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Confirmation bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805794/large-scale-mapping-of-cortical-synaptic-projections-with-extracellular-electrode-arrays
#1
Mark Shein-Idelson, Lorenz Pammer, Mike Hemberger, Gilles Laurent
Understanding circuit computation in the nervous system requires sampling activity over large neural populations and maximizing the number of features that can be extracted. By combining planar arrays of extracellular electrodes with the three-layered cortex of turtles, we show that synaptic signals induced along individual axons as well as action potentials can be easily captured. Two types of information can be extracted from these signals, the neuronal subtype (inhibitory or excitatory)-whose identification is more reliable than with traditional measures such as action potential width-and a (partial) spatial map of functional axonal projections from individual neurons...
August 14, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804813/a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-applications-and-complications-of-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-in-management-of-bone-defects-and-nonunions
#2
REVIEW
Mohamed A Imam, James Holton, Lukas Ernstbrunner, Wojciech Pepke, Florian Grubhofer, Ali Narvani, Martyn Snow
PURPOSE: Fracture healing encompasses a succession of dynamic multifactorial metabolic events, which ultimately re-establishes the integrity of the biomechanical properties of the bone. Up to 10% of the fractures occurring annually will need additional surgical procedures because of impaired healing. The aim of this article is to review the current literature regarding the use of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) and its effectiveness in the management of bone defects. METHODS: We have included all published clinical literature investigating the development, techniques and applications of BMAC...
August 13, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802440/debiasing-visual-pilots-weather-related-decision-making
#3
Stephen Walmsley, Andrew Gilbey
Pilots who decide to continue a flight into deteriorating weather conditions, rather than turn back or divert, are a significant cause of fatal crashes in general aviation. Earlier research has suggested that cognitive biases such as the anchoring effect and confirmation bias are implicated in many decisions to continue into worsening weather. In this study, we explored whether a simple debiasing technique, 'considering the alternative', reduced the effect of these two potentially fatal biases. Despite the study being adequately powered, our attempts to reduce the effects of biases were both unsuccessful...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800597/confirmation-bias-in-human-reinforcement-learning-evidence-from-counterfactual-feedback-processing
#4
Stefano Palminteri, Germain Lefebvre, Emma J Kilford, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Previous studies suggest that factual learning, that is, learning from obtained outcomes, is biased, such that participants preferentially take into account positive, as compared to negative, prediction errors. However, whether or not the prediction error valence also affects counterfactual learning, that is, learning from forgone outcomes, is unknown. To address this question, we analysed the performance of two groups of participants on reinforcement learning tasks using a computational model that was adapted to test if prediction error valence influences learning...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799431/vulvar-cancer-in-germany-increase-in-incidence-and-change-in-tumour-biological-characteristics-from-1974-to-2013
#5
Bernd Holleczek, Jalid Sehouli, Jana Barinoff
BACKGROUND: The incidence of vulvar cancer in Germany is increasing. Moreover, gynaecological oncologists reported observing increasing numbers of women presenting with small tumours. The aim of the present study is to validate this observation on a population level and to extend available incidence data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the population-based Saarland Cancer Registry were used and included 1136 women diagnosed with invasive vulvar cancer (ICD-9 codes: 181...
August 11, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797640/a-comprehensive-literature-review-of-chronic-pain-and-memory
#6
REVIEW
Stéphanie Mazza, Maud Frot, Amandine E Rey
Chronic pain patients often complain of their "poor memory" and numerous studies objectively confirmed such difficulties in reporting working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) dysfunctions. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on memory impairment in chronic pain (CP) patients. Twenty-four observational studies evaluating WM or/and LTM in a chronic pain group and a control group were included in this review. Results showed that studies consistently reported a moderate decline, in both WM and LTM performances in CP patients...
August 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797050/correlation-between-p-stat3-overexpression-and-prognosis-in-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Mengting Tong, Jing Wang, Nanyu Jiang, Hongming Pan, Da Li
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown the correlation between p-STAT3 overexpression and prognosis in a variety of human tumors. However, their correlation in lung cancer remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the correlation between p-STAT3 overexpression and prognosis in lung cancer patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang Data to identify relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened the literature search results, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796951/bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-as-a-probiotic-for-preterm-infants-a-strain-specific-systematic-review
#8
Gayatri Athalye-Jape, Shripada Rao, Karen Simmer, Sanjay Patole
INTRODUCTION: Bifidobacterium breve M-16V has been used as a probiotic in preterm infants. Probiotic strain-specific data are essential to guide clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of B breve M-16V in preterm neonates. DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs of B breve M-16V in preterm infants was conducted. Multiple databases, proceedings of Pediatric Academy Society, and other relevant conferences were searched in September 2016 and on January 5, 2017...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796882/cytology-versus-hpv-testing-for-cervical-cancer-screening-in-the-general-population
#9
REVIEW
George Koliopoulos, Victoria N Nyaga, Nancy Santesso, Andrew Bryant, Pierre Pl Martin-Hirsch, Reem A Mustafa, Holger Schünemann, Evangelos Paraskevaidis, Marc Arbyn
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening has traditionally been based on cervical cytology. Given the aetiological relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical carcinogenesis, HPV testing has been proposed as an alternative screening test. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of HPV testing for detecting histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) of grade 2 or worse (CIN 2+), including adenocarcinoma in situ, in women participating in primary cervical cancer screening; and how it compares to the accuracy of cytological testing (liquid-based and conventional) at various thresholds...
August 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796418/role-of-the-gm1-ganglioside-oligosaccharide-portion-in-the-trka-dependent-neurite-sprouting-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#10
Elena Chiricozzi, Diego Yuri Pomè, Margherita Maggioni, Erika Di Biase, Chiara Parravicini, Luca Palazzolo, Nicoletta Loberto, Ivano Eberini, Sandro Sonnino
GM1 ganglioside (II(3) NeuAc-Gg4 Cer) is known to promote neurite formation in neuroblastoma cells by activating TrkA-MAPK pathway. The molecular mechanism by which GM1 is involved in the neurodifferentiation process is still unknown, however, in vitro and in vivo evidences have suggested that the oligosaccharide portion of this ganglioside could be involved. Here, we report that, similarly to the entire GM1 molecule, its oligosaccharide II(3) NeuAc-Gg4, rather than its ceramide (Cer) portion is responsible for the neurodifferentiation process by augmenting neurite elongation and increasing the neurofilament protein expression in murine neuroblastoma cells, Neuro2a...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794250/validating-and-comparing-stroke-prognosis-scales
#11
Terence J Quinn, Sarjit Singh, Kennedy R Lees, Philip M Bath, Phyo K Myint
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prognostic accuracy of various acute stroke prognostic scales using a large, independent, clinical trials dataset. METHODS: We directly compared 8 stroke prognostic scales, chosen based on focused literature review (Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne [ASTRAL]; iSCORE; iSCORE-revised; preadmission comorbidities, level of consciousness, age, and neurologic deficit [PLAN]; stroke subtype, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project, age, and prestroke modified Rankin Scale [mRS] [SOAR]; modified SOAR; Stroke Prognosis Instrument 2 [SPI2]; and Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events [THRIVE]) using individual patient-level data from a clinical trials archive (Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive [VISTA])...
August 9, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794208/estimation-of-chicken-intake-by-adults-using-metabolomics-derived-markers
#12
Xiaofei Yin, Helena Gibbons, Milena Rundle, Gary Frost, Breige A McNulty, Anne P Nugent, Janette Walton, Albert Flynn, Michael J Gibney, Lorraine Brennan
Background: Improved assessment of meat intake with the use of metabolomics-derived markers can provide objective data and could be helpful in clarifying proposed associations between meat intake and health.Objective: The objective of this study was to identify novel markers of chicken intake using a metabolomics approach and use markers to determine intake in an independent cohort.Methods: Ten participants [age: 62 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.25] in the NutriTech food intake study consumed increasing amounts of chicken, from 88 to 290 g/d, in a 3-wk span...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793957/a-comparison-of-telavancin-and-vancomycin-for-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-meta-analysis
#13
Yu Liu, Juan Wang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically review and evaluate the efficacy and safety of telavancin and vancomycin in the treatment of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using Pubmed, Embase, VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database, and Wanfang Database resulting in the inclusion of seven publications in this study. Outcomes were calculated using pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783882/bayesian-analysis-of-pair-matched-case-control-studies-subject-to-outcome-misclassification
#14
Tanja Högg, John Petkau, Yinshan Zhao, Paul Gustafson, José Ma Wijnands, Helen Tremlett
We examine the impact of nondifferential outcome misclassification on odds ratios estimated from pair-matched case-control studies and propose a Bayesian model to adjust these estimates for misclassification bias. The model relies on access to a validation subgroup with confirmed outcome status for all case-control pairs as well as prior knowledge about the positive and negative predictive value of the classification mechanism. We illustrate the model's performance on simulated data and apply it to a database study examining the presence of ten morbidities in the prodromal phase of multiple sclerosis...
August 7, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782733/mechanisms-of-photoinduced-magnetization-in-pr-sub-0-6-sub-ca-sub-0-4-sub-mno-sub-3-sub-studied-above-and-below-charge-ordering-transition-temperature
#15
Tomi Elovaara, Jussi Tikkanen, S Granroth, Sayani Majumdar, Roberto Felix, Hannu Huhtinen, Petriina Paturi
We report the effect of photonic field on the electronic and magnetic structure of a low bandwidth manganite PCMO thin film. In particular, the present study confirmed a mechanism that was recently proposed to explain how optical excitation can bias or directly activate the metamagnetic transition associated with the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect of PCMO. The transition is characterized by a shift in the dynamic equilibrium between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic clusters, explaining how it can be suddenly triggered by a sufficient external magnetic field...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781214/fifty-shades-of-belgian-gray-the-prevalence-of-bdsm-related-fantasies-and-activities-in-the-general-population
#16
Lien Holvoet, Wim Huys, Violette Coppens, Jantien Seeuws, Kris Goethals, Manuel Morrens
BACKGROUND: Bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadism and masochism (BDSM) is gaining popularity through the mainstream media. Nevertheless, very little is known about the prevalence of BDSM-related fantasies and activities in the general population. AIM: To determine the prevalence of BDSM fantasies and behavioral involvement in four different age groups of the general population in Belgium. METHODS: By use of a cross-sectional survey questionnaire, the level of interest in several BDSM-related activities was investigated in a sample representative of the general Belgian population (N = 1,027)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780439/ethnic-density-immigrant-enclaves-and-latino-health-risks-a-propensity-score-matching-approach
#17
Kelin Li, Ming Wen, Kevin A Henry
Whether minority concentration in a neighborhood exposes residents to, or protects them from, health risks has generated burgeoning scholarly interests; yet endogeneity as a result of neighborhood selection largely remains unclear in the literature. This study addresses such endogeneity and simultaneously investigates the roles of co-ethnic density and immigrant enclaves in influencing high blood pressure and high cholesterol level among Latinos, the largest minority group in the United States. Pooled cross-sectional data that included both native and foreign-born Latinos of Puerto Rican, Mexican, and other origins (N = 1563) from the 2006 and 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey were linked to census-tract profiles from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey...
July 25, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780370/prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-with-the-traditional-chinese-patent-medicine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Bing Pang, Feng-Mei Lian, Xi-Yan Zhao, Xue-Min Zhao, De Jin, Yi-Qun Lin, Yu-Jiao Zheng, Qing Ni, Xiao-Lin Tong
AIM: Early interventions in prediabetes can prevent or delay the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) on the prevention of T2DM. METHODS: Seven electronic databases were searched to identify eligible trials published until June 1, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared TCPM plus lifestyle modification (LM) versus LM alone were included for in the...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780318/detecting-anomalies-in-a-deliberately-biased-tomotherapy-plan-comparison-of-two-patient-specific-quality-assurance-processes-involving-arccheck-%C3%A2-and-gafchromic-%C3%A2-ebt3-films
#19
F Werlé, N Dehaynin, C Niederst, D Jarnet, M Gantier, D Karamanoukian, P Meyer
PURPOSE: This work proposes a comparative evaluation of two of our patient-specific quality assurance processes involving ArcCHECK(®) (Sun Nuclear) and Gafchromic(®) EBT3 films (Ashland) in order to determine which detector is able to most effectively detect an anomaly in a deliberately biased tomotherapy plan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A complex clinical head and neck tomotherapy plan was deliberately biased by introducing six errors: multileaf collimator leaf positional errors by leaving one and two central leafs closed during the whole treatment, initial radiation angle errors (+0...
August 2, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772516/chemical-and-morphological-characterization-of-magnetron-sputtered-at-different-bias-voltages-cr-al-c-coatings
#20
Aleksei Obrosov, Roman Gulyaev, Andrzej Zak, Markus Ratzke, Muhammad Naveed, Wlodzimierz Dudzinski, Sabine Weiß
MAX phases (M = transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C/N) are of special interest because they possess a unique combination of the advantages of both metals and ceramics. Most attention is attracted to the ternary carbide Cr2AlC because of its excellent high-temperature oxidation, as well as hot corrosion resistance. Despite lots of publications, up to now the influence of bias voltage on the chemical bonding structure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of the film is still not well understood...
February 10, 2017: Materials
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