Matthew L Springer, Suzaynn F Schick, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Evidence is accumulating that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) increases the risk of developing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, which in turn is the leading cause of ARDS. Chronic smokers have increased rates of pneumococcal colonization and develop more severe pneumococcal pneumonia than nonsmokers, yet mechanistic connections between CS exposure, bacterial pneumonia, and ARDS pathogenesis remain relatively unexplored. We exposed mice to 3 weeks of moderate whole-body CS or air, followed by intranasal inoculation with an invasive serotype of S...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Weiwei Qian, Xiaochuan Kong, Tao Zhang, Dengdian Wang, Jin Song, Yuan Li, Xiaoting Li, Hao Geng, Jie Min, Qi Kong, Jie Liu, Zhiqi Liu, Daming Wang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Dexin Yu, Caiyun Zhong
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are essentially responsible for tumor initiation, growth, progression, metastasis and recurrence, and cigarette smoke (CS) is closely involved in the occurrence and development of kidney cancer. However, the effect of CS on renal CSCs has not been elucidated yet. In the present study, tumorsphere formation assay was used to enrich renal CSCs from 786-O and ACHN cells. We illustrated that CS effectively promoted renal CSCs stemness by enhancing tumorsphere formation, increasing the expression of renal CSCs markers (CD133, CD44, ALDHA1, Oct4, and Nanog) and elevating CD133+ cell population...
March 13, 2018: Oncogenesis
Zhilin Zeng, Miao Li, Jinkun Chen, Qinghai Li, Qin Ning, Jianping Zhao, Yongjian Xu, Jungang Xie, Jun Yu
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common inflammatory lung disease characterized by inflammatory cells activation and production of inflammatory mediators. Methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) plays an important role in diverse immunological disorders by regulating immune cell functions, such as differentiation and mediator secretion. However, the role of MBD2 in COPD remains unknown. Methods: MBD2 protein expression in lung tissues of patients with COPD and cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Fotis Spyropoulos, Daniel Kurukji, Phil Taylor, Ian T Norton
Aside from single active microencapsulation, there is growing interest in designing structures for the co-encapsulation and co-delivery of multiple species. Although currently achievable within solid systems, significant challenges exist in realising such functionality in liquid formulations. The present study reports on a novel microstructural strategy that enables the co-encapsulation and co-release of two actives from oil-in-water emulsions. This is realised through the fabrication of sodium caseinate/chitosan (NaCAS/CS) complexes that in tandem function as encapsulants of one active (hydrophilic) but also as ('Pickering-like') stabilisers to emulsion droplets containing a secondary active (hydrophobic)...
March 13, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Marguerite L Monogue, George Sakoulas, Victor Nizet, David P Nicolau
β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) have previously demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). Colistin retains the highest susceptibility rate against A. baumannii, and has demonstrated synergy with other antimicrobials, including β-lactam-BLIs. Therefore, we assessed the potential individual activity and synergistic combinations in vivo against carbapenem-susceptible (CS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii isolates in neutropenic thigh and lung infection models...
March 13, 2018: Pharmacology
Alex Pines, Madelon Dijk, Matthew Makowski, Elisabeth M Meulenbroek, Mischa G Vrouwe, Yana van der Weegen, Marijke Baltissen, Pim J French, Martin E van Royen, Martijn S Luijsterburg, Leon H Mullenders, Michiel Vermeulen, Wim Vermeulen, Navraj S Pannu, Haico van Attikum
Transcription-blocking DNA lesions are removed by transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) to preserve cell viability. TC-NER is triggered by the stalling of RNA polymerase II at DNA lesions, leading to the recruitment of TC-NER-specific factors such as the CSA-DDB1-CUL4A-RBX1 cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRLCSA ). Despite its vital role in TC-NER, little is known about the regulation of the CRLCSA complex during TC-NER. Using conventional and cross-linking immunoprecipitations coupled to mass spectrometry, we uncover a stable interaction between CSA and the TRiC chaperonin...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Roan Louw, Izelle Smuts, Kimmey-Li Wilsenach, Lindi-Maryn Jonck, Maryke Schoonen, Francois H van der Westhuizen
BACKGROUND: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) is an important component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) and is critical for energy production. Although the prevalence of CoQ10 deficiency is still unknown, the general consensus is that the condition is under-diagnosed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate CoQ10 deficiency in frozen muscle specimens in a cohort of ethnically diverse patients who received muscle biopsies for the investigation of a possible RC deficiency (RCD)...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Tamer M Abdelghany, Raed S Ismail, Fatma A Mansoor, Joseph R Zweier, Frazer Lowe, Jay L Zweier
Cigarette smoking (CS) is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endothelial dysfunction (ED) with loss of nitric oxide (NO) production is a central mechanism leading to the advent of CVD. Despite many prior studies of this major health problem, the exact mechanism by which CS induces ED is not well understood. This study examines the mechanism by which CS induces ED with altered endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) function in aortic endothelial cells (AECs). Exposure of AECs to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) resulted in a marked decrease in NO production with concomitant increase in superoxide (O2 ...
March 7, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Hadas Biran, Tovi Almozlino, Martin Kupiec, Roded Sharan
Network propagation is a powerful tool for genetic analysis which is widely used to identify genes and genetic modules that underlie a process of interest. Here we provide a graphical, web-based platform ( in which researchers can easily apply variants of this method to datasets of interest using up-to-date networks of protein-protein interactions in several organisms.
March 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
William B Stoughton, Jianrong Li, Cindy Balog-Alvarez, Joe N Kornegay
Introduction Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) are X-linked disorders caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Autophagy was recently identified as a secondary therapeutic target for DMD. We hypothesized that autophagy would be reduced in GRMD. Methods Autophagic gene and protein expression was assessed in normal and GRMD skeletal muscles and correlated with phenotypic biomarkers. Results Muscles were differentially affected. Autophagy gene levels were lower than normal in the GRMD cranial sartorius (CS) but similar in the vastus lateralis (VL)...
March 7, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Sarah Morar Schneider, Vidya Sridhar, Amanda K Bettis, Heather Heath-Barnett, Cynthia J Balog-Alvarez, Lee-Jae Guo, Rachel Johnson, Scott Jaques, Stanislav Vitha, Alan C Glowcwski, Joe N Kornegay, Peter P Nghiem
PURPOSE: Metabolic dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by reduced glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, decreased and abnormal mitochondria, decreased ATP, and increased oxidative stress. We analyzed glucose metabolism as a potential disease biomarker in the genetically homologous golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog with molecular, biochemical, and in vivo imaging. PROCEDURES: Pelvic limb skeletal muscle and left ventricle tissue from the heart were analyzed by mRNA profiling, qPCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy for the primary glucose transporter (GLUT4)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Yong Wang, Juan Liu, Jie-Sen Zhou, Hua-Qiong Huang, Zhou-Yang Li, Xu-Chen Xu, Tian-Wen Lai, Yue Hu, Hong-Bin Zhou, Hai-Pin Chen, Song-Min Ying, Wen Li, Hua-Hao Shen, Zhi-Hua Chen
Airway epithelial cell death and inflammation are pathological features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) is involved in inflammation and multiple cellular processes, e.g., autophagy and apoptosis, but little is known about its function in COPD pathogenesis. In this article, we illustrate how MTOR regulates cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cell death, airway inflammation, and emphysema. Expression of MTOR was significantly decreased and its suppressive signaling protein, tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2), was increased in the airway epithelium of human COPD and in mouse lungs with chronic CS exposure...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Filippo Zanetti, Alain Sewer, Elena Scotti, Bjoern Titz, Walter K Schlage, Patrice Leroy, Athanasios Kondylis, Gregory Vuillaume, Anita R Iskandar, Emmanuel Guedj, Keyur Trivedi, Thomas Schneider, Ashraf Elamin, Florian Martin, Nikolai V Ivanov, Stefan Frentzel, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Cigarette smoke (CS) is affecting considerably the oral mucosa. Heating, instead of burning, tobacco reduces consistently the amount of toxic compounds and may exert a lower impact on oral health than combusted cigarettes. The carbon-heated tobacco product 1.2 (CHTP1.2) is a potential modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) based on heat-not-burn technology. Using a systems toxicology assessment framework, we compared the effects of exposure to CHTP1.2 aerosol with those of CS from a reference cigarette (3R4F)...
March 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Maristela P Rangel, Vanessa K de Sá, Tabatha Prieto, João Roberto M Martins, Eloísa R Olivieri, Dirce Carraro, Teresa Takagaki, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
Matrix proteoglycans (PGs) have shown promise as biomarker in malignancies. We employed agarose gel eletrophoresis, quantitative real- time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the content of sulfated glicosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate) and expression of PG (biglycan, glypican, perlecan, syndecan e versican) in patient-matched normal and tumor tissues obtained from resected specimens of lung cancer. A significant increase of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) concentrations was found in tumor tissue samples when compared to normal lung tissue samples...
March 3, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Gagandeep Kaur, Prathyusha Bagam, Rakeysha Pinkston, Dhirendra P Singh, Sanjay Batra
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, life-threatening disease that causes irreversible lung damage. Cigarette smoking is the chief etiologic factor for the commencement of this condition. Despite constant efforts to develop therapeutic interventions and to ascertain the molecular mechanism leading to the pathophysiology of this disease, much remains unknown. However, pattern recognition receptor (PRRs), i.e., Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are believed to play important roles in this disease and could serve as effective therapeutic targets...
February 28, 2018: Toxicology
Thomas N Wight
The content of proteoglycans (PGs) is low in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of vascular tissue, but increases dramatically in all phases of vascular disease. Early studies demonstrated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), keratan sulfate (KS) and heparan sulfate (HS) accumulate in vascular lesions in both humans and in animal models in areas of the vasculature that are susceptible to disease initiation (such as at branch points) and are frequently coincident with lipid deposits...
February 27, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
V P Nikitin, S V Solntseva, S A Kozyrev, P V Nikitin, A V Shevelkin
Elucidation of amnesia mechanisms is one of the central problems in neuroscience with immense practical application. Previously, we found that conditioned food presentation combined with injection of a neurotransmitter receptor antagonist or protein synthesis inhibitor led to amnesia induction. In the present study, we investigated the time course and features of two amnesias: induced by impairment of memory reconsolidation using an NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801) and a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin, MET) on snails trained with food aversion conditioning...
February 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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