keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Instinct

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906515/development-evolving-the-origins-and-meanings-of-instinct
#1
REVIEW
Mark S Blumberg
How do migratory birds, herding dogs, and navigating sea turtles do the amazing things that they do? For hundreds of years, scientists and philosophers have struggled over possible explanations. In time, one word came to dominate the discussion: instinct. It became the catch-all explanation for those adaptive and complex abilities that do not obviously result from learning or experience. Today, various animals are said to possess a survival instinct, migratory instinct, herding instinct, maternal instinct, or language instinct...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903725/hippocampal-damage-increases-deontological-responses-during-moral-decision-making
#2
Cornelia McCormick, Clive R Rosenthal, Thomas D Miller, Eleanor A Maguire
: Complex moral decision making is associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in humans, and damage to this region significantly increases the frequency of utilitarian judgments. Since the vmPFC has strong anatomical and functional links with the hippocampus, here we asked how patients with selective bilateral hippocampal damage would derive moral decisions on a classic moral dilemmas paradigm. We found that the patients approved of the utilitarian options significantly less often than control participants, favoring instead deontological responses-rejecting actions that harm even one person...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895558/physics-of-the-mind
#3
Leonid I Perlovsky
Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887667/from-instinct-to-evidence-the-role-of-data-in-country-decision-making-in-chile
#4
Ximena Paz Aguilera, Consuelo Espinosa-Marty, Carla Castillo-Laborde, Claudia Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: The Chilean health system has undergone profound reforms since 1990, while going through many political upheavals, and faced demographic, health, and economic transformations. The full information requirements to develop an evidence-informed process implied the best possible use of available data, as well as efforts for improving the information systems. OBJECTIVE: To examine, from a historical perspective, the use of data during the health reforms undertaken in Chile since 1990, and to identify the factors that have determined its utilization and improvement...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859180/infantile-anorexia-co-excitation-and-co-mastery-in-the-parent-baby-cathexis-the-contribution-of-sigmund-and-anna-freud
#5
Thomas Cascales
Recent epidemiological studies show that 2% of babies in ordinary paediatric clinics suffer from infantile anorexia. In the first part of this paper we present a case study from our hospital clinical activity. Our framework combines clinical psychoanalytic sessions and perinatal videos. In the second part, we will focus on the concepts of instinct and excitation proposed by Sigmund Freud and the concept of mastery proposed by Anna Freud. In the third part, we will examine these concepts in the light of the case study...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852762/transcriptomic-analysis-of-instinctive-and-learned-reward-related-behaviors-in-honey-bees
#6
Nicholas L Naeger, Gene E Robinson
We used transcriptomics to compare instinctive and learned, reward-based honey bee behaviors with similar spatio-temporal components: mating flights by males (drones) and time-trained foraging flights by females (workers), respectively. Genome-wide gene expression profiling via RNA sequencing was performed on the mushroom bodies, a region of the brain known for multi-modal sensory integration and responsive to various types of reward. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the onset of mating (623 genes) were enriched for the gene ontology (GO) categories of Transcription, Unfolded Protein Binding, Post-embryonic Development, and Neuron Differentiation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852757/bees-rewarded-by-instinctive-and-learned-behaviours
#7
Kathryn Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849613/endogenous-central-amygdala-mu-opioid-receptor-signaling-promotes-sodium-appetite-in-mice
#8
Craig M Smith, Lesley L Walker, Tanawan Leeboonngam, Michael J McKinley, Derek A Denton, Andrew J Lawrence
Due to the importance of dietary sodium and its paucity within many inland environments, terrestrial animals have evolved an instinctive sodium appetite that is commensurate with sodium deficiency. Despite a well-established role for central opioid signaling in sodium appetite, the endogenous influence of specific opioid receptor subtypes within distinct brain regions remains to be elucidated. Using selective pharmacological antagonists of opioid receptor subtypes, we reveal that endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) signaling strongly drives sodium appetite in sodium-depleted mice, whereas a role for kappa (KOR) and delta (DOR) opioid receptor signaling was not detected, at least in sodium-depleted mice...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843371/the-family-journey-to-diagnosis-with-systemic-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-changing-social-media-presence
#9
Renee F Modica, Kathleen Graham Lomax, Pamela Batzel, Leah Shapardanis, Kimberly Compton Katzer, Melissa E Elder
BACKGROUND: Children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) often encounter a delay between symptom onset and disease diagnosis, partly due to the broad differential of fever and lack of symptom recognition by providers. Families often seek multiple medical opinions and post on social media about their frustrations. This linguistic analysis observed the changing language patterns and social media posting behaviors of parents in the time leading to, during, and after SJIA diagnosis...
2016: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833138/transcriptome-analysis-of-follicles-reveals-the-importance-of-autophagy-and-hormones-in-regulating-broodiness-of-zhedong-white-goose
#10
Jing Yu, Yaping Lou, Ayong Zhao
Broodiness, a maternal behavior and instinct for natural breeding in poultry, inhibits egg production and affects the poultry industry. Phenotypic and physiological factors influencing broodiness in poultry have been extensively studied, but the molecular regulation mechanism of broodiness remains unclear. Effective research strategies focusing on broodiness are hindered by limited understanding of goose developmental biology. Here we established the transcriptomes of goose follicles at egg-laying and broody stages by Illumina HiSeq platform and compared the sequenced transcriptomes of three types of follicles (small white, large white and small yellow)...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832930/temporal-self-appraisal-and-continuous-identity-associations-with-depression-and-hopelessness
#11
Yosef Sokol, Mark Serper
BACKGROUND: While depression is associated with decreased self-worth, less is known about how depression relates to the degree of perceived unity of the self over time (CI; continuous identity) and appraisal of past and future selves (temporal self-appraisal). In Study 1, we examined the relationship between depression severity and temporal self-appraisal. In Study 2, we examined depression and hopelessness severity as it relates to temporal self-appraisal and continuous identity. It was hypothesized that individuals with significant levels of depressed mood would report lower self appraisals of current and future selves and that hopelessness about the future would be associated with disturbances in perception of self over time (CI; continuous identity) and temporal self-appraisal...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808553/representativity-and-univocity-of-traffic-signs-and-their-effect-on-trajectory-movement-in-a-driving-simulation-task-warning-signs
#12
Jose Luis Vilchez
Objective The effect of traffic signs in the motor behavior of drivers is not completely understood yet. Knowing about how humans process the meaning of signs (not just by learning but instinctively) will improve reaction time and decision making when traveling. The economic, social and psychological consequences of car accidents are well-known. Every single effort orientated to the solution of this social problem is welcome. Methods This study sounds out which traffic signs are more ergonomic for participants, from a cognitive point of view, and determines, at the same time, which is their effect in participants' movement trajectory in a driving-simulation task: the tracking task...
November 3, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770300/cultivating-medical-intentionality-the-phenomenology-of-diagnostic-virtuosity-in-east-asian-medicine
#13
Taewoo Kim
This study examines the perceptual basis of diagnostic virtuosity in East Asian medicine, combining Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology and an ethnographic investigation of Korean medicine in South Korea. A novice, being exposed to numerous clinical transactions during apprenticeship, organizes perceptual experience that occurs between him or herself and patients. In the process, the fledgling practitioner's body begins to set up a medically-tinged "intentionality" interconnecting his or her consciousness and medically significant qualities in patients...
October 21, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716159/the-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-steroid-injection-compared-with-night-splints-for-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-the-instincts-randomised-clinical-trial-study-protocol
#14
Linda S Chesterton, Krysia S Dziedzic, Danielle A van der Windt, Graham Davenport, Helen L Myers, Trishna Rathod, Milica Blagojevic-Bucknall, Sue M Jowet, Claire Burton, Edward Roddy, Elaine M Hay
BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with idiopathic mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are usually managed in primary care and commonly treated with night splints and/or corticosteroid injection. The comparative effectiveness of these interventions has not been reliably established nor investigated in the medium and long term. The primary objective of this trial is to investigate whether corticosteroid injection is effective in reducing symptoms and improving hand function in mild to moderate CTS over 6 weeks when compared with night splints...
October 6, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714583/insights-from-extracellular-matrix-studies-in-the-hypothalamus-structural-variations-of-perineuronal-nets-and-discovering-a-new-perifornical-area-of-the-anterior-hypothalamus
#15
Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Mayumi Nishi
The hypothalamus controls metabolism, stress responses, and instinctive behaviors for individual survival and species preservation. Recent studies suggest that hypothalamic neurons retain plasticity throughout adulthood, which enables these neurons to respond to various kinds of changes in environment, nutrients, and fluctuating hormones. One of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of neural plasticity is the formation of a stable extracellular matrix (ECM) structure called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs are large aggregates of heterogeneous ECM molecules such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan, their link proteins, and tenascin-R...
October 6, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651979/qualitative-analysis-of-surveyed-emergency-responders-and-the-identified-factors-that-affect-first-stage-of-primary-triage-decision-making-of-mass-casualty-incidents
#16
Kelly R Klein, Frederick M Burkle, Raymond Swienton, Richard V King, Thomas Lehman, Carol S North
INTRODUCTION: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. METHODS: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage...
2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650674/3-hz-subthreshold-oscillations-of-ca2-neurons-in-vivo
#17
Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Kazuki Okamoto, Yuki Takagi, Yuji Ikegaya
The CA2 region is unique in the hippocampus; it receives direct synaptic innervations from several hypothalamic nuclei and expresses various receptors of neuromodulators, including adenosine, vasopressin, and oxytocin. Furthermore, the CA2 region may have distinct brain functions, such as the control of instinctive and social behaviors; however, little is known about the dynamics of the subthreshold membrane potentials of CA2 neurons in vivo. We conducted whole-cell current-clamp recordings from CA2 pyramidal cells in urethane-anesthetized mice and monitored the intrinsic fluctuations in their membrane potentials...
December 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641441/gut-instincts-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-brain-development-ageing-and-neurodegeneration
#18
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616344/5-hydroxytryptamine2a-2c-receptors-of-nucleus-raphe-magnus-and-gigantocellularis-paragigantocellularis-pars-%C3%AE-reticular-nuclei-modulate-the-unconditioned-fear-induced-antinociception-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-of-deep-layers-of-the-superior-colliculus
#19
Ricardo de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina de Oliveira, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Raimundo da Silva Soares, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
The electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral columns of the periaquedutal grey matter (dlPAG) or deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC) evokes defensive behaviours followed by an antinociceptive response. Monoaminergic brainstem reticular nuclei are suggested to comprise the endogenous pain modulatory system. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role played by 5-HT2 subfamily of serotonergic receptors of the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and the gigantocellularis/paragigantocellularis pars α reticular nuclei (Gi/PGiα) in the elaboration of instinctive fear-induced antinociception elicited by electrical stimulation of dlPAG or of dlSC...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608046/t-regulatory-cells-and-vaccination-pay-attention-and-do-not-neglect-them-lessons-from-hiv-and-cancer-vaccine-trials
#20
REVIEW
Vedran Brezar, Véronique Godot, Liang Cheng, Lishan Su, Yves Lévy, Nabila Seddiki
Efficient vaccines are characterized by the establishment of long-lived memory T cells, including T-helper (effectors and follicular) and T-regulatory cells (Tregs). While the former induces cytotoxic or antibody responses, the latter regulates immune responses by maintaining homeostasis. The role of Tregs in inflammatory conditions is ambiguous and their systematic monitoring in vaccination along with effector T-cells is not instinctive. Recent studies from the cancer field clearly showed that Tregs suppress vaccine-induced immune responses and correlate with poor clinical benefit...
September 5, 2016: Vaccines
keyword
keyword
81199
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"