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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920018/neonatal-sex-assignment-in-disorders-of-sex-development-a-philosophical-introspection
#1
REVIEW
V Raveenthiran
Management of ambiguous genitalia is highly controversial. This condition was known previously as intersex and presently as disorders of sex development (DSD). There is no consensus regarding the choice, timing and method of sex assignment in neonates with DSD. Consensus conferences could not unify the views of various stakeholders and third parties. This article philosophically examines the nature and origin of such controversies. Misconception, bias and conflicting priorities are identified as the three cardinal sources of controversies...
July 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919570/initial-clinical-experience-with-aview-a-clinical-computational-platform-for-intracranial-aneurysm-morphology-hemodynamics-and-treatment-management
#2
Jianping Xiang, Nicole Varble, Jason M Davies, Ansaar T Rai, Kenichi Kono, Shin-Ichiro Sugiyama, Mandy J Binning, Rabih G Tawk, Hoon Choi, Andrew J Ringer, Kenneth V Snyder, Elad I Levy, L Nelson Hopkins, Adnan H Siddiqui, Hui Meng
BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysm (IA) management is challenging. Clinicians often rely on varied and intuitively disparate ways of evaluating rupture risk that may only partially take into account complex hemodynamic and morphologic factors. We developed a prototype of a clinically-oriented, streamlined, computational platform, AView, for rapid assessment of hemodynamics and morphometrics in clinical settings. To show the potential clinical utility of AView, we report our initial multicenter experience highlighting the possible advantages of morphologic and hemodynamic analysis of IAs...
September 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918701/supporting-family-involvement-in-long-term-residential-care-promising-practices-for-relational-care
#3
Rachel Barken, Ruth Lowndes
Family members and friends provide significant support for older relatives in long-term residential care (LTRC). Yet, they occupy ambiguous positions in these settings, and their relationships with LTRC staff can involve conflicts and challenges. Based on an ethnographic project carried out in North America and Europe, this article identifies practices that promote meaningful family participation in care home life. We consider instances of rewarding family involvement upon admission to LTRC, throughout the time a relative is living in a care home, and during the final stages of life...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917944/tetrabromoethylcyclohexane-affects-gonadal-differentiation-and-development-in-the-frog-pelophylax-nigromaculatus
#4
Peng-Yan Liu, Tan Meng, Yuan-Yuan Li, Man Cai, Xing-Hong Li, Juan Chen, Zhan-Fen Qin
Tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH), an additive brominated flame retardant, has been shown to have an androgenic activity in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of TBECH on gonadal differentiation and development in the frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus, an amphibian species sensitive to androgenic chemicals, and to assess the androgenic activity of TBECH in vivo. P. nigromaculatus tadpoles were exposed to TBECH (1, 10, 100nM) from Gosner stage 24 to complete metamorphosis, and to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as a positive control...
September 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917585/total-urogenital-sinus-mobilization-for-ambiguous-genitalia
#5
Vinicius Menezes Jesus, Francisco Buriti, Rodrigo Lessa, Maria Betânia Toralles, Luciana Barros Oliveira, Ubirajara Barroso
INTRODUCTION: Genital ambiguity is a very common phenomenon in disorders of sex development (DSD). According to the Chicago Consensus 2006, feminizing genitoplasty, when indicated, should be performed in the most virilized cases (Prader III to V). Advances in the knowledge of genital anatomy in DSD have enabled the development and improvement of various surgical techniques. Mobilization of the urogenital sinus (MUS), first described by Peña, has become incorporated by most surgeons. However, the proximity of the urethral sphincter prompts concern over urinary incontinence, especially for full mobilization of the urogenital sinus...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917540/galba-truncatula-and-fasciola-hepatica-genetic-costructures-and-interactions-with-intermediate-host-dispersal
#6
Ana C Correa, Thierry De Meeûs, Gilles Dreyfuss, Daniel Rondelaud, Sylvie Hurtrez-Boussès
Antagonistic interactions between hosts and parasites are key structuring forces in natural populations. Demographic factors like extinction, migration and the effective population size shape host-parasite metapopulational dynamics. Therefore, to understand the evolution of host-parasite systems it is necessary to study the distribution of the genetic variation of both entities simultaneously. In this paper, we investigate the population genetics co-structure of parasites and hosts within a metapopulation of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and two of its intermediate hosts, the main intermediate host in Europe, Galba truncatula, and a new intermediate host, Omphiscola glabra, in Central France...
September 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917133/waiting-for-lexical-access-cochlear-implants-or-severely-degraded-input-lead-listeners-to-process-speech-less-incrementally
#7
Bob McMurray, Ashley Farris-Trimble, Hannah Rigler
Spoken language unfolds over time. Consequently, there are brief periods of ambiguity, when incomplete input can match many possible words. Typical listeners solve this problem by immediately activating multiple candidates which compete for recognition. In two experiments using the visual world paradigm, we examined real-time lexical competition in prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users, and normal hearing (NH) adults listening to severely degraded speech. In Experiment 1, adolescent CI users and NH controls matched spoken words to arrays of pictures including pictures of the target word and phonological competitors...
September 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917056/on-the-ambiguity-of-interaction-and-nonlinear-main-effects-in-a-regime-of-dependent-covariates
#8
Hannes Matuschek, Reinhold Kliegl
The analysis of large experimental datasets frequently reveals significant interactions that are difficult to interpret within the theoretical framework guiding the research. Some of these interactions actually arise from the presence of unspecified nonlinear main effects and statistically dependent covariates in the statistical model. Importantly, such nonlinear main effects may be compatible (or, at least, not incompatible) with the current theoretical framework. In the present literature, this issue has only been studied in terms of correlated (linearly dependent) covariates...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916887/appropriate-imaging-utilization-in-japan-a-survey-of-accredited-radiology-training-hospitals
#9
Kanako K Kumamaru, Sadayuki Murayama, Yasuyuki Yamashita, Takeshi Nojo, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Mariko Goto, Eriko Maeda, Junko Echigo, Shigeyoshi Soga, Shinya Fujii, Yutaka Tanami, Tetsuhiko Okabe, Masahiro Okada, Jiro Munechika, Hideki Ota, Mototaka Miyake, Hiroshi Honda, Shigeki Aoki
PURPOSE: To survey whether imaging is being performed appropriately in Japan, and to survey whether radiologists intervene to ensure imaging requests are appropriate. METHODS: An online survey was sent to radiologists at accredited radiology training hospitals. The survey included the radiologists' perspectives on whether imaging is performed appropriately at their institutions and whether they intervene if the indication for imaging is inappropriate/ambiguous. RESULTS: The response rate was 87...
September 15, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916136/mathematical-basis-of-improved-protein-subfamily-classification-by-a-hmm-based-sequence-filter
#10
Siddhartha Kundu
Informative phylogenetic analysis is dependent on the presence of curated and annotated sequences. This may be complemented by the simultaneous availability of empirical data pertaining to their in vivo function. Confounding sequences, with their similarity to more than one functional cluster, can therefore, render any categorization ambiguous, subjective, and imprecise. Here, I analyze and discuss the development of a mathematical expression that can characterize a potential confounding protein sequence. Specifically, statistical descriptors of combinatorially arranged profile HMM scores are computed and evaluated...
September 12, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915787/mmquant-how-to-count-multi-mapping-reads
#11
Matthias Zytnicki
BACKGROUND: RNA-Seq is currently used routinely, and it provides accurate information on gene transcription. However, the method cannot accurately estimate duplicated genes expression. Several strategies have been previously used (drop duplicated genes, distribute uniformly the reads, or estimate expression), but all of them provide biased results. RESULTS: We provide here a tool, called mmquant, for computing gene expression, included duplicated genes. If a read maps at different positions, the tool detects that the corresponding genes are duplicated; it merges the genes and creates a merged gene...
September 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915784/the-role-of-fundamental-frequency-and-temporal-envelope-in-processing-sentences-with-temporary-syntactic-ambiguities
#12
Victoria Sharpe, Daniel Fogerty, Dirk-Bart den Ouden
Previous experiments have demonstrated the impact of speech prosody on syntactic processing. The present study was designed to examine how listeners use specific acoustic properties of prosody for grammatical interpretation. We investigated the independent contributions of two acoustic properties associated with the pitch and rhythmic properties of speech; the fundamental frequency and temporal envelope, respectively. The effect of degrading these prosodic components was examined by testing listeners' ability to parse early-closure garden-path sentences...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915783/prediction-of-agreement-and-phonetic-overlap-shape-sublexical-identification
#13
Andrea E Martin, Philip J Monahan, Arthur G Samuel
The mapping between the physical speech signal and our internal representations is rarely straightforward. When faced with uncertainty, higher-order information is used to parse the signal and because of this, the lexicon and some aspects of sentential context have been shown to modulate the identification of ambiguous phonetic segments. Here, using a phoneme identification task (i.e., participants judged whether they heard [o] or [a] at the end of an adjective in a noun-adjective sequence), we asked whether grammatical gender cues influence phonetic identification and if this influence is shaped by the phonetic properties of the agreeing elements...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915781/f2-slope-as-a-perceptual-cue-for-the-front-back-contrast-in-standard-southern-british-english
#14
Kateřina Chládková, Silke Hamann, Daniel Williams, Sam Hellmuth
Acoustic studies of several languages indicate that second-formant (F2) slopes in high vowels have opposing directions (independent of consonantal context): front [iː]-like vowels are produced with a rising F2 slope, whereas back [uː]-like vowels are produced with a falling F2 slope. The present study first reports acoustic measurements that confirm this pattern for the English variety of Standard Southern British English (SSBE), where /uː/ has shifted from the back to the front area of the vowel space and is now realized with higher midpoint F2 values than several decades ago...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915387/can-circular-inference-relate-the-neuropathological-and-behavioral-aspects-of-schizophrenia
#15
REVIEW
Pantelis Leptourgos, Sophie Denève, Renaud Jardri
Schizophrenia is a complex and heterogeneous mental disorder, and researchers have only recently begun to understand its neuropathology. However, since the time of Kraepelin and Bleuler, much information has been accumulated regarding the behavioral abnormalities usually encountered in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Despite recent progress, how the latter are caused by the former is still debated. Here, we argue that circular inference, a computational framework proposed as a potential explanation for various schizophrenia symptoms, could help end this debate...
September 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914767/feasibility-of-equivalent-dipole-models-for-electroencephalogram-based-brain-computer-interfaces
#16
Paul H Schimpf
This article examines the localization errors of equivalent dipolar sources inverted from the surface electroencephalogram in order to determine the feasibility of using their location as classification parameters for non-invasive brain computer interfaces. Inverse localization errors are examined for two head models: a model represented by four concentric spheres and a realistic model based on medical imagery. It is shown that the spherical model results in localization ambiguity such that a number of dipolar sources, with different azimuths and varying orientations, provide a near match to the electroencephalogram of the best equivalent source...
September 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914345/comparison-of-clinical-outcomes-between-open-and-thoracoscopic-repair-for-esophageal-atresia-with-tracheoesophageal-fistula-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Yuhao Wu, Hongyu Kuang, Tiewei Lv, Chun Wu
OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis was performed for a comparison of outcomes between open repair (OR) and thoracoscopic repair (TR) for esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA with TEF). METHODS: Electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Medline, were searched systematically for the literatures aimed mainly at comparing the therapeutic effects for EA with TEF administrated by OR and TR. Corresponding data sets were extracted and two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913908/provision-of-cellular-blood-components-to-cmv-seronegative-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-uk-survey-of-uk-transplant-centres
#18
S Morton, A Peniket, R Malladi, M F Murphy
OBJECTIVES: To identify current UK practice with regards to provision of blood components for cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative, potential, allogeneic stem cell recipients of seronegative grafts. BACKGROUND: Infection with CMV remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT). CMV transmission has been a risk associated with the transfusion of blood components from previously exposed donors, but leucocyte reduction has been demonstrated to minimise this risk...
September 15, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913496/anaesthesiologists-simulation-training-during-emergencies-in-obstetrics
#19
Volodymyr V Artyomenko, Volodymyr M Nosenko
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methods of simulation training and quality assessment during obstetric emergencies are still ambiguous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of anaesthesiologists' simulation training for emergency situations in obstetrics. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, descriptive, and comparative study to evaluate the anaesthesiologists' simulation training effectiveness during obstetrical emergencies. Data of 109 obstetrical anaesthesiologists trained over two years for invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, high-fidelity scenarios and medical personnel teamwork included were analyzed...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912736/understanding-the-uncanny-both-atypical-features-and-category-ambiguity-provoke-aversion-toward-humanlike-robots
#20
Megan K Strait, Victoria A Floerke, Wendy Ju, Keith Maddox, Jessica D Remedios, Malte F Jung, Heather L Urry
Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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