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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910470/a-comparison-of-ventilation-rates-between-a-standard-bag-valve-mask-and-a-new-design-in-a-prehospital-setting-during-training-simulations
#1
Joseph T Costello, Paul B Allen, Robert Levesque
BACKGROUND: Excessive ventilation of sick and injured patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Combat Medical Systems® (CMS) is developing a new bag-valve-mask (BVM) designed to limit ventilation rates. The purpose of this study was to compare ventilation rates between a standard BVM device and the CMS device. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, semirandomized, crossover study using Army Medics. Data were collected during Brigade Combat Team Trauma Training classes at Camp Bullis, Texas...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838781/a-comparison-of-pediatric-airway-management-techniques-during-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-using-the-cares-database
#2
Matthew L Hansen, Amber Lin, Carl Eriksson, Mohamud Daya, Bryan McNally, Rongwei Fu, David Yanez, Dana Zive, Craig Newgard
OBJECTIVE: To compare odds of survival to hospital discharge among pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients receiving either bag-valve-mask ventilation (BVM), supraglottic airway (SGA) or endotracheal intubation (ETI), after adjusting for the propensity to receive a given airway intervention. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) database from January 1 201-December 31, 2015. The CARES registry includes data on cardiac arrests from 17 statewide registries and approximately 55 additional US cities...
August 22, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807071/single-rescuer-ventilation-using-a-bag-valve-mask-with-removable-external-handle-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#3
Paul Reed, Baruch Zobrist, Monica Casmaer, Steven G Schauer, Nurani Kester, Michael D April
Introduction Ventilation with a bag valve mask (BVM) is a challenging but critical skill for airway management in the prehospital setting. Hypothesis Tidal volumes received during single rescuer ventilation with a modified BVM with supplemental external handle will be higher than those delivered using a standard BVM among health care volunteers in a manikin model. METHODS: This study was a randomized crossover trial of adult health care providers performing ventilation on a manikin. Investigators randomized participants to perform single rescuer ventilation, first using either a BVM modified by addition of a supplemental external handle or a standard unmodified BVM (Spur II BVM device; Ambu; Ballerup, Denmark)...
August 15, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759496/addition-of-nasal-cannula-can-either-impair-or-enhance-preoxygenation-with-a-bag-valve-mask-a-randomized-crossover-design-study-comparing-oxygen-flow-rates
#4
David McQuade, Matthew R Miller, Clare Hayes-Bradley
BACKGROUND: A critical safety component of emergency anesthesia is the avoidance of hypoxemia during the apneic phase of a rapid sequence intubation. Preoxygenation with a bag valve mask (BVM) or anesthetic circuit may be improved with supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula (NC) if there is a mask leak. In addition, NC is recommended for apneic oxygenation after induction and may be placed before preoxygenation. However, the optimum NC flow rate for preoxygenation or whether the presence of NC alone creates a mask leak remains unclear...
July 26, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600736/blood-pressure-management-in-children-on-dialysis
#5
F Paglialonga, S Consolo, A Edefonti, G Montini
Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular complications in children on dialysis. Volume overload and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a major role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The first step in managing blood pressure (BP) is the careful assessment of ambulatory BP monitoring. Volume control is essential and should start with the accurate identification of dry weight, based on a comprehensive assessment, including bioimpedance analysis and intradialytic blood volume monitoring (BVM)...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508671/chemometric-profile-antioxidant-and-tyrosinase-inhibitory-activity-of-camel-s-foot-creeper-leaves-bauhinia-vahlii
#6
Pritipadma Panda, Priyanka Dash, Goutam Ghosh
The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of antityrosinase activity and chemometric analysis of Bauhinia vahlii. The experimental results revealed that the methanol extract of Bauhinia vahlii (BVM) possesses higher polyphenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity than those reported elsewhere for other more conventionally and geographically different varieties. The BVM contain saturated fatty acids such as hexadecanoic acid (10.15%), octadecanoic acid (1.97%), oleic acid (0.61%) and cis-vaccenic acid (2...
May 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459305/advanced-airway-type-and-its-association-with-chest-compression-interruptions-during-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-resuscitation-attempts
#7
Angela F Jarman, Christy L Hopkins, J Nicholas Hansen, Jonathan R Brown, Christopher Burk, Scott T Youngquist
OBJECTIVE: To assess interruptions in chest compressions associated with advanced airway placement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims. METHODS: The method used was observational analysis of prospectively collected clinical and defibrillator data from 339 adult OHCA victims, excluding victims with <5 minutes of CPR. Interruptions in CPR, summarized by chest compression fraction (CCF), longest pause, and the number of pauses greater than 10 seconds, were compared between patients receiving bag valve mask (BVM), supraglottic airway (SGA), endotracheal intubation (ETI) via direct laryngoscopy (DL), and ETI via video laryngoscopy (VL)...
September 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454672/discovery-of-a-novel-and-potent-class-of-anti-hiv-1-maturation-inhibitors-with-improved-virology-profile-against-gag-polymorphisms
#8
Jun Tang, Stacey A Jones, Jerry L Jeffrey, Sonia R Miranda, Cristin M Galardi, David M Irlbeck, Kevin W Brown, Charlene B McDanal, Brian A Johns
A new class of betulin-derived α-keto amides was identified as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors. Through lead optimization, GSK8999 was identified with IC50 values of 17nM, 23nM, 25nM, and 8nM for wild type, Q369H, V370A, and T371A respectively. When tested in a panel of 62 HIV-1 isolates covering a diversity of CA-SP1 genotypes including A, AE, B, C, and G using a PBMC based assay, GSK8999 was potent against 57 of 62 isolates demonstrating an improvement over the first generation maturation inhibitor BVM. The data disclosed here also demonstrated that the new α-keto amide GSK8999 has a mechanism of action consistent with inhibition of the proteolytic cleavage of CA-SP1...
June 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295418/technical-note-on-the-accuracy-of-parametric-two-parameter-photon-cross-section-models-in-dual-energy-ct-applications
#9
Dong Han, Mariela A Porras-Chaverri, Joseph A O'Sullivan, David G Politte, Jeffrey F Williamson
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the theoretically achievable accuracy of two families of two-parameter photon cross-section models: basis vector model (BVM) and modified parametric fit model (mPFM). METHOD: The modified PFM assumes that photoelectric absorption and scattering cross-sections can be accurately represented by power functions in effective atomic number and/or energy plus the Klein-Nishina cross-section, along with empirical corrections that enforce exact prediction of elemental cross-sections...
June 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267617/effect-of-prehospital-advanced-airway-management-for-pediatric-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#10
Naoko Ohashi-Fukuda, Tatsuma Fukuda, Kent Doi, Naoto Morimura
BACKGROUND: Respiratory care may be important in pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to the asphyxial nature of the majority of events. However, evidence of the effect of prehospital advanced airway management (AAM) for pediatric OHCA is scarce. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based study of pediatric OHCA in Japan from 2011 to 2012 based on data from the All-Japan Utstein Registry. We included pediatric OHCA patients aged between 1 and 17 years old...
May 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257500/pediatric-emergency-care-capacity-in-a-low-resource-setting-an-assessment-of-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#11
Celestin Hategeka, Jean Shoveller, Lisine Tuyisenge, Cynthia Kenyon, David F Cechetto, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Health system strengthening is crucial to improving infant and child health outcomes in low-resource countries. While the knowledge related to improving newborn and child survival has advanced remarkably over the past few decades, many healthcare systems in such settings remain unable to effectively deliver pediatric advance life support management. With the introduction of the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission care (ETAT+)-a locally adapted pediatric advanced life support management program-in Rwandan district hospitals, we undertook this study to assess the extent to which these hospitals are prepared to provide this pediatric advanced life support management...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252110/insights-into-the-activity-of-maturation-inhibitor-pf-46396-on-hiv-1-clade-c
#12
Dibya Ghimire, Uddhav Timilsina, Tryambak Pratap Srivastava, Ritu Gaur
HIV maturation inhibitors are an emerging class of anti-retroviral compounds that inhibit the viral protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag, CA-SP1 (capsid-spacer peptide 1) peptide to mature CA. The first-in-class maturation inhibitor bevirimat (BVM) displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B but was ineffective against other HIV-1 clades including clade C. Another pyridone-based maturation inhibitor, PF-46396 displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B. In this study, we aimed at determining the activity of PF-46396 against HIV-1 clade C...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078762/competence-in-the-use-of-supraglottic-airways-by-australian-surf-lifesavers-for-cardiac-arrest-ventilation-in-a-manikin
#13
Lachlan Holbery-Morgan, Cara Angel, Michelle Murphy, James Carew, Finn Douglas, Robert Murphy, Natalie Hood, Andrew Rechtman, Christopher Scarff, Nicholas Simpson, Andrew Stewardson, Daniel Steinfort, Sam Radford, Ned Douglas, Douglas Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Lifesavers in Australia are taught to use pocket mask (PM) rescue breathing and bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation, despite evidence that first responders might struggle with these devices. Novices have successfully used the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Supreme and iGel devices previously, but there has been no previous comparison of the ability to train lifesavers to use the supraglottic airways compared to standard techniques for cardiac arrest ventilation. METHODS: The study is a prospective educational intervention whereby 113 lifesavers were trained to use the LMA and iGel supraglottic airways...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046582/tu-fg-brb-03-basis-vector-model-based-method-for-proton-stopping-power-estimation-from-experimental-dual-energy-ct-data
#14
S Zhang, D Han, D Politte, M Porras-Chaverri, B Whiting, J Williamson, J O'Sullivan
PURPOSE: This work aims at reducing the uncertainty in proton stopping power (SP) estimation by a novel combination of a linear, separable basis vector model (BVM) for stopping power calculation (Med Phys 43:600) and a statistical, model-based dual-energy CT (DECT) image reconstruction algorithm (TMI 35:685). The method was applied to experimental data. METHODS: BVM assumes the photon attenuation coefficients, electron densities, and mean excitation energies (I-values) of unknown materials can be approximated by a combination of the corresponding quantities of two reference materials...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931187/computational-strategies-for-alternative-single-step-bayesian-regression-models-with-large-numbers-of-genotyped-and-non-genotyped-animals
#15
Rohan L Fernando, Hao Cheng, Bruce L Golden, Dorian J Garrick
BACKGROUND: Two types of models have been used for single-step genomic prediction and genome-wide association studies that include phenotypes from both genotyped animals and their non-genotyped relatives. The two types are breeding value models (BVM) that fit breeding values explicitly and marker effects models (MEM) that express the breeding values in terms of the effects of observed or imputed genotypes. MEM can accommodate a wider class of analyses, including variable selection or mixture model analyses...
December 8, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893830/mechanistic-studies-and-modeling-reveal-the-origin-of-differential-inhibition-of-gag-polymorphic-viruses-by-hiv-1-maturation-inhibitors
#16
Zeyu Lin, Joseph Cantone, Hao Lu, Beata Nowicka-Sans, Tricia Protack, Tian Yuan, Hong Yang, Zheng Liu, Dieter Drexler, Alicia Regueiro-Ren, Nicholas A Meanwell, Mark Cockett, Mark Krystal, Max Lataillade, Ira B Dicker
HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) disrupt the final step in the HIV-1 protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag polyprotein between capsid p24 capsid (CA) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1), leading to the production of infectious virus. BMS-955176 is a second generation MI with improved antiviral activity toward polymorphic Gag variants compared to a first generation MI bevirimat (BVM). The underlying mechanistic reasons for the differences in polymorphic coverage were studied using antiviral assays, an LC/MS assay that quantitatively characterizes CA/SP1 cleavage kinetics of virus like particles (VLPs) and a radiolabel binding assay to determine VLP/MI affinities and dissociation kinetics...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836871/patient-safety-events-in-out-of-hospital-paediatric-airway-management-a-medical-record-review-by-the-csi-ems
#17
Matthew Hansen, Garth Meckler, William Lambert, Caitlin Dickinson, Kathryn Dickinson, Joshua Van Otterloo, Jeanne-Marie Guise
OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and characterise the nature of patient safety events in paediatric out-of-hospital airway management. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional medical record review of all 'lights and sirens' emergency medicine services transports from 2008 to 2011 in patients <18 years of age in the Portland Oregon metropolitan area. A chart review tool (see online supplementary appendix) was adapted from landmark patient safety studies and revised after pilot testing...
November 11, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690714/can-ems-providers-provide-appropriate-tidal-volumes-in-a-simulated-adult-sized-patient-with-a-pediatric-sized-bag-valve-mask
#18
Jeffrey Siegler, Melissa Kroll, Susan Wojcik, Hawnwan Philip Moy
INTRODUCTION: In the prehospital setting, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals rely on providing positive pressure ventilation with a bag-valve-mask (BVM). Multiple emergency medicine and critical care studies have shown that lung-protective ventilation protocols reduce morbidity and mortality. Our primary objective was to determine if a group of EMS professionals could provide ventilations with a smaller BVM that would be sufficient to ventilate patients. Secondary objectives included 1) if the pediatric bag provided volumes similar to lung-protective ventilation in the hospital setting and 2) compare volumes provided to the patient depending on the type of airway (mask, King tube, and intubation)...
January 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676870/aerobic-metabolism-response-in-paraspinal-muscles-of-chronic-low-back-pain-patients-and-judo-athletes-during-an-isokinetic-trunk-extension-exercise
#19
Agathe Anthierens, Nicolas Olivier, Patrick Mucci, André Thevenon
OBJECTIVE: Low back pain is a pathology associated to a trunk extensors muscles weakness. Studies suggested that it could be associated with an inadequacy between oxygen demand and oxygen utilization by paraspinal muscles (Kell and Bhambhani, 2006). In contrast to chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients, judo athletes are characterized by a great trunk extensors muscles endurance, due to their intensive solicitation within sport practice. Our purpose was to compare aerobic metabolism in those muscles of CLBP patients with judo athletes...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526793/evaluation-of-the-performance-of-an-ophthalmic-thermosensitive-hydrogel-containing-combination-of-suramin-and-bevacizumab
#20
Daniela Alejandra Quinteros, Emiliano Sebastian Lopez, Juan Lucio Silva Couto, Belkys Angelica Maletto, Daniel Alberto Allemandi, Santiago Daniel Palma, Juan Eduardo Gallo
Suramab (SUM) is a new pharmaceutical combination made up of suramine (SUR) and bevacizumab (BVM), which showed a high synergistic effect when administered jointly. As the pharmaceutical vehicle, poloxamer aqueous dispersions were used since this system is able to maintain their fluidity at low temperatures (<15ºC) but which become gel in the corporal environment (>35ºC). In the present study we aimed at evaluating the effect of Poloxamer to prolong the effect of SUM. These formulations were characterized using rheological, biopharmaceutical (drug release) and morphological (SEM) technique...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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