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Confirmation bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319152/a-digital-pcr-method-for-identifying-and-quantifying-adulteration-of-meat-species-in-raw-and-processed-food
#1
Junan Ren, Tingting Deng, Wensheng Huang, Ying Chen, Yiqiang Ge
Meat adulteration is a worldwide concern. In this paper, a new droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method was developed for the quantitative determination of the presence of chicken in sheep and goat meat products. Meanwhile, a constant (multiplication factor) was introduced to transform the ratio of copy numbers to the proportion of meats. The presented ddPCR method was also proved to be more accurate (showing bias of less than 9% in the range from 5% to 80%) than real-time PCR, which has been widely used in this determination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318602/metals-hormones-and-sexual-maturation-in-flemish-adolescents-in-three-cross-sectional-studies-2002-2015
#2
Sam De Craemer, Kim Croes, Nicolas van Larebeke, Stefaan De Henauw, Greet Schoeters, Eva Govarts, Ilse Loots, Tim Nawrot, Vera Nelen, Elly Den Hond, Liesbeth Bruckers, Yue Gao, Willy Baeyens
Sex hormone levels and timing of sexual maturation are considered important markers for health status of adolescents in puberty, and previous research suggests they might be influenced by metal exposure. In three campaigns of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS I 2002-2006; FLEHS II 2007-2011 and FLEHS III 2012-2015), data were collected on internal exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Mn, Tl, Ni, Sb, Hg, As and As species) and sexual maturation in 2671 14-15years old adolescents. All metals were measured in blood and/or urine, except total- and methylmercury which were measured in hair samples...
March 17, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318379/prevalence-and-distribution-of-pseudogymnoascus-destructans-in-michigan-bats-submitted-for-rabies-surveillance
#3
Samantha L Darling, Ailam Lim, Julie R Melotti, Daniel J O'Brien, Steven R Bolin
Since 2006, bat populations in North America have suffered devastating mortality from an emerging disease known as white-nose syndrome (WNS). The causal agent of WNS is the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. In April 2014, WNS was discovered in little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus ) in Michigan, and has since been documented in 12 counties. Because current surveillance for WNS focuses primarily on mine-hibernating species in winter, it is subject geographic, species, and seasonal bias. To investigate species affected and potential associations of gender, seasonal life cycle, and region with P...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315798/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-in-anterior-cervical-fusion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Shayan Abdollah Zadegan, Aidin Abedi, Seyed Behnam Jazayeri, Hirbod Nasiri Bonaki, Seyed Behzad Jazayeri, Alexander R Vaccaro, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
OBJECTIVE: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been commonly used as a graft substitute in spinal fusion. Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued warning on life-threatening complications of recombinant human BMPs (rhBMPs) in cervical spine fusion in 2008, their off-label use has been continued. This investigation aimed to review the evidence for the use of rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 in anterior cervical spine fusions. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed through Ovid (MEDLINE), PubMed and Embase...
March 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315614/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-treating-the-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-prisma-compliant-meta-analysis
#5
Hairong He, Jun Lu, Lihong Yang, Jie Zheng, Fan Gao, Yajing Zhai, Junqin Feng, Yajuan Fan, Xiancang Ma
OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacies of 1-Hz (low frequency) and 10-Hz (high frequency) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treating auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, respectively. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant literature. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) values were used to evaluate the effects of rTMS. The stability and sensitivity of the results, the source of heterogeneity, and the recommended grade of the evidence were also analyzed...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314120/a-systematic-approach-to-identify-biased-agonists-of-the-apelin-receptor-through-high-throughput-screening
#6
Danielle McAnally, Khandaker Siddiquee, Haleli Sharir, Feng Qi, Sharangdhar Phatak, Jian-Liang Li, Eric Berg, Jordan Fishman, Layton Smith
Biased agonists are defined by their ability to selectively activate distinct signaling pathways of a receptor, and they hold enormous promise for the development of novel drugs that specifically elicit only the desired therapeutic response and avoid potential adverse effects. Unfortunately, most high-throughput screening (HTS) assays are designed to detect signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) downstream of either G protein or β-arrestin-mediated signaling but not both. A comprehensive drug discovery program seeking biased agonists must employ assays that report on the activity of each compound at multiple discrete pathways, particularly for HTS campaigns...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302409/effectiveness-of-2009-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Louise E Lansbury, Sherie Smith, Walter Beyer, Emina Karamehic, Eva Pasic-Juhas, Hana Sikira, Ana Mateus, Hitoshi Oshitani, Hongxin Zhao, Charles R Beck, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam
BACKGROUND: The clinical effectiveness of monovalent influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines has not been comprehensively summarised. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) for adjuvanted and unadjuvanted vaccines. METHODS: We searched healthcare databases and grey literature from 11 June 2009 to 12 November 2014. Two researchers independently assessed titles and abstracts to identify studies for full review. Random effects meta-analyses estimated the pooled effect size of vaccination compared to placebo or no vaccination for crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) to prevent laboratory confirmed influenza illness (LCI) and related hospitalization...
March 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301676/deprescribing-versus-continuation-of-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-adults
#8
REVIEW
Taline A Boghossian, Farah Joy Rashid, Wade Thompson, Vivian Welch, Paul Moayyedi, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Pottie, Barbara Farrell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that reduce acid secretion and are used for treating many conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), dyspepsia, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and hypersecretory conditions (e.g. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and as part of the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. However, approximately 25% to 70% of people are prescribed a PPI inappropriately. Chronic PPI use without reassessment contributes to polypharmacy and puts people at risk of experiencing drug interactions and adverse events (e...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300493/mother-child-incest-psychosis-and-the-dynamics-of-relatedness
#9
Joan Haliburn
Sexual abuse perpetrated by a parent particularly the mother creates turmoil in the child who has to depend on the very person who betrays their trust. A review of the literature confirms that there are only a few case studies of mother-child incest reported in the psychoanalytic literature; the incidence of such incest, however, is unknown. Considerably, more information is available in the forensic and child abuse literatures along with an increase in research; yet, there is a paucity of data. Child sexual abuse by women as highly prevalent is described in early societies, and that there is a bias in peoples' minds about the capacity of females to sexually abuse children is raised by many writers...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298476/a-meta-analysis-between-dietary-carbohydrate-intake-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-evidence-from-17-observational-studies
#10
Jian Huang, Guoqing Pan, Hongchao Jiang, Wenliang Li, Jian Dong, Hongbin Zhang, Xiang Ji, Zhu Zhu
   The association between dietary carbohydrate intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to assess the relationship between them. A literature search from the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Web of science and Medline databases were performed for available articles published in English (up to Sep 2016). Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the association between dietary carbohydrate intake and colorectal cancer risk...
March 15, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298374/safety-of-synthetic-and-biological-dmards-a-systematic-literature-review-informing-the-2016-update-of-the-eular-recommendations-for-management-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Sofia Ramiro, Alexandre Sepriano, Katerina Chatzidionysiou, Jackie L Nam, Josef S Smolen, Désirée van der Heijde, Maxime Dougados, Ronald van Vollenhoven, Johannes W Bijlsma, Gerd R Burmester, Marieke Scholte-Voshaar, Louise Falzon, Robert B M Landewé
OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety of synthetic (s) and biological (b) disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to inform the European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for the management of RA. METHODS: Systematic literature review (SLR) of observational studies comparing any DMARD with another intervention for the management of patients with RA. All safety outcomes were included. A comparator group was required for the study to be included...
March 15, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296946/effects-of-neighbourhood-and-household-sanitation-conditions-on-diarrhea-morbidity-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Youngmee Tiffany Jung, Ryan James Hum, Wendy Lou, Yu-Ling Cheng
Sanitation in neighbourhood and household domains can provide primary protection against diarrhea morbidity, yet their distinct health benefits have not been succinctly distinguished and reviewed. We present here the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the distinct effect of neighbourhood and household sanitation conditions on diarrhea morbidity. We identified studies reporting the effect of neighbourhood-level exposure to wastewater or household sanitation facilities on diarrhea, by performing comprehensive search on five databases, namely the Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science, from the earliest date available to February 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296279/an-immunohistochemical-approach-to-identify-the-sex-of-young-marine-turtles
#13
Boris M Tezak, Kathleen Guthrie, Jeanette Wyneken
Marine turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). During critical periods of embryonic development, the nest's thermal environment directs whether an embryo will develop as a male or female. At warmer sand temperatures nests tend to produce female-biased sex ratios. The rapid increase of global temperature highlights the need for a clear assessment of its effects on sea turtle sex ratios. However, estimating hatchling sex ratios at rookeries remains imprecise due to the lack of sexual dimorphism in young marine turtles...
March 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292491/joint-utility-estimators-in-substance-use-disorders
#14
Eve Wittenberg, Jeremy W Bray, Achamyeleh Gebremariam, Brandon Aden, Bohdan Nosyk, Bruce R Schackman
BACKGROUND: Although co-occurring conditions are common with substance use disorders (SUDs), estimation methods for joint health state utilities have not yet been tested in this context. OBJECTIVES: To compare joint health state utility estimators in SUD to inform economic evaluation. METHODS: We conducted two Internet-based surveys of US adults to collect community perspective standard gamble utilities for SUD and common co-occurring conditions...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289887/bilingual-comparison-of-mandarin-and-english-cognitive-bias-tasks
#15
Louise Smith, Wing Gi Leung, Bryony Crane, Brian Parkinson, Timothea Toulopoulou, Jenny Yiend
Most research into cognitive biases has used Western samples, despite potential East-West socio-cultural differences. One reason is the lack of appropriate measures for non-Westerners. This study is about cross-linguistic equivalence which needs to be established before assessing cross-cultural differences in future research. We developed parallel Mandarin and English measures of interpretation bias and attention bias using back-translation and decentering procedures. We assessed task equivalence by administering both sets of measures to 47 bilingual Mandarin-English speakers...
March 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287891/associations-of-resting-heart-rate-with-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-and-shear-rate
#16
Jitanan Laosiripisan, Kristin L Parkhurst, Hirofumi Tanaka
Heart rate is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a hemodynamic factor that can modulate blood flow as it affects the frequency of shear stimuli acting on the arterial wall. However, the association between heart rate and endothelium-dependent vasodilation remains highly controversial. We determined the association between heart rate at rest and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in 98 apparently healthy adults (18-63 years). The mild and positive association between heart rate and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was no longer significant when age and sex or baseline diameter were controlled for...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285983/assessing-misclassification-of-vaccination-status-implications-for-studies-of-the-safety-of-the-childhood-immunization-schedule
#17
Matthew F Daley, Jason M Glanz, Sophia R Newcomer, Michael L Jackson, Holly C Groom, Marlene M Lugg, Huong Q McLean, Nicola P Klein, Eric S Weintraub, Michael M McNeil
BACKGROUND: To address public concern about the safety of the childhood immunization schedule, the Institute of Medicine recommended observational studies comparing adverse health outcomes of fully vaccinated children to children under-vaccinated due to parental choice. Misclassification of vaccination status could bias such studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of misclassification of vaccination status within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). DESIGN/METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in three phases...
March 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282734/psychiatric-disorders-among-older-prisoners-a-systematic-review-and-comparison-study-against-older-people-in-the-community
#18
Claudio Di Lorito, Birgit Vӧllm, Tom Dening
OBJECTIVES: Despite emerging evidence that older prisoners experience poor mental health, literature in this area is still limited. In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, we report on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older prisoners and compare our findings against community studies on older people. METHODS: We searched on Assia, PsycInfo, MedLine, Embase, Web of Science, Google and Gov.uk. We carried out bias assessments, rated studies for quality and ran a heterogeneity test...
February 7, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281870/are-female-applicants-disadvantaged-in-national-institutes-of-health-peer-review-combining-algorithmic-text-mining-and-qualitative-methods-to-detect-evaluative-differences-in-r01-reviewers-critiques
#19
Wairimu Magua, Xiaojin Zhu, Anupama Bhattacharya, Amarette Filut, Aaron Potvien, Renee Leatherberry, You-Geon Lee, Madeline Jens, Dastagiri Malikireddy, Molly Carnes, Anna Kaatz
BACKGROUND: Women are less successful than men in renewing R01 grants from the National Institutes of Health. Continuing to probe text mining as a tool to identify gender bias in peer review, we used algorithmic text mining and qualitative analysis to examine a sample of critiques from men's and women's R01 renewal applications previously analyzed by counting and comparing word categories. METHODS: We analyzed 241 critiques from 79 Summary Statements for 51 R01 renewals awarded to 45 investigators (64% male, 89% white, 80% PhD) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison between 2010 and 2014...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279997/association-between-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-and-selected-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#20
Christian Akem Dimala, Hannah Blencowe
INTRODUCTION: The increasing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been associated with increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. However, the epidemiology of the association between HAART and CVD risk factors in SSA is sparse. We aim to assess the extent to which HAART is associated with selected cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome) in SSA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between HAART and CVD risk factors retrieved from Medline, Embase, Popline, Africa-Wide Information, African Index Medicus and the Cochrane library databases...
March 9, 2017: BMJ Open
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