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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431380/recent-aspects-of-uranium-toxicology-in-medical-geology
#1
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Olav Albert Christophersen, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Olle Selinus, Jan Aaseth
Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428757/circadian-rhythm-in-kidney-tissue-oxygenation-in-the-rat
#2
Tonja W Emans, Ben J Janssen, Jaap A Joles, C T Paul Krediet
Blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, electrolyte, and water excretion all display diurnal oscillation. Disturbance of these patterns is associated with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Kidney oxygenation is dependent on oxygen delivery and consumption that in turn are determined by renal hemodynamics and metabolism. We hypothesized that kidney oxygenation also demonstrates 24-h periodicity. Telemetric oxygen-sensitive carbon paste electrodes were implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g), either in renal medulla (n = 9) or cortex (n = 7)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426518/pathophysiologic-insight-into-mesoamerican-nephropathy
#3
Magdalena Madero, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN) is an emerging pathophysiological entity of Chronic kidney desease (CKD) not related to traditional risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) that have caused thousands of deaths in Central America, mainly in sugarcane workers. The focus of this review is to discuss the risk factors and probable mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of this devastating disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Frequent episodes of subclinical Acute kidney injury caused by repetitive heat stress, dehydration, and strenuous work have been regarded as the main risk factors for MeN...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425427/tetracapsuloides-bryosalmonae-abundance-in-river-water
#4
Inês Fontes, Hanna Hartikainen, Jason W Holland, Chris J Secombes, Beth Okamura
Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan parasite of freshwater bryozoans and salmonids, causing proliferative kidney disease in the latter. To date, detection of the parasite has required collection of hosts and subsequent molecular or histological examination. The release of infectious spores from both hosts offers an opportunity to detect the parasite in water samples. We developed a novel SYBR® Green quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for T. bryosalmonae in water samples which provides an estimation of bryozoan malacospore numbers and tested the assay in 3 rivers in southern England (UK) over a period of 5 wk...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424587/interactions-of-the-mechanosensitive-channels-with-extracellular-matrix-integrins-and-cytoskeletal-network-in-osmosensation
#5
REVIEW
Runsheng Jiao, Dan Cui, Stephani C Wang, Dongyang Li, Yu-Feng Wang
Life is maintained in a sea water-like internal environment. The homeostasis of this environment is dependent on osmosensory system translation of hydromineral information into osmotic regulatory machinery at system, tissue and cell levels. In the osmosensation, hydromineral information can be converted into cellular reactions through osmoreceptors, which changes thirst and drinking, secretion of antidiuretic vasopressin (VP), reabsorption of water and salt in the kidneys at systemic level as well as cellular metabolic activity and survival status at tissue level...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417309/effects-of-nano-zinc-on-biochemical-parameters-in-cadmium-exposed-rats
#6
Marzie Hejazy, Mohammad Kazem Koohi
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn(2+) in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats...
April 17, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415847/synthesis-and-antitumour-activity-of-arctigenin-amino-acid-ester-derivatives-against-h22-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Enbo Cai, Shijie Guo, Limin Yang, Mei Han, Jing Xia, Yan Zhao, Xiaorui Gao, Yu Wang
Arctigenin (ARG) is famous in its abundant pharmacological activity. However, many researches in it entered the bottleneck period because of its poor water solubility. The derivatives of ARG have been synthesised with five amino acids which have t-Butyloxy carbonyl (BOC) as a protective group. We examined the effects of removing BOC. The results showed that the amino acid derivatives without protective group have better water solubility and nitrite-clearing ability than ARG. Based on these results, ARG6' and ARG9' were selected at a dosage of 40 mg/kg to evaluate their antitumour activity...
April 18, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415531/new-synthesis-of-poly-ortho-methoxyaniline-nanostructures-and-its-application-to-construct-modified-multi-wall-carbon-nanotube-graphite-paste-electrode-for-simultaneous-determination-of-uric-acid-and-folic-acid
#8
Hossein Rajabi, Meissam Noroozifar
Uric acid (UA) and folic acid (FA) are compounds of biomedical interest. In humans, about 70% of daily uric acid disposal occurs via the kidneys, and in 5-25% of humans, impaired renal (kidney) excretion leads to hyperuricemia. Folate is another form folic acid of which is known as, is one of the B vitamins. It is used as a supplement by women to prevent neural tube defects developing during pregnancy. Polyortho-methoxyaniline nanostructures (POMANS) was synthesized with a new two phase (organic-water) synthesis method...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414295/high-salt-intake-reprioritizes-osmolyte-and-energy-metabolism-for-body-fluid-conservation
#9
Kento Kitada, Steffen Daub, Yahua Zhang, Janet D Klein, Daisuke Nakano, Tetyana Pedchenko, Louise Lantier, Lauren M LaRocque, Adriana Marton, Patrick Neubert, Agnes Schröder, Natalia Rakova, Jonathan Jantsch, Anna E Dikalova, Sergey I Dikalov, David G Harrison, Dominik N Müller, Akira Nishiyama, Manfred Rauh, Raymond C Harris, Friedrich C Luft, David H Wassermann, Jeff M Sands, Jens Titze
Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414046/caffeoyl-and-coumaroyl-derivatives-from-acacia-cochliacantha-exhibit-ovicidal-activity-against-haemonchus-contortus
#10
G F Castillo-Mitre, A Olmedo-Juárez, R Rojo-Rubio, M Cortázar-González, P Mendoza-de Gives, E E Hernández-Beteta, D E Reyes-Guerrero, M E López-Arellano, J F Vázquez-Armijo, G Ramírez-Vargas, A Zamilpa
Ethnopharmacology relevance: Acacia cochliacantha is a small tree whose foliage is traditionally used in Mexico for treatment of kidney pain, gastrointestinal illnesses and to kill intestinal parasites. In recent decades, the study of vegetal extracts has offered other possible alternatives for the control of Haemonchus contortus. Considering that this nematode affects dramatically the health and productivity of small ruminants, the aim of this study was to identify the anthelmintic compounds from A. cochliacantha hydro-alcoholic extract (HA-E) through an ovicidal test...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413991/potential-role-of-endothelin-in-early-vascular-aging
#11
Michelle Trindade, Wille Oigman, Mario Fritsch Neves
Early vascular aging is a process associated with gradual alterations in the vessels, regarding to their structure and function, taking a more rapid course than normal biological aging in the arteries. In the presence of cardiovascular disease, these age-associated alterations are accelerated, contributing for the appearance or the progression of cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, smoking and diabetes. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the most abundant and important endothelin produced by vascular cells...
April 14, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409346/development-and-diseases-of-the-collecting-duct-system
#12
Lihe Chen, Paul J Higgins, Wenzheng Zhang
The collecting duct of the mammalian kidney is important for the regulation of extracellular volume, osmolarity, and pH. There are two major structurally and functionally distinct cell types: principal cells and intercalated cells. The former regulates Na(+) and water homeostasis, while the latter participates in acid-base homeostasis. In vivo lineage tracing using Cre recombinase or its derivatives such as CreGFP and CreER(T2) is a powerful new technique to identify stem/progenitor cells in their native environment and to decipher the origins of the tissue that they give rise to...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409341/zebrafish-pronephros-development
#13
Richard W Naylor, Sarah S Qubisi, Alan J Davidson
The pronephros is the first kidney type to form in vertebrate embryos. The first step of pronephrogenesis in the zebrafish is the formation of the intermediate mesoderm during gastrulation, which occurs in response to secreted morphogens such as BMPs and Nodals. Patterning of the intermediate mesoderm into proximal and distal cell fates is induced by retinoic acid signaling with downstream transcription factors including wt1a, pax2a, pax8, hnf1b, sim1a, mecom, and irx3b. In the anterior intermediate mesoderm, progenitors of the glomerular blood filter migrate and fuse at the midline and recruit a blood supply...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409340/drosophila-malpighian-tubules-a-model-for-understanding-kidney-development-function-and-disease
#14
Naveen Kumar Gautam, Puja Verma, Madhu G Tapadia
The Malpighian tubules of insects are structurally simple but functionally important organs, and their integrity is important for the normal excretory process. They are functional analogs of human kidneys which are important physiological organs as they maintain water and electrolyte balance in the blood and simultaneously help the body to get rid of waste and toxic products after various metabolic activities. In addition, it receives early indications of insults to the body such as immune challenge and other toxic components and is essential for sustaining life...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407874/autophagy-and-renal-epithelial-transport-eat-to-survive
#15
Ewout J Hoorn, David Severs
Autophagy is an adaptive cellular response to "stress" in which proteins are targeted for lysosomal degradation. Using a combined proteomics and microscopy approach, Khositseth et al. show that autophagy contributes to the downregulation of the water channel aquaporin-2 in response to hypercalcemia. This commentary discusses the role of autophagy in renal epithelial transport, and explores whether autophagy may also contribute to chronic kidney disease once it becomes dysfunctional.
May 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407133/con-mesoamerican-nephropathy-is-the-problem-dehydration-or-rehydration
#16
Vito M Campese
In recent years, an increasing number of inhabitants of Central America have developed a form of chronic kidney disease, now named Mesoamerican nephropathy. This disease is characterized by minimal proteinuria, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia and reduced glomerular filtration rate. Histologically the kidneys manifest tubulointerstitial nephritis. The cause(s) of this disease remain unknown. Some have proposed that dehydration, in combination with hyperuricemia, may be primarily responsible for Mesoamerican nephropathy...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405703/metabolic-syndrome-contributes-to-renal-injury-mediated-by-hyperoxaluria-in-a-murine-model-of-nephrolithiasis
#17
Javier Sáenz-Medina, E Jorge, C Corbacho, M Santos, A Sánchez, P Soblechero, E Virumbrales, E Ramil, M J Coronado, I Castillón, D Prieto, J Carballido
Metabolic syndrome (MS) individuals have a higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease through unclear pathogenic mechanisms. MS has been also related with higher nephrolithiasis prevalence. To establish the influence of MS on renal function, we designed a murine model of combined metabolic syndrome and hyperoxaluria. Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were established: (1) control group (n = 10) fed with standard chow; (2) stone former group (SF) (n = 10) fed with standard chow plus 0.75% ethylene glycol administered in the drinking water; (3) metabolic syndrome group (MS) (n = 10), fed with 60% fructose diet; (4) metabolic syndrome + stone former group (MS + SF) (n = 10), 60% fructose diet and 0...
April 12, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405619/role-of-adenylyl-cyclase-6-in-the-development-of-lithium-induced-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#18
Søren Brandt Poulsen, Tina Bøgelund Kristensen, Heddwen L Brooks, Donald E Kohan, Timo Rieg, Robert A Fenton
Psychiatric patients treated with lithium (Li(+)) may develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Although the etiology of Li(+)-induced NDI (Li-NDI) is poorly understood, it occurs partially due to reduced aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the kidney collecting ducts. A mechanism postulated for this is that Li(+) inhibits adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, leading to decreased cAMP, reduced AQP2 abundance, and less membrane targeting. We hypothesized that Li-NDI would not develop in mice lacking AC6. Whole-body AC6 knockout (AC6(-/-)) mice and potentially novel connecting tubule/principal cell-specific AC6 knockout (AC6(loxloxCre)) mice had approximately 50% lower urine osmolality and doubled water intake under baseline conditions compared with controls...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404590/inflammatory-cytokines-regulate-renal-sodium-transporters-how-where-and-why
#19
Allison E Norlander, Meena S Madhur
Hypertension is growing in epidemic proportions worldwide and is now the leading preventable cause of premature death. For over a century, we have known that the kidney plays a critical role in blood pressure regulation. Specifically, abnormalities in renal sodium transport appear to be a final common pathway that gives rise to elevated blood pressure regardless of the nature of the initial hypertensive stimulus. However, it is only in the past decade that we have come to realize that inflammatory cytokines secreted by innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as renal epithelial cells, can modulate the expression and activity of sodium transporters all along the nephron, leading to alterations in pressure natriuresis, sodium and water balance, and ultimately hypertension...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403013/vasopressin-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#20
Ronan Roussel, Gilberto Velho, Lise Bankir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is increasing worldwide. Despite major therapeutic advances in the last decades in DKD, the current standard of care let many people progress to severe stages. Vasopressin secretion is increased in diabetes, and its potential role in the onset and progression of DKD is being re-investigated. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, observational studies evidenced an association between surrogates of vasopressin secretion (daily fluid intake or urine volume, and plasma copeptin concentration) and chronic kidney disease in the community, but also specifically in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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