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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531873/randomized-control-trial-investigating-the-efficacy-of-a-computer-based-intolerance-of-uncertainty-intervention
#1
Mary E Oglesby, Nicholas P Allan, Norman B Schmidt
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is an important transdiagnostic variable within various anxiety and mood disorders. Theory suggests that individuals high in IU interpret ambiguous information in a more threatening manner. A parallel line of research has shown that interpretive biases can be modified through cognitive training and previous research aimed at modifying negative interpretations through Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM-I) has yielded promising results. Despite these findings, no research to date has examined the efficacy of an IU-focused CBM-I paradigm...
May 11, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530499/the-duality-of-oral-sex-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-examination-into-the-increase-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-amid-the-age-of-hiv-prevention
#2
Tiffany R Glynn, Don Operario, Madeline Montgomery, Alexi Almonte, Philip A Chan
Several studies suggest that the increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) could be due, in part, to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction strategies, which include engaging in oral sex over anal sex. The aims of this study were to evaluate oral sex behaviors and STI diagnoses and to investigate the potential dual role of oral sex as being protective for HIV, yet perpetuating STI transmission among MSM. We analyzed records from 871 MSM presenting to the Rhode Island STI Clinic between 2012 and 2015...
May 22, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530422/the-new-history-of-psychology-ii-some-different-answers-to-watrin-s-four-questions
#3
Adrian C Brock
This article is mainly a response to the article by João Paulo Watrin, "The Ambiguous 'New History of Psychology': Some New Questions to Brock (2017)" (Watrin, 2017), which was itself a reply to my article, "The New History of Psychology: Some (Different) Answers to Lovett's Five Questions" (Brock, 2017). Watrin (2017) suggested that previous writers have conflated the terms "critical history" and "new history." They are said to differ, in that although the former is merely a name for a loose collection of approaches to the history of psychology, the latter involves rhetoric about the historiographical commitments of critical history...
May 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530421/the-ambiguous-new-history-of-psychology-new-questions-for-brock-2017
#4
João Paulo Watrin
In 2006, Benjamin J. Lovett published the first critique of the "new history of psychology" in History of Psychology (Lovett, 2006). The first reply to it, from Adrian C. Brock, did not come until a decade later. The present article answers Brock's (2017) comments by asking new (rhetorical) questions. The author claims that both Lovett and Brock misunderstood the ambiguity of the term "new history," which refers simultaneously to critical narratives in general and to a particular rhetoric about the commitments of critical historiography (e...
May 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529565/prodelphinidins-isolated-from-chinese-bayberry-leaves-induces-apoptosis-via-the-p53-dependent-signaling-pathways-in-ovcar-3-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#5
Yu Fu, Xingqian Ye, Malcolm Lee, Gary Rankin, Yi Charlie Chen
Chinese bayberry leaves are rich in prodelphinidins. Since the isolation and purification of prodelphinidins is difficult, the association between the degree of prodelphinidin polymerization and their anti-carcinogenic activity remains ambiguous. The cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of prodelphinidin Chinese bayberry leaf extracts (PCBLs), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPAs) and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PPAs), isolated by normal-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography were investigated in OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527301/exploration-of-dietary-patterns-and-alcohol-consumption-in-pregnant-women-in-the-uk-a-mixed-methods-study
#6
Victoria Coathup, Lesley Smith, Mary Boulton
BACKGROUND: fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders is a term used to describe a range of physical, cognitive and behavioural deficits in the offspring of women who drank alcohol during pregnancy. A growing body of evidence suggests alcohol consumption in the presence of poor maternal nutrition may increase the risk of harm to the developing fetus. OBJECTIVE: to investigate relationships between maternal dietary patterns and alcohol consumption, and explore which factors influence women's decisions about what to eat and drink during pregnancy...
April 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526292/australopithecus-sediba-and-the-emergence-of-homo-questionable-evidence-from-the-cranium-of-the-juvenile-holotype-mh-1
#7
William H Kimbel, Yoel Rak
Malapa Hominin (MH) 1, an immature individual whose second permanent molars had recently reached occlusion at the time of death, is the holotype of Australopithecus sediba, a 2-myr-old South African taxon that has been hypothesized to link phylogenetically australopith-grade hominins to the Homo clade. Given the existence of 2.8 myr-old fossils of Homo in eastern Africa, this hypothesis implies a ghost lineage spanning at least 800 kyr. An alternative hypothesis posits a unique relationship between A. sediba and Australopithecus africanus, which predates the Malapa hominins in southern Africa and whose phylogenetic relationships remain ambiguous...
June 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525807/category-mistakes-a-barrier-to-effective-environmental-management
#8
Ken J Wallace, Mark Jago
How entities, the things that exist, are defined and categorised affects all aspects of environmental management including technical descriptions, quantitative analyses, participatory processes, planning, and decisions. Consequently, ambiguous definitions and wrongly assigning entities to categories, referred to as category mistakes, are barriers to effective management. Confusion caused by treating the term 'biodiversity' variously as the property of an area, the biota of an area, and a preferred end state (a value) - quite different categories of entities - is one example...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525798/gasoline-sensor-based-on-piezoelectric-lateral-electric-field-excited-resonator
#9
B D Zaitsev, A A Teplykh, I A Borodina, I E Kuznetsova, E Verona
It has been shown that by using piezoelectric lateral electric field excited resonators based on X - cut LiNbO3, one can determine the octane number of gasoline. The measured dependence of gasoline permittivity on its octane number has shown that there is an ambiguous connection between pointed parameters. We have demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the value of the real part of the electrical impedance on the frequency of parallel resonance uniquely associates with the octane number of gasoline contacting the free side of the resonator...
May 4, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525772/implementation-of-glycanbuilder-to-draw-a-wide-variety-of-ambiguous-glycans
#10
Shinichiro Tsuchiya, Nobuyuki P Aoki, Daisuke Shinmachi, Masaaki Matsubara, Issaku Yamada, Kiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita, Hisashi Narimatsu
GlyTouCan version 1.0 was released in 2015 as the international glycan structure repository, and a new sequence format called WURCS (Web3 Unique Representation of Carbohydrate Structures) was proposed during the early stages of the GlyTouCan project. GlyTouCan uses WURCS as its base representation for glycans because existing formats were insufficient in their flexibility to represent any and all glycans universally. Therefore, in order to obtain WURCS strings for existing or new glycan structures, conversion tools or glycan structure editors that can export WURCS became necessary...
April 19, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525570/droplet-barcode-sequencing-for-targeted-linked-read-haplotyping-of-single-dna-molecules
#11
David Redin, Erik Borgström, Mengxiao He, Hooman Aghelpasand, Max Käller, Afshin Ahmadian
Data produced with short-read sequencing technologies result in ambiguous haplotyping and a limited capacity to investigate the full repertoire of biologically relevant forms of genetic variation. The notion of haplotype-resolved sequencing data has recently gained traction to reduce this unwanted ambiguity and enable exploration of other forms of genetic variation; beyond studies of just nucleotide polymorphisms, such as compound heterozygosity and structural variations. Here we describe Droplet Barcode Sequencing, a novel approach for creating linked-read sequencing libraries by uniquely barcoding the information within single DNA molecules in emulsion droplets, without the aid of specialty reagents or microfluidic devices...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523218/valence-and-magnitude-ambiguity-in-feedback-processing
#12
Ruolei Gu, Xue Feng, Lucas S Broster, Lu Yuan, Pengfei Xu, Yue-Jia Luo
BACKGROUND: Outcome feedback which indicates behavioral consequences are crucial for reinforcement learning and environmental adaptation. Nevertheless, outcome information in daily life is often totally or partially ambiguous. Studying how people interpret this kind of information would provide important knowledge about the human evaluative system. METHODS: This study concentrates on the neural processing of partially ambiguous feedback, that is, either its valence or magnitude is unknown to participants...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522646/mr-spectroscopy-of-hepatic-fat-and-adiponectin-and-leptin-levels-during-testosterone-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Line Velling Magnussen, Poul Erik Andersen, Anabel Diaz, Jelena Markovic Ostojic, Kurt Højlund, David M Hougaard, Anders Nymark Christensen, Torben Leo Nielsen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen
BACKGROUND: Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often have lowered testosterone levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ectopic fat increases the risk of CVD, whereas subcutaneous gluteofemoral fat protects against CVD and has a beneficial adipokine secreting profile. HYPOTHESIS: Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may reduce the content of ectopic fat and improve the adipokine profile in men with T2D. DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 39 men aged 50-70 years with T2D and bioavailable testosterone levels <7...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522269/learning-from-moral-inconsistency
#14
Richmond Campbell
Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency...
May 15, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521264/resisting-decay-on-disposal-valuation-and-care-in-a-dementia-nursing-home-in-denmark
#15
Iben M Gjødsbøl, Lene Koch, Mette N Svendsen
This paper approaches institutionalized dementia care as a site of societal disposal, valuation, and care for human life. Drawing upon six weeks of ethnographic fieldwork and ten qualitative interviews carried out in a Danish dementia nursing home in 2014, we analyze how nursing home staff, through everyday care, uphold the value of life for residents in severe mental and physical decline. We argue that life's worth is established when residents gain qualities of personhood and agency through substitution processes carried out by staff...
May 10, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521245/the-light-from-above-prior-is-intact-in-autistic-children
#16
Abigail Croydon, Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
Sensory information is inherently ambiguous. The brain disambiguates this information by anticipating or predicting the sensory environment based on prior knowledge. Pellicano and Burr (2012) proposed that this process may be atypical in autism and that internal assumptions, or "priors," may be underweighted or less used than in typical individuals. A robust internal assumption used by adults is the "light-from-above" prior, a bias to interpret ambiguous shading patterns as if formed by a light source located above (and slightly to the left) of the scene...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520879/phylogenetic-relationship-and-ftir-spectroscopy-derived-lipid-determinants-of-lifespan-parameters-in-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast
#17
Mateusz Molon, Jacek Zebrowski
Yeast aging has been gaining much attention in gerontology research, yet the process itself is still not entirely clear. One of the constraints related to the use of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in studies is the ambiguity of the results concerning aging determinants for different genetic backgrounds. In this paper, we compare reproductive potentials and lifespans of seven widely used haploid laboratory strains differing in daughter cells production capabilities and highlight the importance of choosing an appropriate genotype for the studies on aging...
May 17, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517942/cognitive-bias-and-paw-preference-in-the-domestic-dog-canis-familiaris
#18
Deborah L Wells, Peter G Hepper, Adam D S Milligan, Shanis Barnard
Limb use, an indicator of hemispheric functioning, may be a useful predictor of cognitive bias and hence vulnerability to welfare risk. The relationship between cognitive bias and motor asymmetry, however, has been subject to little investigation. This study explored the association between motor asymmetry and cognitive bias in the domestic dog, a species that displays lateral bias in the form of paw preferences and exhibits positive and negative affective states. Thirty pet dogs had their paw preferences assessed using the Kong ball test...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516294/does-seeing-an-asian-face-make-speech-sound-more-accented
#19
Yi Zheng, Arthur G Samuel
Prior studies have reported that seeing an Asian face makes American English sound more accented. The current study investigates whether this effect is perceptual, or if it instead occurs at a later decision stage. We first replicated the finding that showing static Asian and Caucasian faces can shift people's reports about the accentedness of speech accompanying the pictures. When we changed the static pictures to dubbed videos, reducing the demand characteristics, the shift in reported accentedness largely disappeared...
May 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515474/blunted-ambiguity-aversion-during-cost-benefit-decisions-in-antisocial-individuals
#20
Joshua W Buckholtz, Uma Karmarkar, Shengxuan Ye, Grace M Brennan, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Antisocial behavior is often assumed to reflect aberrant risk processing. However, many of the most significant forms of antisocial behavior, including crime, reflect the outcomes of decisions made under conditions of ambiguity rather than risk. While risk and ambiguity are formally distinct and experimentally dissociable, little is known about ambiguity sensitivity in individuals who engage in chronic antisocial behavior. We used a financial decision-making task in a high-risk community-based sample to test for associations between sensitivity to ambiguity, antisocial behavior, and arrest history...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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