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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719289/what-is-a-hotspot-anyway
#1
Justin Lessler, Andrew S Azman, Heather S McKay, Sean M Moore
AbstractThe importance of spatial clusters, or "hotspots," in infectious disease epidemiology has been increasingly recognized, and targeting hotspots is often seen as an important component of disease-control strategies. However, the precise meaning of "hotspot" varies widely in current research and policy documents. Hotspots have been variously described as areas of elevated incidence or prevalence, higher transmission efficiency or risk, or higher probability of disease emergence. This ambiguity has led to confusion and may result in mistaken inferences regarding the best way to target interventions...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718911/clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-validation-of-who-isup-grading
#2
Julien Dagher, Brett Delahunt, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Lars Egevad, John R Srigley, Geoffrey Coughlin, Nigel Dunglinson, Troy Gianduzzo, Boon Kua, Greg Malone, Ben Martin, John Preston, Morgan Pokorny, Simon Wood, John Yaxley, Hemamali Samaratunga
AIM: In 2012, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced a novel grading system for clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based upon increasing nucleolar prominence in grades 1 to 3, with the presence of extreme nuclear pleomorphism and/or tumour giant cells and/or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation as criteria for grade 4. This system is now incorporated in the latest World Health Organization renal tumour classification, being designated WHO/ISUP grading...
July 18, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717793/altered-passive-eruption-ape-%C3%A2-and-active-secondary-eruption-ase-differential-diagnosis-and-management
#3
Irfan Ahmad
The process of tooth eruption consists of two phases, active and passive. While the distinction is unequivocal, the mechanism is ambiguous. This article compares and contrasts altered passive eruption (APE) and active secondary eruption (ASE). Although these phases present with similar clinical manifestations, each has its own etiology, physiogenesis, and pathogenesis. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis between the two, and that between other mirroring conditions, is essential for arriving at a definite diagnosis and correct treatment strategies, which may be similar but have different consequences...
2017: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717365/behavioural-problems-in-children-with-46xy-disorders-of-sex-development
#4
Nalini M Selveindran, Syed Zulkifli Syed Zakaria, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin, Rahmah Rasat
The aim of this study is to determine the behavioural problems of children with 46XY disorders of sex development (DSD) with genital ambiguity and to identify the risk factors that may influence behaviour. The 27 participants (aged 6-18 years) consisted of 21 patients raised as boys and 6 patients raised as girls. Control data were obtained from a representative sibling of each patient who was matched for age and gender. The study tool used was the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), which is a parent-administered questionnaire...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717190/interocular-contrast-difference-drives-illusory-3d-percept
#5
Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Any processing delay between the two eyes can result in illusory 3D percepts for moving objects because of either changes in the pure disparities over time for disparity sensors or by changes to sensors that encode motion/disparity conjointly. This is demonstrated by viewing a fronto-parallel pendulum through a neutral density (ND) filter placed over one eye, resulting in the illusory 3D percept of the pendulum following an elliptical orbit in depth, the so-called Pulfrich phenomenon. Here we use a paradigm where a cylinder rotating in depth, defined by moving Gabor patches is presented at different interocular phases, generating strong to ambiguous depth percepts...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716611/predictability-of-action-sub-steps-modulates-motor-system-activation-during-the-observation-of-goal-directed-actions
#6
Ricarda Braukmann, Harold Bekkering, Margreeth Hidding, Edita Poljac, Jan K Buitelaar, Sabine Hunnius
Action perception and execution are linked in the human motor system, and researchers have proposed that this action-observation matching system underlies our ability to predict observed behavior. If the motor system is indeed involved in the generation of action predictions, activation should be modulated by the degree of predictability of an observed action. This study used EEG and eye-tracking to investigate whether and how predictability of an observed action modulates motor system activation as well as behavioral predictions in the form of anticipatory eye-movements...
July 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715878/substitutional-doping-for-aluminosilicate-mineral-and-superior-water-splitting-performance
#7
Yi Zhang, Liangjie Fu, Zhan Shu, Huaming Yang, Aidong Tang, Tao Jiang
Substitutional doping is a strategy in which atomic impurities are optionally added to a host material to promote its properties, while the geometric and electronic structure evolution of natural nanoclay mineral upon substitutional metal doping is still ambiguous. This paper first designed an efficient lanthanum (La) doping strategy for nanotubular clay (halloysite nanotube, HNT) through the dynamic equilibrium of a substitutional atom in the presence of saturated AlCl3 solution, and systematic characterization of the samples was performed...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715645/characteristics-of-regulatory-b-cells-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-different-immune-phases
#8
Guiyang Wang, Yong Liu, Rui Huang, Bei Jia, Ran Su, Zhenhua Sun, Chen Tian, Yali Xiong, Juan Xia, Xiaomin Yan, Zhaoping Zhang, Chao Wu
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are reported to play an important role in the immune responses to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) via Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) signaling. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of Bregs and the expressions of TLRs in Bregs in the peripheral blood of different immune phases of patients with chronic HBV infection. In this study, we determined the frequencies of Bregs and TLR9, TLR2, and TLR4 in peripheral blood using flow cytometry and determined the levels of IL-10 in serum with the Human Magnetic Cytokine/Chemokine Bead Panel...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715258/reply-from-the-authors-of-eligibility-for-the-shorter-mdr-tb-regimen-ambiguities-in-the-who-recommendations
#9
Francis Varaine, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Carole D Mitnick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714712/spatial-cues-influence-the-visual-perception-of-gender
#10
Sarah Ariel Lamer, Max Weisbuch, Timothy D Sweeny
Spatial localization is a basic process in vision, occurring reliably when people encounter an object or person. Yet the role of spatial-location in the visual perception of people is poorly understood. We explored the extent to which spatial-location distorts the perception of gender. Consistent with evidence that the perception of objects is constrained by their location in visual scenes, enhancing perception for objects in their typical location (e.g., Biederman et al., 1982), we hypothesized that people would see relatively greater femininity in faces that appeared lower in space...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714452/predict-moral-distress-using-workplace-stress-stress-of-conscience-mediated-by-coping-using-roy-adaptation-model-a-path-analysis
#11
Muder Alkrisat
BACKGROUND: Moral distress can be predisposed when nurses are exposed to ambiguous moral situations. PURPOSE: Is to test a conceptual model based on Roy adaptation model (RAM) to examine the relationship among workplace stress, conscience stress, and moral distress mediated by coping. DESIGN: A correlational, cross sectional. RESULTS: Data were collected from 199 licensed nurses. The findings indicated that workplace stress was related negatively to coping processes (β = -...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713188/what-are-cultural-attractors
#12
Andrew Buskell
Concepts from cultural attractor theory are now used in domains far from their original home in anthropology and cultural evolution. Yet these concepts have not been consistently characterised. I here distinguish four ways in which the cultural attractor concept has been used and identify three kinds of factors of attraction typically appealed to. Clarifying these explanatory concepts identifies problems and ambiguities in the work of cultural epidemiologists and commentators alike.
2017: Biology & Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712946/dissociation-between-decision-making-under-risk-and-decision-making-under-ambiguity-in-premanifest-and-manifest-huntington-s-disease
#13
Najia Adjeroud, Jeremy Besnard, Christophe Verny, Adriana Prundean, Clarisse Scherer, Bénédicte Gohier, Dominique Bonneau, Nicole El Massioui, Philippe Allain
We investigated decision-making under ambiguity (DM-UA) and decision making under risk (DM-UR) in individuals with premanifest and manifest Huntington's disease (HD). Twenty individuals with premanifest HD and 23 individuals with manifest HD, on one hand, and 39 healthy individuals divided into two control groups, on the other, undertook a modified version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), an adaptation of a DM-UA task, and a modified version of the Game of Dice Task (GDT), an adaptation of a DM-UR task. Participants also filled in a questionnaire of impulsivity and responded to cognitive tests specifically designed to assess executive functions...
July 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712507/a-unity-of-the-self-or-a-multiplicity-of-locations-how-the-graphesthesia-task-sheds-light-on-the-role-of-spatial-perspectives-in-bodily-self-consciousness
#14
REVIEW
Gabriel Arnold, Charles Spence, Malika Auvray
Integrating multisensory stimuli from a self-centred perspective is crucial for the unity of the self. On the other hand, understanding external space and communicating spatial knowledge with others necessitate the adoption of decentred perspectives. How do we juggle these two requirements? In this article, we review those studies that have used the graphesthesia task in order to investigate the perspectives that people adopt when interpreting ambiguous tactile symbols (e.g., b, d, p, and q). With such ambiguous symbols, self-centred and decentred perspectives conflict with one another...
July 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711649/intramucosal-colorectal-carcinoma-with-invasion-of-the-lamina-propria-a-study-by-the-japanese-society-for-cancer-of-the-colon-and-rectum
#15
Motohiro Kojima, Hideyuki Shimazaki, Keiichi Iwaya, Takahiro Nakamura, Hiroshi Kawachi, Kazuhito Ichikawa, Shigeki Sekine, Shingo Ishiguro, Tadakazu Shimoda, Ryoji Kushima, Takashi Yao, Takahiro Fujimori, Kazuo Hase, Toshiaki Watanabe, Kenichi Sugihara, Gregory Y Lauwers, Atsushi Ochiai
Cancer invasion of the lamina propria is an important pathological finding. However, the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic accuracy of intramucosal carcinoma assessment in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are unknown. In this study, intramucosal CRCs were reviewed in institutions affiliated with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, and 32 cases with invasion of the lamina propria were identified. Next, a consensus meeting was held to select cases with a high consensus about the presence of invasion, which were reviewed by one Western pathologist for confirmation...
July 12, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711039/determination-of-onset-temperature-from-the-entropy-for-fragile-to-strong-liquids
#16
Atreyee Banerjee, Manoj Kumar Nandi, Srikanth Sastry, Sarika Maitra Bhattacharyya
In this paper, we establish a connection between the onset temperature of glassy dynamics with the change in the entropy for a wide range of model systems. We identify the crossing temperature of pair and excess entropies as the onset temperature. Below the onset temperature, the residual multiparticle entropy, the difference between excess and pair entropies, becomes positive. The positive entropy can be viewed as equivalent to the larger phase space exploration of the system. The new method of onset temperature prediction from entropy is less ambiguous, as it does not depend on any fitting parameter like the existing methods...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710976/comparing-emissions-from-a-cattle-pen-as-measured-by-two-micrometeorological-techniques
#17
Mei Bai, Jianlei Sun, Owen T Denmead, Deli Chen
Accurate measurement of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock pens is challenging. Two micrometeorological techniques, the integrated horizontal flux (IHF) and the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) dispersion techniques were used to measure NH3 emissions from an isolated cattle pen (20 × 20 m) in Victoria, Australia. The bLS technique is simple and insensitive to the presence of animals, but typically gives discontinuous measurements due to the need for target wind directions and wind conditions above accepted thresholds...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710412/exosomes-derived-from-pancreatic-cancer-cells-induce-insulin-resistance-in-c2c12-myotube-cells-through-the-pi3k-akt-foxo1-pathway
#18
Lantian Wang, Bo Zhang, Wen Zheng, Muxing Kang, Qing Chen, Wenjie Qin, Chao Li, Yuefeng Zhang, Yingkuan Shao, Yulian Wu
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently suggested that pancreatic cancer-associated new-onset diabetes mellitus (PC-DM) represents a potential platform for early diagnose of pancreatic cancer (PC). Despite the studies performed, the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains ambiguous. In this study, we explored the effects of two types of exosomes released by murine pancreatic cancer and ductal epithelial cells on murine skeletal muscle cells. The results show that PC-derived exosomes can readily enter C2C12 myotubes, triggering lipidosis and glucose intake inhibition...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710380/biological-analysis-of-cancer-specific-micrornas-on-function-modeling-in-osteosarcoma
#19
Hao Wang, Min Tang, Liping Ou, Mengyi Hou, Tianyu Feng, Yu-E Huang, Yaqian Jin, Heng Zhang, Guowei Zuo
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone tumor characterized with a high risk of amputation and malignant morbidity among teenagers and adolescents. However, relevant pathogenic/biological mechanisms underlying OS-genesis remains to be ambiguous. The aim of this study was to elucidate functional relationship about microRNAs-mRNAs networks and to identify potential molecular markers via a computational method. Gene expression profile (GSE70415) was recruited from Gene Expression Omnibus. 3856 differentially expressed genes and 250 significantly expressed microRNAs were identified by using GCBI...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709825/the-ambiguous-role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-lymphocytes-in-antitumor-immunity
#20
REVIEW
Guranda Chitadze, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Daniela Wesch, Dieter Kabelitz
γδ T cells play a role in immune surveillance because they recognize stress-induced surface molecules and metabolic intermediates that are frequently dysregulated in transformed cells. Hence, γδ T cells have attracted much interest as effector cells in cell-based immunotherapy. Recently, however, it has been realized that γδ T cells can also promote tumorigenesis through various mechanisms including regulatory activity and IL-17 production. In this review we outline both the pathways involved in cancer cell recognition and killing by γδ T cells as well as current evidence for their protumorigenic activity in various models...
July 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
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