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Confirmation bias

Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rachel A Hoopsick, D Lynn Homish, Paul T Bartone, Gregory G Homish
Background: Much research has focused on stress related to deployments; however, a substantial proportion of soldiers never deploy. In a study of 1.3 million veterans, suicide risk was higher among veterans who had never deployed. Thus, not being deployed may have an impact on soldiers' well-being; however, no measures exist to assess emotions regarding non-deployment. We aimed to develop and test an original measure of non-deployment emotions. Methods: We examined the Non-Deployment Emotions (NDE) questionnaire, a novel four-item measure of guilt, unit value, unit camaraderie, and unit connectedness in a sample of never-deployed male and female US Army Reserve/National Guard (USAR/NG) soldiers (N = 174)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Gary Kim-Kuan Low, Simon A Ogston, Mun-Hin Yong, Seng-Chiew Gan, Hui-Yee Chee
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of 2009 WHO dengue case classification, no literature was found regarding its effect on dengue death. This study was to evaluate the effect of 2009 WHO dengue case classification towards dengue case fatality rate. METHODS: Various databases were used to search relevant articles since 1995. Studies included were cohort and cross-sectional studies, all patients with dengue infection and must report the number of death or case fatality rate...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Charlotte Sosson, Carrie Georges, Mathieu Guillaume, Anne-Marie Schuller, Christine Schiltz
Numbers are thought to be spatially organized along a left-to-right horizontal axis with small/large numbers on its left/right respectively. Behavioral evidence for this mental number line (MNL) comes from studies showing that the reallocation of spatial attention by active left/right head rotation facilitated the generation of small/large numbers respectively. While spatial biases in random number generation (RNG) during active movement are well established in adults, comparable evidence in children is lacking and it remains unclear whether and how children's access to the MNL is affected by active head rotation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Juan M Murias, Silvia Pogliaghi, Donald H Paterson
The accuracy of an exhaustive ramp incremental (RI) test to determine maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max ) was recently questioned and the utilization of a verification phase proposed as a gold standard. This study compared the oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2 ) during a RI test to that obtained during a verification phase aimed to confirm attainment of [Formula: see text]O2max . Sixty-one healthy males [31 older (O) 65 ± 5 yrs; 30 younger (Y) 25 ± 4 yrs] performed a RI test (15-20 W/min for O and 25 W/min for Y)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Seon Choe, Mudan Cai, Ui Min Jerng, Jun-Hwan Lee
Cognitive impairment is age-related and manageable only with early diagnosis and prevention. Moxibustion is widely accepted in East Asia as useful for preventing cognitive impairment. This systematic review of animal studies was conducted to verify the efficacy of moxibustion in preventing cognitive impairment and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Randomized controlled animal trials that established the efficacy of moxibustion in preventing cognitive impairment were included in the analysis. Results of behavioral tests and the signaling pathways elucidated were extracted and a meta-analysis was conducted with the behavioral test results...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Frederieke Kroon, Cherie Motti, Sam Talbot, Paula Sobral, Marji Puotinen
Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, with microplastic (i.e. <5 mm) contamination a global issue of emerging concern. The lack of universally accepted methods for quantifying microplastic contamination, including consistent application of microscopy, photography, an spectroscopy and photography, may result in unrealistic contamination estimates. Here, we present and apply an analysis workflow tailored to quantifying microplastic contamination in marine waters, incorporating stereomicroscopic visual sorting, microscopic photography and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sandra Monteiro, Geoff Norman, Jonathan Sherbino
There is general consensus that clinical reasoning involves 2 stages: a rapid stage where 1 or more diagnostic hypotheses are advanced and a slower stage where these hypotheses are tested or confirmed. The rapid hypothesis generation stage is considered inaccessible for analysis or observation. Consequently, recent research on clinical reasoning has focused specifically on improving the accuracy of the slower, hypothesis confirmation stage. Three perspectives have developed in this line of research, and each proposes different error reduction strategies for clinical reasoning...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Monalisa Cesarino Gomes, Laio Costa Dutra, Edja Maria Melo Brito Costa, Saul Martins Paiva, Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia, Carolina Castro Martins
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature for scientific evidence regarding the association between a sense of coherence (SOC) and oral health-related of quality of life (OHRQoL). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in five databases. Manual searches were also performed. To be included, studies needed to address the relationship between SOC and OHRQoL. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scales for cross-sectional and cohort studies and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale for clinical trials...
March 12, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Sibylle C Mellinghoff, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Blasius J Liss, Oliver A Cornely
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common hospital acquired infections. While the incidence of SSI in certain indicator procedures is the subject of ongoing surveillance efforts in hospitals and health care systems around the world, SSI rates vary markedly within surgical categories and are poorly represented by routinely monitored indicator procedures (eg, mastectomy or hernia surgery). Therefore, relying on indicator procedures to estimate the burden of SSI is imprecise and introduces bias as hospitals may take special precautions to achieve lower SSI rates...
March 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Claudio Pedone, Renato Giua, Nicola Scichilone, Vincenzo Bellia, Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi
INTRODUCTION: In the new GOLD classification the reduction of FEV1, expressed as percentage of predicted value (FEV1PP), is considered an important prognostic factor. However, the use of FEV1PP may introduce bias, especially if based on equations derived from populations different from the one under study. We evaluated how well the GOLD classification stratifies the mortality risk when FEV1PP is based on an equation developed in the same population that gave rise to cases, externally developed equations, or as FEV1 divided by cubed height (FEV1/Ht3 )...
March 9, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Yasmin A Williams, Lucy S Tusting, Sophia Hocini, Patricia M Graves, Gerry F Killeen, Immo Kleinschmidt, Fredros O Okumu, Richard G A Feachem, Allison Tatarsky, Roly D Gosling
BACKGROUND: Additional vector control tools (VCTs) are needed to supplement insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) to achieve malaria elimination in many settings. To identify options for expanding the malaria vector control toolbox, we conducted a systematic review of the availability and quality of the evidence for 21 malaria VCTs, excluding ITNs and IRS. METHODS: Six electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched from January 1, 1980 to September 28, 2015 to identify systematic reviews, Phase I-IV studies, and observational studies that measured the effect of malaria VCTs on epidemiological or entomological outcomes across any age groups in all malaria-endemic settings...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Ángel Herráiz-Adillo, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Johana Bidner, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Blanca Notario-Pacheco
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The diagnostic performance of the oscillometric ankle brachial index (ABI) to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD) varies among populations, suggesting a spectrum effect. When this heterogeneity modifies post-test probabilities, a spectrum bias arises. This study evaluates the presence and influence of spectrum effect and spectrum bias on test performance and clinical decisions. METHODS: Oscillometric and Doppler ABI were compared in two settings: Primary-Care (333 legs) and Vascular-Service (41 legs)...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Manuela Malaspina, Andrea Albonico, Junpeng Lao, Roberto Caldara, Roberta Daini
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence showed that individuals with congenital face processing impairment (congenital prosopagnosia [CP]) are highly accurate when they have to recognize their own face (self-face advantage) in an implicit matching task, with a preference for the right-half of the self-face (right perceptual bias). Yet the perceptual strategies underlying this advantage are unclear. Here, we aimed to verify whether both the self-face advantage and the right perceptual bias emerge in an explicit task, and whether those effects are linked to a different scanning strategy between the self-face and unfamiliar faces...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Lora Minkova, Sarah Gregory, Rachael I Scahill, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Christoph P Kaller, Jessica Peter, Jeffrey D Long, Julie C Stout, Ralf Reilmann, Raymund A Roos, Alexandra Durr, Blair R Leavitt, Sarah J Tabrizi, Stefan Klöppel
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be genetically confirmed with certainty decades before clinical onset. This allows the investigation of functional and structural changes in HD many years prior to disease onset, which may reveal important mechanistic insights into brain function, structure and organization in general. While regional atrophy is present at early stages of HD, it is still unclear if both hemispheres are equally affected by neurodegeneration and how the extent of asymmetry affects domain-specific functional decline...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Xiujuan Zhang, Linmiao Li, Haiying Jiang, Jinge Ma, Juan Li, Jinping Chen
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) cooperate with sex-related genes in post-transcriptional regulation and play extremely important roles in the establishment of sexually dimorphic traits in animals. However, the gonad miRNAs and expression patterns of miRNAs in sturgeon have not been investigated. METHODS: In the present study, we used high-throughput small RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to discover gonad miRNAs from the ovaries and testes of Amur sturgeons (Acipenser schrenckii)...
March 7, 2018: Gene
Franck Da-Silva, Xavier Boulenc, Hélène Vermet, Pauline Compigne, Sabine Gerbal-Chaloin, Martine Daujat-Chavanieu, Sylvie Klieber, Patrick Poulin
The objective was to compare, with the same dataset, the predictive performance of three in vitro assays of hepatic clearance (CL), namely, micropatterned cocultures (MPCC) (also referring to HepatoPac® ) and suspension as well as monolayer hepatocytes to define which assay is the most accurate. Furthermore, existing in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) methods were challenged to verify which method is the most predictive (i.e., direct scaling method without binding correction, conventional method based either on the unbound fraction in plasma (fup ) according to the free drug hypothesis, or based on an fup value adjusted for the albumin (ALB)-facilitated hepatic uptake phenomenon)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
David Souto, Sabine Born, Dirk Kerzel
Inhibition of return is the name typically given to the prolonged latency of motor responses directed to a previously cued target location. There is intense debate about the origins of this effect and its function, but most take for granted (despite lack of evidence) that it depends little on forward masking. Therefore, we re-examined the role of forward masking in inhibition of return. Forward masking was indexed by slower saccadic reaction times (SRTs) when the target orientation repeated the cue orientation at the same location...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
David Jonathan R Gusman, João M Mello-Neto, Breno Edson S Alves, Henrique R Matheus, Edilson Ervolino, Letícia H Theodoro, Juliano M de Almeida
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite clinical trials and reviews attempt to assess a possible relationship between dementia and periodontal disease, no meta-analysis has been performed and this issue remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess severity of periodontitis in subjects with dementia. METHODS: The search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase/MEDLINE. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk bias (Newcastle-Ottawa scale)...
February 27, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Angelos Angelidis, Muriel Hagenaars, Dana van Son, Willem van der Does, Peter Putman
BACKGROUND: Low spontaneous EEG theta/beta ratio (TBR) is associated with greater executive control. Their role in regulation of attentional bias for stimuli of different threat-levels is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To provide the first relations between frontal TBR, trait anxiety and attentional bias to mildly and highly threatening stimuli at different processing-stages. METHODS: Seventy-four healthy volunteers completed spontaneous EEG measurement, a self-report trait anxiety questionnaire and a dot-probe task with stimuli of different threat-level and 200 and 500 ms cue-target delays...
March 5, 2018: Biological Psychology
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