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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905469/selection-for-predation-not-female-fecundity-explains-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-the-orchid-mantises
#1
Gavin J Svenson, Sydney K Brannoch, Henrique M Rodrigues, James C O'Hanlon, Frank Wieland
Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904748/patterns-of-medication-use-and-factors-associated-with-antibiotic-use-among-adult-fever-patients-at-singapore-primary-care-clinics
#2
Zaw Myo Tun, Mahesh Moorthy, Martin Linster, Yvonne C F Su, Richard James Coker, Eng Eong Ooi, Jenny Guek-Hong Low, Gavin J D Smith, Clarence C Tam
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health problem of global importance. In Singapore, much focus has been given to antibiotic usage patterns in hospital settings. Data on antibiotic use in primary care is lacking. We describe antibiotic usage patterns and assess factors contributing to antibiotic usage among adults presenting with acute febrile illness (AFI) in primary care settings in Singapore. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Early Dengue infection and outcome study...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897130/recommendations-for-potassium-titanyl-phosphate-laser-in-the-treatment-of-cholesteatoma
#3
REVIEW
Gavin John le Nobel, Adrian Lewis James
Potassium-titanyl-phosphage (KTP) lasers possess many characteristics suitable for otologic surgery. The objective of this report is to provide recommendations on the use of KTP laser for cholesteatoma surgery based on a narrative review of currently available evidence. PubMed and the Cochrane Review of randomized control trials were searched for relevant publications on efficacy and adverse effects and relevant articles appraised by the authors using Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria for recommendations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889058/mutations-in-reep6-cause-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa
#4
Gavin Arno, Smriti A Agrawal, Aiden Eblimit, James Bellingham, Mingchu Xu, Feng Wang, Christina Chakarova, David A Parfitt, Amelia Lane, Thomas Burgoyne, Sarah Hull, Keren J Carss, Alessia Fiorentino, Matthew J Hayes, Peter M Munro, Ralph Nicols, Nikolas Pontikos, Graham E Holder, Chinwe Asomugha, F Lucy Raymond, Anthony T Moore, Vincent Plagnol, Michel Michaelides, Alison J Hardcastle, Yumei Li, Catherine Cukras, Andrew R Webster, Michael E Cheetham, Rui Chen
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most frequent form of inherited retinal dystrophy. RP is genetically heterogeneous and the genes identified to date encode proteins involved in a wide range of functional pathways, including photoreceptor development, phototransduction, the retinoid cycle, cilia, and outer segment development. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in Receptor Expression Enhancer Protein 6 (REEP6) in seven individuals with autosomal-recessive RP from five unrelated families...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865775/epidemiology-and-outcomes-from-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrests-in-england
#5
Claire Hawkes, Scott Booth, Chen Ji, Samantha J Brace-McDonnell, Andrew Whittington, James Mapstone, Matthew W Cooke, Charles D Deakin, Chris P Gale, Rachael Fothergill, Jerry P Nolan, Nigel Rees, Jasmeet Soar, A Niroshan Siriwardena, Terry P Brown, Gavin D Perkins
INTRODUCTION: This study reports the epidemiology and outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in England during 2014. METHODS: Prospective observational study from the national OHCA registry. The incidence, demographic and outcomes of patients who were treated for an OHCA between 1st January 2014 and 31st December 2014 in 10 English ambulance service (EMS) regions, serving a population of almost 54 million, are reported in accordance with Utstein recommendations...
November 17, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860260/integration-of-ruxolitinib-into-dose-intensified-therapy-targeted-against-a-novel-jak2-f694l-mutation-in-b-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#6
Jodi R Mayfield, David R Czuchlewski, James M Gale, Ksenia Matlawska-Wasowska, Mohammad A Vasef, Christian Nickl, Gavin Pickett, Scott A Ness, Stuart S Winter
A 17-year-old girl with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) who underwent standard chemotherapy was found to have a BCR-ABL1-like gene expression pattern. Genome sequencing revealed a JAK2 mutation not previously described in BCP-ALL and a potential therapeutic target. Due to concern for an on-therapy relapse, the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib was incorporated into a modified chemotherapy backbone to achieve complete remission prior to stem cell transplant...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853996/a-phase-1-study-combining-the-her3-antibody-seribantumab-mm-121-and-cetuximab-with-and-without-irinotecan
#7
James M Cleary, Autumn J McRee, Geoffrey I Shapiro, Sara M Tolaney, Bert H O'Neil, Jeffrey D Kearns, Sara Mathews, Rachel Nering, Gavin MacBeath, Akos Czibere, Sunil Sharma, W Michael Korn
Background HER3/EGFR heterodimers have been implicated as a mode of resistance to EGFR-directed therapies. Methods This Phase 1 trial assessed the tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the HER-3 antibody seribantumab in combination with cetuximab (Part I) or cetuximab and irinotecan (Part II) in patients with EGFR-dependent cancers. In Part I, escalating doses of seribantumab and cetuximab were administered. In Part II of the trial, escalating doses of seribantumab/cetuximab were combined with irinotecan 180 mg/m2 administered every two weeks...
November 16, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793106/characteristics-of-acute-febrile-illness-and-determinants-of-illness-recovery-among-adults-presenting-to-singapore-primary-care-clinics
#8
Zaw Myo Tun, Mahesh Moorthy, Martin Linster, Yvonne Cf Su, Richard James Coker, Eng Eong Ooi, Jenny Guek-Hong Low, Gavin J D Smith, Clarence C Tam
BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated acute febrile illness (AFI) is a common presentation among adults in primary care settings in Singapore but large gaps exist in the understanding of the characteristics of these patients. We studied clinical and epidemiological characteristics of AFI patients and factors associated with delayed recovery from AFI. METHODS: We performed a secondary data analysis using data from the Early DENgue infection and outcome (EDEN) study on 2046 adult patients presenting at 5 Singapore polyclinics between December 2007 and February 2013 with a history of fever (≥38 °C) for less than 72 h...
October 28, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768102/fast-and-selective-ring-opening-polymerizations-by-alkoxides-and-thioureas
#9
Xiangyi Zhang, Gavin O Jones, James L Hedrick, Robert M Waymouth
Ring-opening polymerization of lactones is a versatile approach to generate well-defined functional polyesters. Typical ring-opening catalysts are subject to a trade-off between rate and selectivity. Here we describe an effective catalytic system combining alkoxides with thioureas that catalyses rapid and selective ring-opening polymerizations. Deprotonation of thioureas by sodium, potassium or imidazolium alkoxides generates a hydrogen-bonded alcohol adduct of the thiourea anion (thioimidate). The ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide mediated by these alcohol-bonded thioimidates yields highly isotactic polylactide with fast kinetics and living polymerization behaviour, as evidenced by narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn < 1...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766129/adolescents-perception-of-the-psychosocial-factors-affecting-sustained-engagement-in-sports-and-physical-activity
#10
James Gavin, Madeleine McBrearty, Kit Malo, Michael Abravanel, Tatiana Moudrakovski
The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions of psychosocial influences - personal characteristics, environmental factors and behavioural undertakings - influencing their prolonged involvement in sports and physical activity (PA). A qualitative approach was adopted wherein 16 adolescents (8 boys, 8 girls; mean age 15.9 years), who had been physically active for at least the last 8 years, and sixteen adults identified as their 'parents' or 'guardians' participated in semi-structured interviews...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751860/rapid-and-recoverable-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-adult-zebrafish-at-7t
#11
Gavin D Merrifield, James Mullin, Lindsay Gallagher, Carl Tucker, Maurits A Jansen, Martin Denvir, William M Holmes
Increasing scientific interest in the zebrafish as a model organism across a range of biomedical and biological research areas raises the need for the development of in vivo imaging tools appropriate to this subject. Development of the embryonic and early stage forms of the subject can currently be assessed using optical based techniques due to the transparent nature of the species at these early stages. However this is not an option during the juvenile and adult stages when the subjects become opaque. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques would allow for the longitudinal and non-invasive assessment of development and health in these later life stages...
October 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727198/cardiorespiratory-and-metabolic-responses-after-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-the-influence-of-lowered-glycogen
#12
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E Willems
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of early-onset of muscle damage and low muscle glycogen on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to low-intensity exercise. METHODS: Twelve men cycled for 10 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake before, and 12 h after a morning downhill run (five, 8 min bouts at -12% gradient, with 2 min rests) under normal (NORM) and lowered glycogen (LOW) conditions, following a cross-over design with conditions separated by six weeks. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded, with oxidation measures derived from stoichiometry equations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720689/cost-effectiveness-and-resource-implications-of-aggressive-action-on-tuberculosis-in-china-india-and-south-africa-a-combined-analysis-of-nine-models
#13
Nicolas A Menzies, Gabriela B Gomez, Fiammetta Bozzani, Susmita Chatterjee, Nicola Foster, Ines Garcia Baena, Yoko V Laurence, Sun Qiang, Andrew Siroka, Sedona Sweeney, Stéphane Verguet, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Andrew S Azman, Eran Bendavid, Stewart T Chang, Ted Cohen, Justin T Denholm, David W Dowdy, Philip A Eckhoff, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Andreas Handel, Grace H Huynh, Marek Lalli, Hsien-Ho Lin, Sandip Mandal, Emma S McBryde, Surabhi Pandey, Joshua A Salomon, Sze-Chuan Suen, Tom Sumner, James M Trauer, Bradley G Wagner, Christopher C Whalen, Chieh-Yin Wu, Delia Boccia, Vineet K Chadha, Salome Charalambous, Daniel P Chin, Gavin Churchyard, Colleen Daniels, Puneet Dewan, Lucica Ditiu, Jeffrey W Eaton, Alison D Grant, Piotr Hippner, Mehran Hosseini, David Mametja, Carel Pretorius, Yogan Pillay, Kiran Rade, Suvanand Sahu, Lixia Wang, Rein M G J Houben, Michael E Kimerling, Richard G White, Anna Vassall
BACKGROUND: The post-2015 End TB Strategy sets global targets of reducing tuberculosis incidence by 50% and mortality by 75% by 2025. We aimed to assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness of strategies to achieve these targets in China, India, and South Africa. METHODS: We examined intervention scenarios developed in consultation with country stakeholders, which scaled up existing interventions to high but feasible coverage by 2025. Nine independent modelling groups collaborated to estimate policy outcomes, and we estimated the cost of each scenario by synthesising service use estimates, empirical cost data, and expert opinion on implementation strategies...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720688/feasibility-of-achieving-the-2025-who-global-tuberculosis-targets-in-south-africa-china-and-india-a-combined-analysis-of-11-mathematical-models
#14
Rein M G J Houben, Nicolas A Menzies, Tom Sumner, Grace H Huynh, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Hsien-Ho Lin, Chieh-Yin Wu, Sandip Mandal, Surabhi Pandey, Sze-Chuan Suen, Eran Bendavid, Andrew S Azman, David W Dowdy, Nicolas Bacaër, Allison S Rhines, Marcus W Feldman, Andreas Handel, Christopher C Whalen, Stewart T Chang, Bradley G Wagner, Philip A Eckhoff, James M Trauer, Justin T Denholm, Emma S McBryde, Ted Cohen, Joshua A Salomon, Carel Pretorius, Marek Lalli, Jeffrey W Eaton, Delia Boccia, Mehran Hosseini, Gabriela B Gomez, Suvanand Sahu, Colleen Daniels, Lucica Ditiu, Daniel P Chin, Lixia Wang, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Puneet Dewan, Piotr Hippner, Salome Charalambous, Alison D Grant, Gavin Churchyard, Yogan Pillay, L David Mametja, Michael E Kimerling, Anna Vassall, Richard G White
BACKGROUND: The post-2015 End TB Strategy proposes targets of 50% reduction in tuberculosis incidence and 75% reduction in mortality from tuberculosis by 2025. We aimed to assess whether these targets are feasible in three high-burden countries with contrasting epidemiology and previous programmatic achievements. METHODS: 11 independently developed mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission projected the epidemiological impact of currently available tuberculosis interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in China, India, and South Africa...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708614/diving-response-in-rats-role-of-the-subthalamic-vasodilator-area
#15
Eugene V Golanov, James M Shiflett, Gavin W Britz
Diving response (DR) is a powerful integrative response targeted toward survival of the hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Being present in all animals and humans, it allows to survive adverse conditions like diving. Earlier, we discovered that forehead stimulation affords neuroprotective effect, decreasing infarction volume triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. We hypothesized that cold stimulation of the forehead induces DR in rats, which, in turn, exerts neuroprotection. We compared autonomic [AP, heart rate (HR), cerebral blood flow (CBF)] and EEG responses to the known DR-triggering stimulus, ammonia stimulation of the nasal mucosa, cold stimulation of the forehead, and cold stimulation of the glabrous skin of the tail base in anesthetized rats...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705084/levosimendan-for-the-prevention-of-acute-organ-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#16
Anthony C Gordon, Gavin D Perkins, Mervyn Singer, Daniel F McAuley, Robert M L Orme, Shalini Santhakumaran, Alexina J Mason, Mary Cross, Farah Al-Beidh, Janis Best-Lane, David Brealey, Christopher L Nutt, James J McNamee, Henrik Reschreiter, Andrew Breen, Kathleen D Liu, Deborah Ashby
Background Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing drug with inotropic and other properties that may improve outcomes in patients with sepsis. Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial to investigate whether levosimendan reduces the severity of organ dysfunction in adults with sepsis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a blinded infusion of levosimendan (at a dose of 0.05 to 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute) for 24 hours or placebo in addition to standard care. The primary outcome was the mean daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in the intensive care unit up to day 28 (scores for each of five systems range from 0 to 4, with higher scores indicating more severe dysfunction; maximum score, 20)...
October 5, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671668/city-planning-and-population-health-a-global-challenge
#17
Billie Giles-Corti, Anne Vernez-Moudon, Rodrigo Reis, Gavin Turrell, Andrew L Dannenberg, Hannah Badland, Sarah Foster, Melanie Lowe, James F Sallis, Mark Stevenson, Neville Owen
Significant global health challenges are being confronted in the 21st century, prompting calls to rethink approaches to disease prevention. A key part of the solution is city planning that reduces non-communicable diseases and road trauma while also managing rapid urbanisation. This Series of papers considers the health impacts of city planning through transport mode choices. In this, the first paper, we identify eight integrated regional and local interventions that, when combined, encourage walking, cycling, and public transport use, while reducing private motor vehicle use...
September 19, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667807/seasonal-infection-rates-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-populations-of-northern-green-frog-lithobates-clamitans-melanota-tadpoles
#18
James T Julian, Victoria A Gould, Gavin W Glenney, Robert P Brooks
Few studies have documented seasonal variation of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) infection rates in larval amphibians. We identified 4 natural populations of northern green frogs Lithobates clamitans melanota in Pennsylvania (USA) that contained Bd-infected tadpoles during post-wintering collections in May and June, after hibernating tadpoles had overwintered in wetlands. However, we failed to detect infected tadpoles at those wetlands when pre-wintering collections were made in late July through early September...
September 26, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583368/sequential-immunization-with-gp140-boosts-immune-responses-primed-by-modified-vaccinia-ankara-or-dna-in-hiv-uninfected-south-african-participants
#19
Gavin Churchyard, Koleka Mlisana, Shelly Karuna, Anna-Lise Williamson, Carolyn Williamson, Lynn Morris, Georgia D Tomaras, Stephen C De Rosa, Peter B Gilbert, Niya Gu, Chenchen Yu, Nonhlanhla N Mkhize, Tandile Hermanus, Mary Allen, Michael Pensiero, Susan W Barnett, Glenda Gray, Linda-Gail Bekker, David C Montefiori, James Kublin, Lawrence Corey
BACKGROUND: The safety and immunogenicity of SAAVI DNA-C2 (4 mg IM), SAAVI MVA-C (2.9 x 109 pfu IM) and Novartis V2-deleted subtype C gp140 (100 mcg) with MF59 adjuvant in various vaccination regimens was evaluated in HIV-uninfected adults in South Africa. METHODS: Participants at three South African sites were randomized (1:1:1:1) to one of four vaccine regimens: MVA prime, sequential gp140 protein boost (M/M/P/P); concurrent MVA/gp140 (MP/MP); DNA prime, sequential MVA boost (D/D/M/M); DNA prime, concurrent MVA/gp140 boost (D/D/MP/MP) or placebo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558064/a-terrestrial-planet-candidate-in-a-temperate-orbit-around-proxima-centauri
#20
Guillem Anglada-Escudé, Pedro J Amado, John Barnes, Zaira M Berdiñas, R Paul Butler, Gavin A L Coleman, Ignacio de la Cueva, Stefan Dreizler, Michael Endl, Benjamin Giesers, Sandra V Jeffers, James S Jenkins, Hugh R A Jones, Marcin Kiraga, Martin Kürster, Marίa J López-González, Christopher J Marvin, Nicolás Morales, Julien Morin, Richard P Nelson, José L Ortiz, Aviv Ofir, Sijme-Jan Paardekooper, Ansgar Reiners, Eloy Rodríguez, Cristina Rodrίguez-López, Luis F Sarmiento, John P Strachan, Yiannis Tsapras, Mikko Tuomi, Mathias Zechmeister
At a distance of 1.295 parsecs, the red dwarf Proxima Centauri (α Centauri C, GL 551, HIP 70890 or simply Proxima) is the Sun's closest stellar neighbour and one of the best-studied low-mass stars. It has an effective temperature of only around 3,050 kelvin, a luminosity of 0.15 per cent of that of the Sun, a measured radius of 14 per cent of the radius of the Sun and a mass of about 12 per cent of the mass of the Sun. Although Proxima is considered a moderately active star, its rotation period is about 83 days (ref...
August 24, 2016: Nature
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