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Taewoo Kim
This study examines the perceptual basis of diagnostic virtuosity in East Asian medicine, combining Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology and an ethnographic investigation of Korean medicine in South Korea. A novice, being exposed to numerous clinical transactions during apprenticeship, organizes perceptual experience that occurs between him or herself and patients. In the process, the fledgling practitioner's body begins to set up a medically-tinged "intentionality" interconnecting his or her consciousness and medically significant qualities in patients...
October 21, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Linda S Chesterton, Krysia S Dziedzic, Danielle A van der Windt, Graham Davenport, Helen L Myers, Trishna Rathod, Milica Blagojevic-Bucknall, Sue M Jowet, Claire Burton, Edward Roddy, Elaine M Hay
BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with idiopathic mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are usually managed in primary care and commonly treated with night splints and/or corticosteroid injection. The comparative effectiveness of these interventions has not been reliably established nor investigated in the medium and long term. The primary objective of this trial is to investigate whether corticosteroid injection is effective in reducing symptoms and improving hand function in mild to moderate CTS over 6 weeks when compared with night splints...
October 6, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Mayumi Nishi
The hypothalamus controls metabolism, stress responses, and instinctive behaviors for individual survival and species preservation. Recent studies suggest that hypothalamic neurons retain plasticity throughout adulthood, which enables these neurons to respond to various kinds of changes in environment, nutrients, and fluctuating hormones. One of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of neural plasticity is the formation of a stable extracellular matrix (ECM) structure called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs are large aggregates of heterogeneous ECM molecules such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan, their link proteins, and tenascin-R...
October 6, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Kelly R Klein, Frederick M Burkle, Raymond Swienton, Richard V King, Thomas Lehman, Carol S North
INTRODUCTION: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. METHODS: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage...
2016: PLoS Currents
Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Kazuki Okamoto, Yuki Takagi, Yuji Ikegaya
The CA2 region is unique in the hippocampus; it receives direct synaptic innervations from several hypothalamic nuclei and expresses various receptors of neuromodulators, including adenosine, vasopressin, and oxytocin. Furthermore, the CA2 region may have distinct brain functions, such as the control of instinctive and social behaviors; however, little is known about the dynamics of the subthreshold membrane potentials of CA2 neurons in vivo. We conducted whole-cell current-clamp recordings from CA2 pyramidal cells in urethane-anesthetized mice and monitored the intrinsic fluctuations in their membrane potentials...
September 20, 2016: Hippocampus
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Ricardo de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina de Oliveira, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Raimundo da Silva Soares, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
The electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral columns of the periaquedutal grey matter (dlPAG) or deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC) evokes defensive behaviours followed by an antinociceptive response. Monoaminergic brainstem reticular nuclei are suggested to comprise the endogenous pain modulatory system. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role played by 5-HT2 subfamily of serotonergic receptors of the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis pars α reticular nuclei (Gi/PGiα) in the elaboration of instinctive fear-induced antinociception elicited by electrical stimulation of dlPAG or of dlSC...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Vedran Brezar, Véronique Godot, Liang Cheng, Lishan Su, Yves Lévy, Nabila Seddiki
Efficient vaccines are characterized by the establishment of long-lived memory T cells, including T-helper (effectors and follicular) and T-regulatory cells (Tregs). While the former induces cytotoxic or antibody responses, the latter regulates immune responses by maintaining homeostasis. The role of Tregs in inflammatory conditions is ambiguous and their systematic monitoring in vaccination along with effector T-cells is not instinctive. Recent studies from the cancer field clearly showed that Tregs suppress vaccine-induced immune responses and correlate with poor clinical benefit...
September 5, 2016: Vaccines
Mei Dai, Benjamin Liou, Brittany Swope, Xiaohong Wang, Wujuan Zhang, Venette Inskeep, Gregory A Grabowski, Ying Sun, Dao Pan
To study the neuronal deficits in neuronopathic Gaucher Disease (nGD), the chronological behavioral profiles and the age of onset of brain abnormalities were characterized in a chronic nGD mouse model (9V/null). Progressive accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC) and glucosylsphingosine (GS) in the brain of 9V/null mice were observed at as early as 6 and 3 months of age for GC and GS, respectively. Abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein was present in the 9V/null brain as detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis...
2016: PloS One
Jason R Franz, Carrie Francis, Matt Allen, Darryl G Thelen
Visuomotor entrainment, or the synchronization of motor responses to visual stimuli, is a naturally emergent phenomenon in human standing. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence and resolution of visuomotor entrainment in walking and the frequency-dependent response of walking balance to perturbations. We used a virtual reality environment to manipulate optical flow in ten healthy young adults during treadmill walking. A motion capture system recorded trunk, sacrum, and heel marker trajectories during a series of 3-min conditions in which we perturbed a virtual hallway mediolaterally with systematic changes in the driving frequencies of perceived motion...
August 26, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Wanjun Bi, Juanjuan Gao, Xia Li, Liangming Xiong, Meisong Liao
A mid-infrared supercontinuum (SC) light source, which has important applications in many fields, has been extensively investigated in soft glass fibers. However, the poor instinct properties of soft glass fibers and the development of ultrashort pulse lasers left an opportunity for mid-infrared SC generation in silica fiber. Until now, silica fiber has been the commonly used medium for SC generation due to its outstanding properties. In this paper, mid-infrared SC generation in short silica photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is investigated theoretically and systematically...
August 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Abbas Sadeghfard, Ali Reza Bozorgi, Shaghayegh Ahmadi, Masoumeh Shojaei
BACKGROUND: Melancholia is a kind of depression with the most common symptoms of evident mental disorder, slimness, lack of enjoyment, feeling guilty and having no appetite. In modern medicine, the word "melancholia" only refers to mental and affective symptoms of depression. However, historically, it could have physical symptoms as well as mental symptoms and the atrabilious situations were categorized according to their common reasons rather than their specific characteristics. This study aimed to enlighten the history of this disease...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Aya Zaidel
Starting from his early writings, Freud devoted much thought to "obsessional neurosis" and continued developing this theme for more than thirty years. However, unlike the disorder hysteria, which in recent years has regained its honorable status in psychoanalytic literature, obsessional neurosis has been continually neglected and relegated to the fields of psychiatry and behavioral psychology, which emphasize the symptomatic and the overt. This process, by clinging to the objective aspects of obsessional neurosis and disassociating it from the instincts and from its historical sources, may itself be deemed obsessive...
August 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
Yohan Trichet, Agnès Lacroix
We recount how Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol (1772-1840) gradually changed his position towards what Philipe Pinel (1745-1826) referred to as mania without delusion. Between 1805 and 1838, Esquirol moved from outright rejection, questioning the very idea of insane persons committing motiveless acts of violence without delusion, to relative acceptance. He eventually incorporated the clinical characteristics of mania without delusion in his description of homicidal monomania, dividing them between reasoning monomania and instinctive monomania...
August 5, 2016: History of Psychiatry
Nazila Fathi Maroufi, Khadijeh Farzaneh, Mahdi Alibabrdel, Leila Zarei, Omid Cheraghi, Sina Soltani, Soheila Montazersaheb, Maryam Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Nouri
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This syndrome is characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. The plasma origin of Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is responsible for transferring cholesterol esters from high-density lipoprotein particles to apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins compartment. We conducted this study to investigate the association between CETP gene Taq1B (rs708272) polymorphism in the metabolic syndrome among Iranian subjects...
August 5, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
Andrew P Nosal, Elizabeth A Keenan, Philip A Hastings, Ayelet Gneezy
Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark 'attacks' and by highlighting shark-on-human violence in popular movies and documentaries. In this study, we investigate another subtler, yet powerful factor that contributes to this fear: the ominous background music that often accompanies shark footage in documentaries...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer S Savage, Cody D Neshteruk, Katherine N Balantekin, Leann L Birch
Objectives Describe themes characterizing feeding behaviors of low-income women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and identify the attitudes, beliefs, and sources of information that inform these practices. Methods Formative research was conducted including focus groups and semi-structured individual phone interviews with a total of 68 low-income women participating in WIC. Qualitative data were recorded, transcribed, imported into NVivo 8.0, and analyzed for common themes...
July 27, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Prasanna L Ponugoti, Douglas K Rex
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prophylactic endoscopic clipping may be effective in preventing delayed post-polypectomy hemorrhage after EMR of large colorectal lesions. The rate of retention of hemoclips on EMR sites has not been fully described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence rates of hemoclips placed after EMR of large colorectal lesions. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of large colorectal polyps (≥20 mm) referred to Indiana University Hospital between June 2006 and August 2015...
July 25, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Agnese Balzani, Heather J Cordell, Sandra A Edwards
The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between the latency to the first suckling and udder and teat morphology and to assess the extent to which piglet and sow characteristics influence teat pair position preference. Udder morphology trait measurements, piglet suckling behavior, and sow productive and behavioral traits were recorded from a population of 74 Large White X Landrace sows of different parities. The interteat distance within the same row was larger between the teats that were suckled at the first contact with the udder compared with the unsuckled teats (P = 0...
November 2016: Theriogenology
Yuko Moroki, Toshio Tanaka
To improve the welfare of caged laying hens, a pecking device made of stones was introduced on the cage floor. Twenty-four White Leghorn hens aged 15 months were divided into four groups: single-housed hens with device, single-housed control hens, pair-housed hens with device and pair-housed control hens. Hens housed with the device pecked at various pecking objects less often than control hens. Agonistic behavior was also lower in hens with the device than in hens without the device, implied a possibility of improvement in quality of pecking stimuli with the device...
August 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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