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Nan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Linyin Feng, Lei Yao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cananga odorata essential oil, known as ylang-ylang essential oil (YYO), was commonly used in the aromatherapy for relaxation and mood adjusting use. In our previous study, YYO played anxiolytic effects on the mice in several behavioral tests that based on the instinctive responses to novel environments. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of YYO reversing the anxiety induced by 5-HT2C receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (m-CPP)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
M Merced Montero-Campillo, Ibon Alkorta, José Elguero
A set of complexes L2HB···BeX2 (L = CNH, CO, CS, N2, NH3, NCCH3, PH3, PF3, PMe3, OH2; X = H, F) containing a boron-beryllium bond is described at the M06-2X/6-311+G(3df,2pd)//M062-2X/6-31+G(d) level of theory. In this quite unusual bond, boron acts as a Lewis base and beryllium as a Lewis acid, reaching binding energies up to -283.3 kJ/mol ((H2O)2HB···BeF2). The stabilization of these complexes is possible thanks to the -donor role of the L ligands in the L2HB···BeX2 structures and the powerful acceptor nature of beryllium...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Tomoya Nakamachi, Eri Kamata, Ayano Tanigawa, Norifumi Konno, Seiji Shioda, Kouhei Matsuda
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multipotent neuropeptide with an amino acid sequence that is well conserved among vertebrates. In teleosts, including zebrafish, the PACAP gene (adcyap1) has been duplicated to yield adcyap1a (coding PACAP1) and adcyap1b (coding PACAP2). This study aims to determine the distribution of these PACAPs and their mRNAs in zebrafish. We generated a zebrafish PACAP2-specific antibody. Using real-time PCR, we observed that adcyap1b mRNA was primarily localized in the brain, with the highest level in the telencephalon, followed by the diencephalon...
March 10, 2018: Peptides
Emee Vida Estacio, Lavinia Nathan, Joanne Protheroe
Parents play a vital role in promoting children's health. The parental health literacy skills are important since the decisions they make can have an impact on other family members' health and well-being. Using an assets-based approach, this project aimed to explore the skills parents use to communicate health messages with their children and how they manage their family's health. Six adult parents of children aged 0-16 years old took part in this photovoice study. The thematic analysis suggests that tapping into the creativity of parents through the gamification of health messages and encouraging children's independence are effective ways to promote healthy behaviors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Praneet Wander, Daniel Castaneda, Lionel D'Souza, Simi Singh, Sam Serouya, Ana I Velazquez, Rifat Mamun, Rebecca Voaklander, Petros Benias, David L Carr-Locke
BACKGROUND: To assess the safety and efficacy of the Instinct clip in the acute endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is the first large series reporting this clip in achieving hemostasis. A retrospective descriptive chart review was performed on patients presenting with recent overt GI bleeding treated with endoclip therapy at Mount Sinai Beth Israel Medical Center between May 2013 and January 2016. Results are expressed in absolute numbers, percentages, and trends...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Clinton G Lauritsen, Abigail L Chua, Stephanie J Nahas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Menopause is a life-changing event in numerous ways. Many women with migraine hold hope that the transition to the climacteric state will coincide with a cessation or improvement of migraine. This assumption is based mainly on common lay perceptions as well as assertions from many in the healthcare community. Unfortunately, evidence suggests this is far from the rule. Many women turn to a general practitioner or a headache specialist for prognosis and management. A natural instinct is to manipulate the offending agent, but in some cases, this approach backfires, or the concern for adverse events outweighs the desire for a therapeutic trial, and other strategies must be pursued...
March 6, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Lei Li, Xiaolong Feng, Zheng Zhou, Huiqi Zhang, Qianqian Shi, Zhuogui Lei, Peilei Shen, Qingning Yang, Binghao Zhao, Shuran Chen, Lin Li, Yulin Zhang, Pengjie Wen, Zhonghua Lu, Xiang Li, Fuqiang Xu, Liping Wang
Defensive responses to threatening stimuli are crucial to the survival of species. While expression of these responses is considered to be instinctive and unconditional, their magnitude may be affected by environmental and internal factors. The neural circuits underlying this modulation are still largely unknown. In mice, looming-evoked defensive responses are mediated by the superior colliculus (SC), a subcortical sensorimotor integration center. We found that repeated stress caused an anxiety-like state in mice and accelerated defensive responses to looming...
February 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Vladimir N Binhi
Many migratory animals regularly travel thousands of kilometers, exactly finding their seasonal destinations. The nature of this ability is still not fully understood. The aggregation of animals in groups and their socially coordinated movement is considered a way to eliminate navigational errors. Orientation accuracy of a group may be significantly higher as the errors caused by a variety of casual factors are averaged due to social interactions. This idea, called the "many wrongs principle," has been confirmed both in behavioral experiments and numerical simulations...
March 1, 2018: Bio Systems
Vineet Augustine, Sertan Kutal Gokce, Sangjun Lee, Bo Wang, Thomas J Davidson, Frank Reimann, Fiona Gribble, Karl Deisseroth, Carlos Lois, Yuki Oka
Neural circuits for appetites are regulated by both homeostatic perturbations and ingestive behaviour. However, the circuit organization that integrates these internal and external stimuli is unclear. Here we show in mice that excitatory neural populations in the lamina terminalis form a hierarchical circuit architecture to regulate thirst. Among them, nitric oxide synthase-expressing neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) are essential for the integration of signals from the thirst-driving neurons of the subfornical organ (SFO)...
February 28, 2018: Nature
Ν Tsipa, F Houssier
This article is referring to the study of the "limit" according to a metapsychological point of view. The main definition of this concept concerns its double possibility to relate and to separate the internal from the external reality. It is about a review of the post-freudian work: the theoretical contribution of the authors P. Federn, D. Anzieu and D.W. Winnicott is viewed through the conceptualisation of the "limit". Also, the study of A. Green, who is the author who proposed not only the concept of the "limit" but also the concept of the "double limit"...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Adam Barlev, Dipankar Sen
Photochemical modification is the major class of environmental damage suffered by DNA, the genetic material of all free-living organisms. Photolyases are enzymes that carry out direct photochemical repair (photoreactivation) of covalent pyrimidine dimers formed in DNA from exposure to ultraviolet light. The discovery of catalytic RNAs in the 1980s led to the "RNA world hypothesis", which posits that early in evolution RNA or a similar polymer served both genetic and catalytic functions. Intrigued by the RNA world hypothesis, we set out to test whether a catalytic RNA (or a surrogate, a catalytic DNA) with photolyase activity could be contemplated...
February 8, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Lydia Whitaker, Stephen L Brown, Bridget Young, Richard Fereday, Sarah M Coyne, Pamela Qualter
Laboratory studies of alcohol-inexperienced adolescents show that aggression can be primed by alcohol-related stimuli, suggesting that alcohol-related aggression is partly socially learned. Script theory proposes that alcohol-related aggression 'scripts' for social behaviors are culturally-available and learned by individuals. The purpose of the study was to understand the content and origins of alcohol-related aggression scripts learned by adolescents. This qualitative focus group study of 40 adolescents (ages 14-16 years) examined alcohol-related aggression scripts...
2018: PloS One
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Safwan Ahamed, Chandra Sasitharan Vidhya Annapoorni
Introduction: Creativity is a physiological need based biological function very essential for survival. However, generally in disorders of progressive cognitive dysfunction creative skills are lost. However there are situations where these potentials are temporarily enhanced. Patients and Methods: We did an observational study of children and adults, 5 adults and 2 childrens, who showed extraordinary creativity evaluated based on evidence shown by patient, peers and re produced in test situation...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Félix Schoeller, Leonid Perlovsky, Dmitry Arseniev
What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, the theory of relativity, astrophysics and the theory of superstrings? All these areas of physics have in common a methodology, which is discussed in the first few lines of the review. Is a physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe how a mind adapts in real time to changes in the physical world through a theory based on a few basic laws? From perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas allowing high-level cognition and executive functioning, at nearly all levels of study, the mind shows variability and uncertainties...
February 2, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Thierry Nicolas Jean Fouquet, Takaya Satoh, Hiroaki Sato
Its recent adaptation to low-resolution mass spectra of polymers using fractional base units raises the question of the minimal resolution needed for a Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analysis. Intuiting an oligomeric resolution since the mass of a repeat unit is the sole value to be known, it is challenged by the relative failure of the KMD plots computed from an isotopically resolved MALDI-TOF mass spectrum to display clear alignments in the high mass range. Another procedure based on the remainders of Kendrick mass (RKMs) overcomes this pitfall with oligomers perfectly aligned in a new RKM plot...
January 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Ananad Bellam Balaji, Chantara Thevy Ratnam, Mohammad Khalid, Rashmi Walvekar
The effect of electron beam radiation on ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer/polypropylene blends is studied as an attempt to develop radiation sterilizable polypropylene/ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer blends suitable for medical devices. The polypropylene/ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer blends with mixing ratios of 80/20, 50/50, 20/80 were prepared in an internal mixer at 165°C and a rotor speed of 50 rpm/min followed by compression molding. The blends and the individual components were radiated using 3...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Haochu Li, Andrea Sankar, Eleanor Holroyd, Baofa Jiang
The study reported here sought to understand the rationales of safer sex practices adopted by newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Guided by a socio-ecological framework, an ethnography was conducted among newly diagnosed HIV-positive MSM. In-depth interviews and participant observation were employed to produce an account of the social and cultural settings that was faithful to the perspectives of participants. A total of 31 participants with diverse backgrounds were recruited in a southern city of China...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Kazuhiro Nakamura
Thermoregulatory behavior in homeothermic animals is an instinctive behavior to reduce the cost of their homeothermy, such as warm-seeking behavior to reduce metabolic energy for heat production in cold environments. A recent study identified the central neural pathway that transmits cutaneous thermosensory information on environmental temperature to drive thermoregulatory behavior. This study proposed that the brain mechanism that drives thermoregulatory behavior does not require conscious"feeling"(i.e., perception)of skin temperature mediated by the spinothalamocortical pathway, whereas thermosensory information that ascends through the spinal cord and the lateral parabrachial nucleus of the pons generates thermal comfort and discomfort that drive thermoregulatory behavior...
2018: Clinical Calcium
K Matvienko-Sikar, C Kelly, C Sinnott, J McSharry, C Houghton, C Heary, E Toomey, M Byrne, P M Kearney
BACKGROUND: Interventions to prevent childhood obesity increasingly focus on infant feeding, but demonstrate inconsistent effects. A comprehensive qualitative evidence synthesis is essential to better understand feeding behaviours and inform intervention development. The aim of this study is to synthesize evidence on perceptions and experiences of infant feeding and complementary feeding recommendations. METHODS: Databases CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SocIndex and Maternity and Infant Care were searched from inception to May 2017...
December 15, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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