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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680066/a-systematic-comparative-study-on-morphological-crystallinity-pasting-thermal-and-functional-characteristics-of-starches-resources-utilized-in-china
#1
Xiaoxuan Wang, Chagam Koteswara Reddy, Baojun Xu
In this study, starches from diverse botanical sources (arrowroot, cassava, Chinese yam, fern root, kidney beans, lotus seed, taro, and water chestnut) were isolated and examined for morphological, pasting, thermal, and physico-chemical characteristics in order to distinguish their end use potential. Among isolated starches significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in gelatinization temperatures, morphology, color, pasting, and functional properties. Amylose content of isolated starches varied between 17...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679270/mutagenic-assessment-of-lithobates-catesbeianus-tadpoles-exposed-to-the-2-4-d-herbicide-in-a-simulated-realistic-scenario
#2
Carlos Mesak, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Raíssa de Oliveira Ferreira, Guilherme Malafaia
The aim of the current study is to assess possible erythrocyte mutagenic effects on Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles exposed to water contaminated with 2,4-D. In order to do so, tadpoles were exposed to a predictive and environmentally relevant herbicide concentration (1.97 mg/L), which is likely to be found in lentic environments formed by superficial water runoffs in pasture areas where the herbicide was applied. The micronucleus test, as well as tests for other nuclear abnormalities, was conducted after 3, 5, and 9 days of exposure (d...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676801/prolonged-prenatal-hypoxia-selectively-disrupts-collecting-duct-patterning-and-postnatal-function-in-male-mouse-offspring
#3
Sarah L Walton, Reetu R Singh, Melissa H Little, Josephine Bowles, Joan Li, Karen M Moritz
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: In this study we investigated whether hypoxia during late pregnancy impairs kidney development in mouse offspring, and also whether this has long-lasting consequences affecting kidney function in adulthood. Hypoxia disrupted growth of the kidney, particularly the collecting duct network, in juvenile male offspring. By mid-late adulthood, these mice developed early signs of kidney disease, notably a compromised response to water deprivation. Female offspring showed no obvious signs of impaired kidney development and did not develop kidney disease, suggesting a underlying protection mechanism from the hypoxia insult...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676757/arsenic-cadmium-lead-and-chromium-in-well-water-rice-and-human-urine-in-sri-lanka-in-relation-to-chronic-kidney-disease-of-unknown-etiology
#4
H M Ayala S Herath, Tomonori Kawakami, Shiori Nagasawa, Yuka Serikawa, Ayuri Motoyama, G G Tushara Chaminda, S K Weragoda, S K Yatigammana, A A G D Amarasooriya
Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is spreading gradually in Sri Lanka. In the current research, 1,435 well water samples from all 25 districts of Sri Lanka, 91 rice samples, and 84 human urine samples from both CKDu-endemic and non-endemic areas in Sri Lanka were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and chromium to detect whether toxic elements could be a cause of CKDu. The liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) concentration and arsenic, cadmium, lead, and chromium concentrations of the urine samples were analyzed to determine the relation of L-FABP with arsenic, cadmium, lead, and chromium...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675303/measuring-water-contents-in-animal-organ-tissues-using-terahertz-spectroscopic-imaging
#5
Kyumin Lee, Kiyong Jeoung, Sang Hoon Kim, Young-Bin Ji, Hyeyoung Son, Yuna Choi, Young-Min Huh, Jin-Suck Suh, Seung Jae Oh
We investigated the water contents in several organ tissues such as the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain tissue of rats using the terahertz spectroscopic imaging technique. The water contents of the tissues were determined by using a simple equation containing the absorption coefficients of fresh and lyophilized tissues and water. We compared the measured water contents with the difference in mass of tissues before and after lyophilization. All results showed a good match except for the kidney, which has several Bowman's capsules...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674123/effects-of-dietary-toxic-cyanobacteria-and-ammonia-exposure-on-immune-function-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalabrama-amblycephala
#6
Hu Xia, Ting Song, Li Wang, Liangsen Jiang, Qiting Zhou, Weimin Wang, Liangguo Liu, Pinhong Yang, Xuezhen Zhang
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by water eutrophication have become a worldwide problem. During the degradation of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, elevated ammonia and microcystins concentrations co-occur and exert toxicity on fish. Up to now, the combined effect of microcystins and ammonia on fish immunotoxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated immune responses of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) to dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure. Megalobrama amblycephala were exposed to solutions with different concentrations of NH3 -N (0, 0...
April 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673442/subchronic-oral-toxicity-of-silica-nanoparticles-and-silica-microparticles-in-rats
#7
Chun Lai Liang, Qian Xiang, Wen Ming Cui, Jin Fang, Na Na Sun, Xiao Peng Zhang, Yong Ning Li, Hui Yang, Zhou Yu, Xu Dong Jia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the subchronic oral toxicity of silica nanoparticles (NPs) and silica microparticles (MPs) in rats and to compare the difference in toxicity between two particle sizes. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups: the control group; the silica NPs low-, middle-, and high-dose groups; and the silica MPs low-, middle-, and high-dose groups [166.7, 500, and 1,500 mg/(kg•bw•day)]. All rats were gavaged daily for 90 days, and deionized water was administered to the control group...
March 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671037/-geriatric-intensive-care-patients-perspectives-and-limits-of-geriatric-intensive-care-medicine
#8
REVIEW
U Müller-Werdan, H-J Heppner, G Michels
Critically ill geriatric patients are vitally endangered due to the aging processes of organs, the frequently existing multimorbidity with subsequent polypharmacy and the typical geriatric syndrome of functional impairments. Aging processes in organs lower the clinical threshold for organ dysfunction and organ failure. Physiological organ aging processes with practical consequences for intensive care medicine are atypical manifestion of sepsis in immunosenescence, altered pharmacokinetics, reduced tolerance to hypovolemia due to proportionally reduced water compartment of the body in old age, the frequently only apparently normal function of the kidneys and the continuous reduction in pulmonary function in old age...
April 18, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665955/development-of-antler-type-fruiting-bodies-of-ganoderma-lucidum-and-determination-of-its-biochemical-properties
#9
Surya Sudheer, Zain Taha, Sivakumar Manickam, Asgar Ali, Poh Guat Cheng
Following the importance of antler-type fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, in this study, the impact of main growth parameters such as ventilation and light on the development of antler-type fruiting bodies has been investigated together with the determination of physico-chemical properties of antler fruiting bodies. For this, the primordia bags of G. lucidum were kept under controlled ventilation to adjust the CO2 produced by the mushrooms owing to its respiration under light and dark conditions. The bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, water-soluble polysaccharides and ganoderic acid showed a two-fold increase in the antler-type fruiting bodies as compared to normal kidney-shaped fruiting bodies...
May 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665472/off-line-solid-phase-extraction-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-quantitation-of-brivaracetam-acid-metabolites-method-validation-and-application-to-in-vitro-metabolism-assays
#10
Emmanuel Bourgogne, Benoit Culot, Sylvie Dell'Aiera, Hugues Chanteux, Armel Stockis, Jean-Marie Nicolas
Brivaracetam (BRV) is a new high affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand recently approved for adults with partial-onset seizures. As a support to in vitro metabolism assays, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method coupled to off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) was developed to quantify BRV acid metabolites, that is, BRV-AC (carboxylic derivative derived from BRV hydrolysis) and BRV-OHAC (corresponding to hydroxylated BRV-AC). The method was validated for various incubates (liver and kidney tissue homogenates and blood, all from humans) and applied to in vitro metabolism assays...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664990/schistosomiasis-and-hydration-status-schistosoma-haematobium-but-not-schistosoma-mansoni-increases-urine-specific-gravity-among-rural-tanzanian-women
#11
Asher Y Rosinger, Sera L Young, Shalean M Collins, Syeda Razia Haider, Pallavi Mishra, Honest T Nagai, Mnyeshi Petro, Jennifer A Downs
OBJECTIVES: Schistosome infections can damage organs important for water homeostasis, especially the kidneys. Urogenital schistosomiasis (caused by Schistosoma haematobium) increases protein and blood in urine and intestinal schistosomiasis (caused by S. mansoni) affects total body water. However, no data exist on how different schistosome species affect urine specific gravity (USG), a hydration biomarker. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between S. haematobium- and S. mansoni-infected and uninfected women and USG in rural Tanzania...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663031/urea-and-plasma-ice-nucleating-proteins-promoted-the-modest-freeze-tolerance-in-pleske-s-high-altitude-frog-nanorana-pleskei
#12
Yonggang Niu, Jianjun Wang, Shengkang Men, Yaofeng Zhao, Songsong Lu, Xiaolong Tang, Qiang Chen
The frog Nanorana pleskei (Dicroglossidae) is indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To identify its strategies in coping with the cold climate, we measured the hibernacula microhabitat temperature during winter. We also examined the freezing-induced and seasonal variation of several putative cryoprotectants in the heart, liver, brain, kidney and muscle, as well as ice-nucleating protein in plasma. Our results showed that N. pleskei survived exposure to temperatures as low as - 2.5 ± 0.40 °C during hibernation, which was lower than the body fluid freezing point (- 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660329/aquaporin-5-promotes-corneal-wound-healing
#13
S Sindhu Kumari, Murali Varadaraj, Anil G Menon, Kulandaiappan Varadaraj
Aquaporins (AQPs), ordinarily regarded as water channels, have recently been shown to participate in other cellular functions such as cell-to-cell adhesion, cell migration, cell proliferation etc. The current investigation was undertaken to find out whether AQP5 water channel plays a role in corneal epithelial wound healing. Expression of AQP5 in mouse cornea and transfected Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells was detected using immunofluorescence or EGFP tag. Cell migration and proliferation, the two major events in wound healing, were studied in vitro using cell culture scratch-wound healing model and cell proliferation assay, in vivo by conducting wound healing experiments on corneas of wild-type and AQP5 knockout mouse model and ex vivo on corneal epithelial cells isolated from wild type and AQP5 knockout mice...
April 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660237/multiplexed-isobaric-tag-based-profiling-of-seven-murine-tissues-following-in-vivo-nicotine-treatment-using-a-minimalistic-proteomics-strategy
#14
Joao A Paulo, Mark P Jedrychowski, Edward T Chouchani, Lawrence Kazak, Steven P Gygi
Nicotine is a major addictive compound in tobacco and a component of smoking-related products, such as e-cigarettes. Once internalized, nicotine can perturb many cellular pathways and can induce alterations in proteins across different cell types, however the mechanisms thereof remain undetermined. We hypothesize that both tissue-specific and global protein abundance alterations result from nicotine exposure. As such, we present the first proteome analysis of multiple tissues from nicotine-exposed mice. We treat mice via oral administration of nicotine at 200μg/mL in drinking water for 21 days...
April 16, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656667/haemodialysis-at-home-review-of-current-dialysis-machines
#15
Sabrina Haroon, Andrew Davenport
Only a minority of patients with chronic kidney disease treated by hemodialysis are currently treated at home. Until relatively recently, the only type of hemodialysis machine available for these patients was a slightly smaller version of the standard machines used for in-center dialysis treatments. Areas covered: There are now an alternative generation of dialysis machines specifically designed for home hemodialysis. The home dialysis patient wants a smaller machine, which is intuitive to use, easy to trouble shoot, robust and reliable, quick to set-up and put away, requiring minimal waste disposal...
April 14, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652680/impact-of-intra-operative-fluid-and-noradrenaline-administration-on-early-postoperative-renal-function-after-cystectomy-and-urinary-diversion-a-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#16
Marc A Furrer, Marc P Schneider, Lukas M Löffel, Fiona C Burkhard, Patrick Y Wuethrich
BACKGROUND: The use of noradrenaline to enable a restrictive approach to intra-operative fluid therapy to avoid salt and water overload has gained increasing acceptance. However, concerns have been raised about the impact of this approach on renal function. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing cystectomy with urinary diversion and determine whether administration of noradrenaline and intra-operative hydration regimens affect early postoperative renal function...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651418/role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-its-modulation-in-renal-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head, Kate Denton, Clive N May, Markus P Schlaich
The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650969/akaps-pka-disruptors-increase-aqp2-activity-independently-of-vasopressin-in-a-model-of-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#18
Fumiaki Ando, Shuichi Mori, Naofumi Yui, Tetsuji Morimoto, Naohiro Nomura, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Sei Sasaki, Yoshiaki Kondo, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Shinichi Uchida
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. Congenital NDI is mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R), leading to impaired aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel activity. So far, treatment options of congenital NDI either by rescuing mutant V2R with chemical chaperones or by elevating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels have failed to yield effective therapies. Here we show that inhibition of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) binding to PKA increases PKA activity and activates AQP2 channels in cortical collecting duct cells...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643541/-preparation-quality-control-and-thyroid-molecule-imaging-of-solid-target-based-radionuclide-ioine-124
#19
H Zhu, F Wang, X Y Guo, L Q Li, D B Duan, Z B Liu, Z Yang
OBJECTIVE: To provide useful information for the further production and application of this novel radio-nuclide for potential clinical application. METHODS: 124 Te (p,n) 124 I nuclide reaction was used for the 124 I production. Firstly, the target material, 124 TeO2 (200 mg) and Al2O3 (30 mg) mixture, were compressed into the round platinum based solid target by tablet device. HM-20 medical cyclotron was applied to irradiate the solid target slice for 6-10 h with helium and water cooling...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626561/saline-extract-of-pilosocereus-gounellei-stem-has-antinociceptive-effect-in-mice-without-showing-acute-toxicity-and-altering-motor-coordination
#20
Alisson Macário de Oliveira, Micaelle Oliveira de Luna Freire, Wliana Alves Viturino da Silva, Magda Rhayanny Assunção Ferreira, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Luiz Alberto Lira Soares, Paloma Lys de Medeiros, Bruno de Melo Carvalho, Thiago Henrique Napoleão
People broadly use medicinal plants although their safety and efficacy are often neglected. Several Cactaceae plants are used for medicinal purposes, but Pilosocereus gounellei (xique-xique) has been little studied for their pharmacological properties. In this study, a saline extract from Pilosocereus gounellei stem was evaluated for acute toxicity, effects on motor function, and antinociceptive activity in mice. Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of flavonoids and reducing sugars...
April 4, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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