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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879541/maturation-inhibitors-facilitate-virus-assembly-and-release-of-hiv-1-capsid-p224-mutant
#1
Uddhav Timilsina, Dibya Ghimire, Laxmi Prasad Adhikari, Abhi Bhattarai, Nawneet Mishra, Madhu Rai, Ravi Chandra Dubey, Ritu Gaur
HIV-1 Maturation inhibitors (MIs) bind to the C-terminal domain of capsid protein (CA-CTD) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1) in HIV-1 Gag and inhibit the CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the immature Gag. The β-turn motif, GVGGP in the HIV CA-CTD (residues 220-224) is one of the key determinants of HIV Gag assembly. In the present study, we mutated each residue of HIV-1 β-turn motif to alanine and observed complete inhibition of virus release of all mutants. This defect in virus release was rescued in the presence of maturation inhibitors; BVM and PF-46396 for P224A mutant...
June 4, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29813039/comparison-of-ventilation-effectiveness-of-the-bag-valve-mask-and-the-lma-air-q-sp-in-nurses-during-simulated-cpr
#2
Marcin Cierniak, Michał Maksymowicz, Natalia Borkowska, Tomasz Gaszyński
In a case of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in a health facility there is a procedure to summon a resuscitation team. Nurses are obliged to begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions and implement ventilation using the bag valve mask of 30:2 compressionventilation ratio. Nurses are not allowed to implement methods of advanced airway management. However, the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was designed for people inexperienced in intubation who would be able to provide advanced airway management quickly and effectively after a short training...
May 25, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691106/impact-of-prehospital-airway-management-on-combat-mortality
#3
Garrett B Hardy, Joseph K Maddry, Patrick C Ng, Shelia C Savell, Allyson A Arana, Avery Kester, Vikhyat S Bebarta
INTRODUCTION: Analysis of modern military conflicts suggests that airway compromise remains the second leading cause of preventable death of combat fatalities. This study compares outcomes of combat casualties that received prehospital airway interventions, specifically bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation, cricothyrotomy, and supraglottic airway (SGA) placement. The goal is to compare the effectiveness of airway management strategies used in the military pre-hospital setting. METHODS: This retrospective chart review of 1267 US Army medical evacuation patient care records, compared outcomes of casualties that received prehospital advanced airway interventions...
June 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570809/impact-of-joint-statistical-dual-energy-ct-reconstruction-of-proton-stopping-power-images-comparison-to-image-and-sinogram-domain-material-decomposition-approaches
#4
Shuangyue Zhang, Dong Han, David G Politte, Jeffrey F Williamson, Joseph A O'Sullivan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of a novel dual-energy CT (DECT) approach for proton stopping power ratio (SPR) mapping that integrates image reconstruction and material characterization using a joint statistical image reconstruction (JSIR) method based on a linear basis vector model (BVM). A systematic comparison between the JSIR-BVM method and previously described DECT image- and sinogram-domain decomposition approaches is also carried out on synthetic data...
May 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405803/prehospital-rapid-sequence-intubation-by-intensive-care-flight-paramedics
#5
Ashleigh Delorenzo, Toby St Clair, Emily Andrew, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith
OBJECTIVE: Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is an advanced airway procedure for critically ill or injured patients. Paramedic-performed RSI in the prehospital setting remains controversial, as unsuccessful or poorly conducted RSI is known to result in significant complications. In Victoria, intensive care flight paramedics (ICFPs) have a broad scope of practice including RSI in both the adult and pediatric population. We sought to describe the success rates and characteristics of patients undergoing RSI by ICFPs in Victoria, Australia...
February 6, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239751/feasibility-of-single-vs-two-physician-procedural-sedation-in-a-small-community-emergency-department
#6
Clayton P Josephy, David R Vinson
OBJECTIVE: Sedation is commonly required for painful procedures in the emergency department (ED). Some facilities mandate two physicians be present for deep sedation cases. Evidence is lacking, however, that a two-physician approach improves safety outcomes. We report our experience on the feasibility of replacing a two-physician ED procedural sedation policy with a single-physician policy in a small, single-coverage community ED. METHODS: This is a retrospective, before/after, single-center observational study of prospectively collected data from January 2013 through December 2016...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210544/it-s-in-the-bag-appreciating-proper-bvm-ventilation
#7
EDITORIAL
A J Heightman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: JEMS: a Journal of Emergency Medical Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096887/definitive-airway-management-after-prehospital-supraglottic-rescue-airway-in-pediatric-trauma
#8
Matthew C Hernandez, Ryan M Antiel, Karthik Balakrishnan, Martin D Zielinski, Denise B Klinkner
INTRODUCTION: Supraglottic airway (SGA) use and outcomes in pediatric trauma are poorly understood. We compared outcomes between patients receiving prehospital SGA versus bag mask ventilation (BVM). METHODS: We reviewed pediatric multisystem trauma patients (2005-2016), comparing SGA and BVM. Primary outcome was adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation. Additional measures included tracheostomy, mortality and abbreviated injury scores (AIS). RESULTS: Ninety patients were included (SGA, n=17 and BVM, n=73)...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084068/can-providers-use-clinical-skills-to-assess-the-adequacy-of-ventilation-in-children-during-bag-valve-mask-ventilation
#9
Heather J Becker, Melissa L Langhan
OBJECTIVE: Bag-valve mask (BVM) ventilation requires both manual skill and clinical assessment of minute ventilation. Subjective factors can make supplying appropriate ventilation difficult. Capnography is not routinely used when ventilating nonintubated patients. Our objective was to determine if providers were able to maintain normal capnography values with BVM ventilation in pediatric patients based on clinical skills alone. METHODS: Providers (nurses, residents, and fellows) delivered 2 minutes of BVM respiratory support to healthy children during induction of anesthesia for elective surgery...
October 27, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073915/emt-led-laryngeal-tube-vs-face-mask-ventilation-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-multicenter-prospective-randomized-trial
#10
Anna Fiala, Wolfgang Lederer, Agnes Neumayr, Tamara Egger, Sabrina Neururer, Ernst Toferer, Michael Baubin, Peter Paal
BACKGROUND: Laryngeal tube (LT) application by rescue personnel as an alternate airway during the early stages of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is still subject of debate. We evaluated ease of handling and efficacy of ventilation administered by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) using LT and bag-valve-mask (BVM) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of patients with OHCA. METHODS: An open prospective randomized multicenter study was conducted at six emergency medical services centers over 18 months...
October 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910470/a-comparison-of-ventilation-rates-between-a-standard-bag-valve-mask-and-a-new-design-in-a-prehospital-setting-during-training-simulations
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joseph T Costello, Paul B Allen, Robert Levesque
BACKGROUND: Excessive ventilation of sick and injured patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Combat Medical Systems® (CMS) is developing a new bag-valve-mask (BVM) designed to limit ventilation rates. The purpose of this study was to compare ventilation rates between a standard BVM device and the CMS device. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational, semirandomized, crossover study using Army Medics. Data were collected during Brigade Combat Team Trauma Training classes at Camp Bullis, Texas...
December 0: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838781/a-comparison-of-pediatric-airway-management-techniques-during-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-using-the-cares-database
#12
Matthew L Hansen, Amber Lin, Carl Eriksson, Mohamud Daya, Bryan McNally, Rongwei Fu, David Yanez, Dana Zive, Craig Newgard
OBJECTIVE: To compare odds of survival to hospital discharge among pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients receiving either bag-valve-mask ventilation (BVM), supraglottic airway (SGA) or endotracheal intubation (ETI), after adjusting for the propensity to receive a given airway intervention. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) database from January 1 201-December 31, 2015. The CARES registry includes data on cardiac arrests from 17 statewide registries and approximately 55 additional US cities...
November 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807071/single-rescuer-ventilation-using-a-bag-valve-mask-with-removable-external-handle-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#13
Paul Reed, Baruch Zobrist, Monica Casmaer, Steven G Schauer, Nurani Kester, Michael D April
Introduction Ventilation with a bag valve mask (BVM) is a challenging but critical skill for airway management in the prehospital setting. Hypothesis Tidal volumes received during single rescuer ventilation with a modified BVM with supplemental external handle will be higher than those delivered using a standard BVM among health care volunteers in a manikin model. METHODS: This study was a randomized crossover trial of adult health care providers performing ventilation on a manikin. Investigators randomized participants to perform single rescuer ventilation, first using either a BVM modified by addition of a supplemental external handle or a standard unmodified BVM (Spur II BVM device; Ambu; Ballerup, Denmark)...
December 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759496/addition-of-nasal-cannula-can-either-impair-or-enhance-preoxygenation-with-a-bag-valve-mask-a-randomized-crossover-design-study-comparing-oxygen-flow-rates
#14
David McQuade, Matthew R Miller, Clare Hayes-Bradley
BACKGROUND: A critical safety component of emergency anesthesia is the avoidance of hypoxemia during the apneic phase of a rapid sequence intubation. Preoxygenation with a bag valve mask (BVM) or anesthetic circuit may be improved with supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula (NC) if there is a mask leak. In addition, NC is recommended for apneic oxygenation after induction and may be placed before preoxygenation. However, the optimum NC flow rate for preoxygenation or whether the presence of NC alone creates a mask leak remains unclear...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600736/blood-pressure-management-in-children-on-dialysis
#15
F Paglialonga, S Consolo, A Edefonti, G Montini
Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular complications in children on dialysis. Volume overload and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a major role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The first step in managing blood pressure (BP) is the careful assessment of ambulatory BP monitoring. Volume control is essential and should start with the accurate identification of dry weight, based on a comprehensive assessment, including bioimpedance analysis and intradialytic blood volume monitoring (BVM)...
February 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508671/chemometric-profile-antioxidant-and-tyrosinase-inhibitory-activity-of-camel-s-foot-creeper-leaves-bauhinia-vahlii
#16
Pritipadma Panda, Priyanka Dash, Goutam Ghosh
The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of antityrosinase activity and chemometric analysis of Bauhinia vahlii. The experimental results revealed that the methanol extract of Bauhinia vahlii (BVM) possesses higher polyphenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity than those reported elsewhere for other more conventionally and geographically different varieties. The BVM contain saturated fatty acids such as hexadecanoic acid (10.15%), octadecanoic acid (1.97%), oleic acid (0.61%) and cis-vaccenic acid (2...
March 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459305/advanced-airway-type-and-its-association-with-chest-compression-interruptions-during-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-resuscitation-attempts
#17
Angela F Jarman, Christy L Hopkins, J Nicholas Hansen, Jonathan R Brown, Christopher Burk, Scott T Youngquist
OBJECTIVE: To assess interruptions in chest compressions associated with advanced airway placement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims. METHODS: The method used was observational analysis of prospectively collected clinical and defibrillator data from 339 adult OHCA victims, excluding victims with <5 minutes of CPR. Interruptions in CPR, summarized by chest compression fraction (CCF), longest pause, and the number of pauses greater than 10 seconds, were compared between patients receiving bag valve mask (BVM), supraglottic airway (SGA), endotracheal intubation (ETI) via direct laryngoscopy (DL), and ETI via video laryngoscopy (VL)...
September 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454672/discovery-of-a-novel-and-potent-class-of-anti-hiv-1-maturation-inhibitors-with-improved-virology-profile-against-gag-polymorphisms
#18
Jun Tang, Stacey A Jones, Jerry L Jeffrey, Sonia R Miranda, Cristin M Galardi, David M Irlbeck, Kevin W Brown, Charlene B McDanal, Brian A Johns
A new class of betulin-derived α-keto amides was identified as HIV-1 maturation inhibitors. Through lead optimization, GSK8999 was identified with IC50 values of 17nM, 23nM, 25nM, and 8nM for wild type, Q369H, V370A, and T371A respectively. When tested in a panel of 62 HIV-1 isolates covering a diversity of CA-SP1 genotypes including A, AE, B, C, and G using a PBMC based assay, GSK8999 was potent against 57 of 62 isolates demonstrating an improvement over the first generation maturation inhibitor BVM. The data disclosed here also demonstrated that the new α-keto amide GSK8999 has a mechanism of action consistent with inhibition of the proteolytic cleavage of CA-SP1...
June 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295418/technical-note-on-the-accuracy-of-parametric-two-parameter-photon-cross-section-models-in-dual-energy-ct-applications
#19
Dong Han, Mariela A Porras-Chaverri, Joseph A O'Sullivan, David G Politte, Jeffrey F Williamson
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the theoretically achievable accuracy of two families of two-parameter photon cross-section models: basis vector model (BVM) and modified parametric fit model (mPFM). METHOD: The modified PFM assumes that photoelectric absorption and scattering cross-sections can be accurately represented by power functions in effective atomic number and/or energy plus the Klein-Nishina cross-section, along with empirical corrections that enforce exact prediction of elemental cross-sections...
June 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267617/effect-of-prehospital-advanced-airway-management-for-pediatric-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#20
Naoko Ohashi-Fukuda, Tatsuma Fukuda, Kent Doi, Naoto Morimura
BACKGROUND: Respiratory care may be important in pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) due to the asphyxial nature of the majority of events. However, evidence of the effect of prehospital advanced airway management (AAM) for pediatric OHCA is scarce. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based study of pediatric OHCA in Japan from 2011 to 2012 based on data from the All-Japan Utstein Registry. We included pediatric OHCA patients aged between 1 and 17 years old...
May 2017: Resuscitation
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