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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243894/indications-for-and-outcomes-of-liver-transplantation-in-patients-with-alcohol-associated-liver-disease-aud
#1
Paulina K Phillips, Matthew W Caldis, Alexander D Hristov, Alexander S Lee, Michael R Lucey
The manufacture and consumption of alcohol are ubiquitous and as old as time. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is defined as a problematic pattern of alcohol use leading to clinically significant impairment. The physical injuries that result from excessive alcohol consumption are varied including end-organ damage to liver (alcohol-associated liver disease or ALD), pancreas, brain and heart, and systemic consequences including several forms of cancer. Liver transplantation (LT) remains the treatment of last resort for life-threatening liver disease...
December 14, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243502/evidence-based-management-of-incidental-focal-uptake-of-fluorodeoxyglucose-on-pet-ct
#2
Deborah Pencharz, Malavika Nathan, Thomas L Wagner
Focal incidental uptake, with or without CT abnormalities, is a common finding on FDG PET/CT and evidence based management for this type of uptake is lacking. This article reviews the evidence on focal incidental uptake including the incidence of malignancy, differential diagnosis and imaging criteria which can be used to further characterise it. The article focusses on PET rather than CT criteria. The strength of the evidence base is highly variable ranging from systematic reviews and meta-analyses to a virtual absence of evidence...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238876/independent-association-between-prediabetes-and-future-pancreatic-fat-accumulation-a-5-year-japanese-cohort-study
#3
Hajime Yamazaki, Shinichi Tauchi, Miho Kimachi, Mitsuru Dohke, Nagisa Hanawa, Yoshihisa Kodama, Akio Katanuma, Yosuke Yamamoto, Shunichi Fukuhara, Shingo Fukuma
BACKGROUND: The association between pancreatic fat and glucose dysmetabolism has been reported in several cross-sectional studies; however, a recent longitudinal study showed that baseline pancreatic fat did not cause subsequent diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that pancreatic fat is not a cause but a manifestation of glucose dysmetabolism and aimed to investigate the association between baseline prediabetes and future pancreatic fat accumulation. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2015, 198 nondiabetic participants, who underwent a health check-up via unenhanced computed tomography (CT) twice with CT intervals ≥ 5 years, were enrolled as prediabetes (n = 48) and non-prediabetes participants (n = 150)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237302/the-hypoglycemic-and-antioxidant-activities-of-garden-cress-lepidium-sativum-l-seed-on-alloxan-induced-diabetic-male-rats
#4
Eman S Attia, Afaf H Amer, Manal A Hasanein
The hypoglycemic and antioxidants activities of the methanol extract of Lepidium sativum seeds was tested in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Thirty male albino rats weighing 190-200 g were divided into five groups as follows: negative control, positive control and three diabetic groups treated with three concentrations of L. sativum methanol extract for four weeks. Induction of hyperglycemia in the positive control group increased blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, immunoglobulins, liver enzyme, lipid peroxide and kidney function, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins and decreased antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins compared with the negative control...
December 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236747/a-meta-analysis-of-effects-of-post-hatch-food-and-water-deprivation-on-development-performance-and-welfare-of-chickens
#5
Ingrid C de Jong, Johan van Riel, Marc B M Bracke, Henry van den Brand
A 'meta-analysis' was performed to determine effects of post-hatch food and water deprivation (PHFWD) on chicken development, performance and welfare (including health). Two types of meta-analysis were performed on peer-reviewed scientific publications: a quantitative 'meta-analysis' (MA) and a qualitative analysis (QA). Previously reported effects of PHFWD were quantified in the MA, for variables related to performance, mortality and relative yolk sac weight. The QA counted the number of studies reporting (non-)significant effects when five or more records were available in the data set (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235221/liver-transplant-for-metastatic-pancreatoblastoma-7-year-event-free-survival-after-chemotherapy-pancreatectomy-complete-hepatectomy-and-liver-transplant
#6
A A Ghaffarian, L Book, R L Meyers
Pancreatoblastoma is a rare malignant tumor in children. Surgical resection of the tumor is necessary for cure; however, due to its aggressive nature, it is often unresectable at presentation due to tumor size, local invasion, and/or metastasis. Because it is a rare tumor, there is currently no standard treatment regimen. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy who presented with metastatic pancreatoblastoma with multiple large metastases involving all four sectors of the liver. We began treatment with chemotherapy (cisplatin, 5FU, vincristine, and doxorubicin), which significantly reduced the tumor burden in both the pancreas and liver...
December 13, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234903/biodistribution-and-radiation-dosimetry-of-64cu-copper-dichloride-first-in-human-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#7
M A Avila-Rodriguez, C Rios, J Carrasco-Hernandez, J C Manrique-Arias, R Martinez-Hernandez, F O García-Pérez, A R Jalilian, E Martinez-Rodriguez, M E Romero-Piña, A Diaz-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: In recent years, Copper-64 (T1/2 = 12.7 h) in the chemical form of copper dichloride ([64Cu]CuCl2) has been identified as a potential agent for PET imaging and radionuclide therapy targeting the human copper transporter 1, which is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells. Limited human biodistribution and radiation dosimetry data is available for this tracer. The aim of this research was to determine the biodistribution and estimate the radiation dosimetry of [64Cu]CuCl2, using whole-body (WB) PET scans in healthy volunteers...
December 12, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234419/effect-of-sheng-jiang-powder-on-obesity-induced-multiple-organ-injuries-in-rats
#8
Juan Li, Yu-Mei Zhang, Jun-Yi Li, Lv Zhu, Hong-Xin Kang, Hong-Yu Ren, Huan Chen, Ling Yuan, Yi-Fan Miao, Mei-Hua Wan, Wen-Fu Tang
Background and Aims: Obesity has become the main public health issue nowadays with poor control and has been associated with increased risk of multiorgan disease, but the specific mechanism and effective medication are still to be addressed. Sheng-jiang powder (SJP) showed great potential in preventing obesity in Chinese researches but has no trace in English reports. This study was designed to investigate the effect of SJP on obesity and obesity-mediated multiorgan injuries. Methods: Rats were randomized into normal group (NG), obese group (OG), and SJP treatment group (SG)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234381/antihyperglycemic-antidiabetic-and-antioxidant-effects-of-garcinia-pedunculata-in-rats
#9
Md Yousuf Ali, Sudip Paul, E M Tanvir, Md Sakib Hossen, Nur-E Noushin Rumpa, Moumoni Saha, Nikhil Chandra Bhoumik, Md Aminul Islam, Md Sabir Hossain, Nadia Alam, Siew Hua Gan, Md Ibrahim Khalil
The antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic, and antioxidant potentials of the methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) fruit in rats were investigated. The acute antihyperglycemic effect of different doses of GP was studied in normal male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection in another cohort of male Wistar rats and they showed significantly higher blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, altered lipid profiles, and lower insulin levels compared to nondiabetic control animals...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230653/environmental-exposure-to-cadmium-a-risk-for-health-of-the-general-population-in-industrialized-countries-and-preventive-strategies
#10
Magdalena Mezynska, Malgorzata M Brzóska
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal belonging to the group of the main chemical pollutants of the natural and occupational environment in economically developed countries. The forecasts indicate that contamination of the environment with this toxic metal, and thus the exposure of the general population, will increase. Food (particularly plant products) is the main source of the general population exposure to this element. Moreover, an important, and often the main, source of intoxication with Cd is habitual tobacco smoking...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230485/-importance-of-functional-diagnostics-in-gastroenterology
#11
REVIEW
M Hollenbach, A Hoffmeister, J Rosendahl, J Mössner
In this review article important and frequently used investigation methods for gastrointestinal functional diagnostics are presented. Some other rarely used special investigations are also explained. The hydrogen breath test is simple to carry out, ubiquitously available and enables the detection of lactose, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption. Furthermore, by the application of glucose, the test can be carried out when there is a suspicion of abnormal intestinal bacterial colonization and using lactulose for measuring small intestinal transit time...
December 11, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230130/periampullary-carcinoma-unusual-sites-of-metastasis
#12
Anju Bansal, Varsha Dalal, Manveen Kaur, Fouzia Siraj
Background: Periampullary neoplasms include carcinomas of the duodenum, ampulla of Vater, distal common bile duct, and pancreas. The aggressive course of these neoplasms is attributable to the delay in diagnosis, as patients have no symptoms until advanced stages of the disease. More than half of patients have distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis. The most frequent sites of metastasis are the liver, lymph nodes, peritoneum, lung, bone, kidney, and, rarely the skin. Case Report: We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater metastasizing to the right parietal skull with overlying cutaneous involvement 1 year after a Whipple procedure...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229992/mirna-21-ablation-protects-against-liver-injury-and-necroptosis-in-cholestasis
#13
Marta B Afonso, Pedro M Rodrigues, André L Simão, Maria M Gaspar, Tânia Carvalho, Paula Borralho, Jesús M Bañales, Rui E Castro, Cecília M P Rodrigues
Inhibition of microRNA-21 (miR-21) prevents necroptosis in the mouse pancreas. Necroptosis contributes to hepatic necro-inflammation in the common bile duct ligation (BDL) murine model. We aimed to evaluate the role of miR-21 in mediating deleterious processes associated with cholestasis. Mechanistic studies established a functional link between miR-21 and necroptosis through cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2AP1). miR-21 expression increased in the liver of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) patients and BDL wild-type (WT) mice at both 3 and 14 days...
December 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227535/antidiabetic-and-lipid-lowering-effects-of-the-polyphenol-extracts-from-the-leaves-of-clausena-lansium-lour-skeels-on-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#14
Fansheng Kong, Zhipeng Su, Xiaoming Guo, Feng Zeng, Yongguang Bi
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels (Wampee) is widely grown in China and considered as a healthy fruit. Its leaves are also considered as traditional herbs. This study analyzed polyphenol compounds in polyphenol extracts of the leaves C. lansium (lour.) Skeels (PEL) and investigated the protective effect of PEL against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in T2DM rats. The result showed that PEL is composed mainly of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, coffee acid, ferulic acid, and rutin. PEL could obviously relieve some symptoms of T2DM rats, including emaciation, hyperhidrosis, polyphagia, diuresis, liver swelling, kidney, and pancreas hypertrophy, as well as reduce fasting blood glucose...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227009/fetal-liver-injury-ameliorated-by-migration-inhibitory-factor-inhibition-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-pregnancy
#15
Zheng-Da Guo, Liang Zhao, Peng Wang, Wen-Hong Deng, Qiao Shi, Teng Zuo, Yu-Pu Hong, Wei-Xing Wang
AIM: This study was designed to investigate and assess fetal liver injury in a rat model of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy (APIP) as well as its possible mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: The APIP model was induced by sodium taurocholate in Sprague-Dawley rats during the third trimester. ISO-1, a macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) antagonist, was given before the induction of APIP. In addition, sham-operated rats at later gestation were set as controls...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224654/evaluation-and-management-of-blunt-solid-organ-trauma
#16
Jonathan G Martin, Jay Shah, Craig Robinson, Sean Dariushnia
Trauma is a leading cause of death in patients under the age of 45 and generally associated with a high kinetic energy event such as a motor vehicle accident or fall from extreme elevations. Blunt trauma can affect every organ system and major vascular structure with potentially devastating effect. When we consider abdominal solid organ injury from blunt trauma, we usually think of the liver, spleen, and kidneys. However, all of the abdominal organs, including the pancreas and adrenal glands, may be involved...
December 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224106/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-and-sex-specific-metabolic-homeostasis
#17
Geetanjali Sharma, Eric R Prossnitz
Obesity and metabolic syndrome display disparate prevalence and regulation between males and females. Human, as well as rodent, females with regular menstrual/estrous cycles exhibit protection from weight gain and associated chronic diseases. These beneficial effects are predominantly attributed to the female hormone estrogen, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2). E2 exerts its actions via multiple receptors, nuclear and extranuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ, and the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously termed GPR30)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223569/isolated-mangiferin-and-naringenin-exert-antidiabetic-effect-via-ppar%C3%AE-glut4-dual-agonistic-action-with-strong-metabolic-regulation
#18
Ashok K Singh, Vinit Raj, Amit K Keshari, Amit Rai, Pranesh Kumar, Atul Rawat, Biswanath Maity, Dinesh Kumar, Anand Prakash, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Bolay Bhattacharya, Sudipta Saha
In this study, we isolated two compounds from the leaves of Salacia oblonga (SA1, mangiferin and SA2, naringenin), and their structures were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. SA1 and SA2 were orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 50 and 100 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Blood glucose level, serum lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, histopathology, docking, molecular parameters, and NMR-based metabolic perturbation studies were performed to investigate the pharmacological activities of SA1 and SA2...
December 6, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223394/islet-%C3%AE-cell-an-endocrine-cell-secreting-mirnas
#19
Aisen Zhang, Dameng Li, Yucheng Liu, Jing Li, Yujing Zhang, Chen-Yu Zhang
The pancreas is an important endocrine organ. Pancreatic beta (β) cells secrete insulin to regulate the metabolism of glucose and maintain the stability of blood glucose. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small (20-25 nt) non-coding RNA molecules, function in target gene silencing through post-transcriptional patterns, and multiple miRNAs regulate insulin secretion, insulin signaling pathways in pancreatic β cells and islet activity. In recent years, it has been found that many types of cells can secrete regulatory miRNA, but whether islet cells can secrete miRNA has not been clarified yet...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220052/hypoglycemic-and-hypolipidemic-effects-of-anthocyanins-extract-from-black-soybean-seed-coat-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#20
Zhongqin Chen, Cong Wang, Yuxiang Pan, Xudong Gao, Haixia Chen
Black soybean seed coat extract (BSSCE) is a rich source of anthocyanins with multiple health effects. This study was aimed at investigating the composition and hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of BSSCE in vitro and in a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The anthocyanins of BSSCE were identified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and peonidin-3-O-glucoside by HPLC-MS. Results demonstrated that BSSCE exhibited strong inhibitory activities for α-amylase, potent inhibition activity against lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and protection effect on H2O2-induced oxidative stress-damaged HepG2 cells...
December 8, 2017: Food & Function
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