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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212943/effects-of-acute-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-manipulations-in-the-aci-paradigm-depend-on-the-basal-valence-of-cognitive-judgement-bias-in-rats
#1
Joanna Golebiowska, Rafal Rygula
Recent findings have revealed that pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic (DA) function by the administration of a DA precursor (dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; L-DOPA), but not the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, increases an optimism bias in humans. To test whether dopamine might play a similar role in non-human animals, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of acute injections of L-DOPA, the D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol, and the SSRI escitalopram on cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212167/the-varying-roles-of-nurses-during-interfacility-care-transitions
#2
Lianne Jeffs, Marianne Saragosa, Madelyn Law, Kerry Kuluski, Sherry Espin, Heidi Parker, Kristen Collins
This study explored health care professionals' perceptions and experiences associated with the role of point-of-care nurses during care transitions from an acute care hospital to a rehabilitation setting to being discharged home. We used a qualitative exploratory design and semistructured interviews. Content analysis revealed 3 themes that point to the ambiguity related to the roles that nurses enact with older patients during care transitions. We suggest ways to better support nurses to engage in quality care transitions...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212086/salient-object-detection-via-multiple-instance-learning
#3
Fang Huang, Qi Jinqing, Huchuan Lu, Lihe Zhang, Xiang Ruan
Object proposals are a series of candidate segments containing objects of interest, which are taken as preprocessing and widely applied in various vision tasks. However, most of existing saliency approaches only utilize the proposals to compute a location prior. In this paper, we naturally take the proposals as the bags of instances of multiple instance learning (MIL), where the instances are the superpixels contained in the proposals, and formulate saliency detection problem as a MIL task (i.e., predict the labels of instances using the classifier in the MIL framework)...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211086/variation-of-the-rates-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-the-neonatal-networks-in-england
#4
Nicholas T Longford
Necrotising enterocolitis is an oft-fatal disease of the intestinal tract in neonates born prematurely and with low birthweight. We study the variation of its rates across the neonatal networks (groups of hospital-based neonatal care units) in England. We illustrate the problematic nature of hypothesis testing for a key decision, which an analysis is meant to inform, and apply an approach based on decision theory. We emphasise the role of sensitivity analysis in dealing with the ambiguity encountered in the process of eliciting information about the perspective of the client or sponsor for whom the analysis is conducted...
February 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211084/endothelial-cells-biophysical-biochemical-and-chromosomal-aberrancies-in-high-glucose-condition-within-the-diabetic-range
#5
Aysa Rezabakhsh, Elahe Nabat, Mina Yousefi, Soheila Montazersaheb, Omid Cheraghi, Amir Mehdizadeh, Farzaneh Fathi, Ali Akbar Movassaghpour, Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji, Reza Rahbarghazi, Alireza Garjani
To date, many studies have been conducted to find out the underlying mechanisms of hyperglycemia-induced complications in diabetes mellitus, attributed to the cellular pathologies of different cells-especially endothelial cells. However, there are still many ambiguities and unresolved issues to be clarified. Here, we investigated the alteration in biophysical and biochemical properties in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to a high-glucose concentration (30mM), comparable to glucose content in type 2 diabetes mellitus, over a course of 120 hours...
February 17, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210485/directional-bias-in-the-perception-of-cast-shadows
#6
Tomomi Koizumi, Hiroyuki Ito, Shoji Sunaga, Masaki Ogawa
Previous studies have demonstrated that the perception of shading is based upon assumptions about lighting direction, for example, light from above. However, it is not clear whether these assumptions are used in the perception of cast shadows. Moreover, it is unclear whether a perceptual interaction exists between shading and cast shadows because until now they have been studied separately. In this study, we investigated through three experiments whether the light-from-above (or another direction) assumption is used in interpreting ambiguous cast shadows, and whether shading information influences the interpretation of cast shadows...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209520/deconstructing-empathy-neuroanatomical-dissociations-between-affect-sharing-and-prosocial-motivation-using-a-patient-lesion-model
#7
Suzanne M Shdo, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Kelly A Gola, Clinton J Mielke, Paul V Sukhanov, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to more directly examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant (nfvPPA)...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208694/novel-hierarchical-fall-detection-algorithm-using-a-multiphase-fall-model
#8
Chia-Yeh Hsieh, Kai-Chun Liu, Chih-Ning Huang, Woei-Chyn Chu, Chia-Tai Chan
Falls are the primary cause of accidents for the elderly in the living environment. Reducing hazards in the living environment and performing exercises for training balance and muscles are the common strategies for fall prevention. However, falls cannot be avoided completely; fall detection provides an alarm that can decrease injuries or death caused by the lack of rescue. The automatic fall detection system has opportunities to provide real-time emergency alarms for improving the safety and quality of home healthcare services...
February 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207811/accelerated-flexible-protein-ligand-docking-using-hamiltonian-replica-exchange-with-a-repulsive-biasing-potential
#9
Katja Ostermeir, Martin Zacharias
A molecular dynamics replica exchange based method has been developed that allows rapid identification of putative ligand binding sites on the surface of biomolecules. The approach employs a set of ambiguity restraints in replica simulations between receptor and ligand that allow close contacts in the reference replica but promotes transient dissociation in higher replicas. This avoids long-lived trapping of the ligand or partner proteins at nonspecific, sticky, sites on the receptor molecule and results in accelerated exploration of the possible binding regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207417/adrenarche-unmasks-compound-heterozygous-3%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-deficiency-c-244g-a-p-ala82thr-and-the-novel-931c-t-p-gln311-variant-in-a-non-salt-wasting-severely-undervirilised-46xy
#10
Stephanie Louise Teasdale, Adam Morton
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II deficiency (3βHSD2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of ambiguous genitalia, resulting in abnormal virilisation in both 46XY and 46XX. We describe a case of 46XY ambiguous genitalia that was misdiagnosed as androgen insensitivity syndrome. The correct diagnosis was made after adrenarche. Genotyping demonstrated compound heterozygosity in two alleles, the previously described c.244G>A (p.Ala82Thr), and a novel 931C>T(p.Gln311*) variant. We suggest that adrenarche unmasked the condition by driving cortisol production to rates that caused the mutant 3bHSD2 enzyme to become rate limiting for cortisol production...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206843/development-of-a-new-scale-to-measure-ambiguity-tolerance-in-veterinary-students
#11
Jennifer A Hammond, Jason Hancock, Margaret S Martin, Susan Jamieson, Dominic J Mellor
The ability to cope with ambiguity and feelings of uncertainty is an essential part of professional practice. Research with physicians has identified that intolerance of ambiguity or uncertainty is linked to stress, and some authors have hypothesized that there could be an association between intolerance of ambiguity and burnout. We describe the adaptation of the TAMSAD (Tolerance of Ambiguity in Medical Students and Doctors) scale for use with veterinary students. Exploratory factor analysis supports a uni-dimensional structure for the Ambiguity tolerance construct...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205562/proteins-analysed-as-virtual-knots
#12
Keith Alexander, Alexander J Taylor, Mark R Dennis
Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203466/idiopathic-renal-infarction-mimicking-appendicitis
#13
Marco Di Serafino, Rosa Severino, Chiara Gullotto, Francesco Lisanti, Enrico Scarano
Renal infarction is a rare cause of referral to the emergency department, with very low estimated incidence (0.004%-0.007%). Usually, it manifests in patients aged 60-70 with risk factors for thromboembolism, mostly related to heart disease, atrial fibrillation in particular. We report a case of idiopathic segmental renal infarction in a 38-year-old patient, presenting with acute abdominal pain with no previous known history or risk factors for thromboembolic diseases. Because of its aspecific clinical presentation, this condition can mimic more frequent pathologies including pyelonephritis, nephrolithiasis, or as in our case appendicitis...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203354/the-graphesthesia-paradigm-drawing-letters-on-the-body-to-investigate-the-embodied-nature-of-perspective-taking
#14
Gabriel Arnold, Malika Auvray
In this study, we investigated whether adopting a head-centered perspective on the body is an embodied process by means of the graphesthesia task. This task consists of interpreting ambiguous tactile symbols from different spatial perspectives. The results revealed that symbols were more easily recognized when the mental rotation of the head toward the stimulated surface corresponded to physically possible, as opposed to impossible, body movements. Performance also decreased with increasing the amount of body movements that would be necessary to physically rotate the head...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203350/separate-and-simultaneous-adjustment-of-light-qualities-in-a-real-scene
#15
Ling Xia, Sylvia C Pont, Ingrid Heynderick
Humans are able to estimate light field properties in a scene in that they have expectations of the objects' appearance inside it. Previously, we probed such expectations in a real scene by asking whether a "probe object" fitted a real scene with regard to its lighting. But how well are observers able to interactively adjust the light properties on a "probe object" to its surrounding real scene? Image ambiguities can result in perceptual interactions between light properties. Such interactions formed a major problem for the "readability" of the illumination direction and diffuseness on a matte smooth spherical probe...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203294/correlation-between-nad-p-h-quinone-oxidoreductase-1-c609t-polymorphism-and-increased-risk-of-esophageal-cancer-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#16
Jingfang Diao, Jie Bao, Jianxin Peng, Jiaqiang Mo, Qing Ye, Junming He
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T gene polymorphisms have been reported to influence the risk for esophageal cancer (EC) in many studies. However, the results remain controversial and ambiguous. We performed a meta-analysis, which included 13 independent studies with a total of 2357 subjects, to examine the association between NQO1 C609T polymorphism and EC. The association was assessed by five different gene models. The overall analysis suggested that the variant allele and genotypes were significantly related to increased risk of EC (odds ratio [OR] T versus C = 1...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203214/searching-high-and-low-prosodic-breaks-disambiguate-relative-clauses
#17
Lauren A Fromont, Salvador Soto-Faraco, Emmanuel Biau
During natural speech perception, listeners rely on a wide range of cues to support comprehension, from semantic context to prosodic information. There is a general consensus that prosody plays a role in syntactic parsing, but most studies focusing on ambiguous relative clauses (RC) show that prosodic cues, alone, are insufficient to reverse the preferred interpretation of sentence. These findings suggest that universally preferred structures (e.g., Late Closure principle) matter far more than prosodic cues in such cases...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203062/what-are-the-highly-important-and-desirable-patient-engagement-actions-for-self-care-as-perceived-by-individuals-living-in-the-southern-united-states
#18
Huey-Ming Tzeng, James Marcus Pierson
AIM: This exploratory survey study aimed to identify patient engagement actions that are the most frequently named as being highly important (top 30 by importance) or ones that they want to do (top 30 by desire) for community-dwelling adult patients living in the southern United States. Items not making the list of the top 30 by ability were also identified. BACKGROUND: Patient engagement is still an ambiguous term among population health and health care professionals in the United States as we lack a clear understanding of what it entails...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202429/virtual-patient-technology-engaging-primary-care-in-quality-improvement-innovations
#19
Amanda C Blok, Christine N May, Rajani S Sadasivam, Thomas K Houston
BACKGROUND: Engaging health care staff in new quality improvement programs is challenging. OBJECTIVE: We developed 2 virtual patient (VP) avatars in the context of a clinic-level quality improvement program. We sought to determine differences in preferences for VPs and the perceived influence of interacting with the VP on clinical staff engagement with the quality improvement program. METHODS: Using a participatory design approach, we developed an older male smoker VP and a younger female smoker VP...
February 15, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199400/estimating-the-location-of-baleen-whale-calls-using-dual-streamers-to-support-mitigation-procedures-in-seismic-reflection-surveys
#20
Shima H Abadi, Maya Tolstoy, William S D Wilcock
In order to mitigate against possible impacts of seismic surveys on baleen whales it is important to know as much as possible about the presence of whales within the vicinity of seismic operations. This study expands on previous work that analyzes single seismic streamer data to locate nearby calling baleen whales with a grid search method that utilizes the propagation angles and relative arrival times of received signals along the streamer. Three dimensional seismic reflection surveys use multiple towed hydrophone arrays for imaging the structure beneath the seafloor, providing an opportunity to significantly improve the uncertainty associated with streamer-generated call locations...
2017: PloS One
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