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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720778/visualization-of-kidney-fibrosis-in-diabetic-nephropathy-by-long-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mri-with-spin-echo-sequence
#1
Jun-Ya Kaimori, Yoshitaka Isaka, Masaki Hatanaka, Satoko Yamamoto, Naotsugu Ichimaru, Akihiko Fujikawa, Hiroshi Shibata, Akira Fujimori, Sosuke Miyoshi, Takashi Yokawa, Kagayaki Kuroda, Toshiki Moriyama, Hiromi Rakugi, Shiro Takahara
Renal fibrosis (RF) is an indicator for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of CKD and end-stage renal disease in Western populations, the ability of MRI to evaluate RF in DN patients has not been determined. As a first step to identify possible MRI methods for RF evaluation, we examined the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI to evaluate RF in a rat model of DN (SHR/NDmcr-cp(cp/cp): SHR/ND). The signal-to-noise ratio in DTI MRI was enhanced using a spin-echo sequence, and a special kidney attachment was developed for long-term stabilization...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710580/assessment-of-acute-kidney-injury-with-t1-mapping-mri-following-solid-organ-transplantation
#2
Matti Peperhove, Van Dai Vo Chieu, Mi-Sun Jang, Marcel Gutberlet, Dagmar Hartung, Susanne Tewes, Gregor Warnecke, Christiane Fegbeutel, Axel Haverich, Wilfried Gwinner, Frank Lehner, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Hermann Haller, Frank Wacker, Faikah Gueler, Katja Hueper
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. METHODS: 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence...
July 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709641/glucocest-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in%C3%A2-vivo-may-be-diagnostic-of-acute-renal-allograft-rejection
#3
Dominik Kentrup, Philipp Bovenkamp, Annika Busch, Katharina Schuette-Nuetgen, Helga Pawelski, Hermann Pavenstädt, Eberhard Schlatter, Karl-Heinz Herrmann, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Bettina Löffler, Barbara Heitplatz, Veerle Van Marck, Nirbhay N Yadav, Guanshu Liu, Peter C M van Zijl, Stefan Reuter, Verena Hoerr
Acute cellular renal allograft rejection (AR) frequently occurs after kidney transplantations. It is a sterile T-cell mediated inflammation leading to increased local glucose metabolism. Here we demonstrate in an allogeneic model of Brown Norway rat kidneys transplanted into uninephrectomized Lewis rats the successful implementation of the recently developed glucose chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) magnetic resonance imaging. This technique is a novel method to assess and differentiate AR...
July 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707660/-increase-in-the-concentration-of-seh-protein-in-renal-medulla-of-isiah-rats-with-inherited-stress-induced-arterial-hypertension
#4
T O Abramova, M A Ryazanova, E V Antonov, O E Redina, A L Markel
The concentration of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) protein was studied in renal medulla of adult rats from hypertensive ISIAH strain and normotensive WAG strain. The sEH is a key enzyme in metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids capable of activating endothelial NO-synthase and nitrogen oxide formation, and therefore being vasodilators. An increase in the sEH protein concentration (that we found) allows one to assume that the oxidative stress is increased in the renal medulla of hypertensive rats, and the bloodflow is decreased...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707190/novel-porcine-model-for-calcium-oxalate-stone-formation
#5
Brandon P Trojan, Sara J Trojan, Andrew Navetta, Bryce Staches, Bryan Sutton, Stephanie Filleur, Thomas Nelius
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms for calcium-based stone formation are not clearly delineated. Porcine are the most anatomically and physiologically congruent mammal to humans. Our objectives were to develop a cost-effective and easily reproducible porcine model for the study of calcium-based nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Crossbred male pigs (n = 16) were assigned randomly to one of the following treatments: (1) control; (2) ethylene glycol (EG) + vitamin D (VD); (3) EG + ammonium chloride (AC); (4) EG + gentamicin (G); (5) EG + Lasix; (6) EG + VD + AC; (7) EG + VD + G...
July 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697319/renal-medullary-carcinoma-establishing-standards-in-practice
#6
Kathryn E Beckermann, Deva Sharma, Shruti Chaturvedi, Pavlos Msaouel, Miguel R Abboud, Yves Allory, Franck Bourdeaut, Julien Calderaro, Aguirre A de Cubas, Vimal K Derebail, Andrew L Hong, Rakhi P Naik, Gabriel G Malouf, Elizabeth A Mullen, Victor E Reuter, Charles W M Roberts, Cheryl L Walker, Christopher G Wood, Michael R DeBaun, Hendrik Van Poppel, Nizar M Tannir, W Kimryn Rathmell
Although renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare subtype of kidney cancer, it is particularly devastating in that it is nearly uniformly lethal. No established guidelines exist for the diagnosis and management of RMC. In April 2016, a panel of experts developed clinical guidelines on the basis of a literature review and consensus statements. The goal was to propose recommendations for standardized diagnostic and management approaches and to establish an international clinical registry and biorepository for RMC...
July 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693025/infusion-of-valproic-acid-into-the-renal-medulla-activates-stem-cell-population-and-attenuates-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-dahl-s-rats
#7
Zhengchao Wang, Qing Zhu, Weili Wang, Fan Yi, Pin-Lan Li, Krishna M Boini, Ningjun Li
BACKGROUND: Our previous study has detected a stem cell deficiency in the renal medulla in Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats. This study determined whether infusion of valproic acid (VA), an agent known to stimulate the stem cell function, attenuated salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats. METHODS: Uninephrectomized Dahl S rats were infused with vehicle or VA (50mg/kg/d) into the renal medulla and fed with a low (LS) or high salt diet (HS). Stem cell marker and number were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686805/a-generalized-ratiometric-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-cest-mri-approach-for-mapping-renal-ph-using-iopamidol
#8
Yin Wu, Iris Y Zhou, Takahiro Igarashi, Dario L Longo, Silvio Aime, Phillip Zhe Sun
PURPOSE: To extend the pH detection range of iopamidol-based ratiometric chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI at sub-high magnetic field and establish quantitative renal pH MRI. METHODS: Chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging was performed on iopamidol phantoms with pH of 5.5 to 8.0 and in vivo on rat kidneys (n = 5) during iopamidol administration at a 4.7 T. Iopamidol CEST effects were described using a multipool Lorentzian model. A generalized ratiometric analysis was conducted by ratioing resolved iopamidol CEST effects at 4...
July 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677006/application-of-noninvasive-functional-imaging-to-monitor-the-progressive-changes-in-kidney-diffusion-and-perfusion-in-contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury-rats-at-3-0-t
#9
Bin Zhang, Yuhao Dong, Baoliang Guo, Wenbo Chen, Fusheng Ouyang, Zhouyang Lian, Jing Liu, Shuixing Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a prevalent cause of renal failure, and the noninvasive tools to monitor its progress are lacking. We applied intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) DWI to measure the progressive changes in kidney diffusion and perfusion of CI-AKI. METHODS: Twenty-four rats received Iopromide (370 mg/ml, 1600 mg iodine/kg) to induce CI-AKI. IVIM DWI was performed on rats (n = 6) at 24 h prior to and 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the injection using a 3...
July 4, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673448/renovascular-ct-comparison-between-adaptive-statistical-iterative-reconstruction-and-model-based-iterative-reconstruction
#10
Y Noda, S Goshima, H Koyasu, S Shigeyama, T Miyoshi, H Kawada, N Kawai, M Matsuo
AIM: To compare contrast enhancement and image quality between renovascular computed tomography (CT) images with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) and that with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was waived. Twenty-five consecutive patients who underwent renovascular CT were enrolled in this study. The same raw projection data were reconstructed using ASiR 40%, 100%, and MBIR...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673338/sustained-hyperosmolarity-increses-tgf-%C3%A3-1-and-egr-1-expression-in-the-rat-renal-medulla
#11
Miklós M Mózes, Petra Szoleczky, László Rosivall, Gábor Kökény
BACKGROUND: Although TGF-ß and the transcription factor Egr-1 play an important role in both kidney fibrosis and in response to acute changes of renal medullary osmolarity, their role under sustained hypo- or hyperosmolar conditions has not been elucidated. We investigated the effects of chronic hypertonicity and hypotonicity on the renal medullary TGF-ß and Egr-1 expression. METHODS: Male adult Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were treated with 15 mg/day furosemide, or the rats were water restricted to 15 ml/200 g body weight per day...
July 3, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670084/medullary-angiitis-and-pauci-immune-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#12
Jeffrey Klein, William Rodriguez, Michael Kuperman, Harold Szerlip
Although almost all pathological diagnoses made from a native kidney biopsy come from careful examination of the renal cortex, certain diseases have a characteristic medullary component. Medullary angiitis has histological features of interstitial hemorrhage in the medulla with an associated polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrate. These findings are primarily found in the setting of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. Medullary angiitis identified in the setting of negative immunofluorescence is most suggestive of pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis, as presented in this case...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669081/distribution-of-vascular-patterns-in-different-subtypes-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-morphometric-study-in-two-distinct-types-of-blood-vessels
#13
Amparo Ruiz-Saurí, V García-Bustos, E Granero, S Cuesta, M A Sales, V Marcos, A Llombart-Bosch
To analyze the presence of mature and immature vessels as a prognostic factor in patients with renal cell carcinoma and propose a classification of renal cancer tumor blood vessels according to morphometric parameters. Tissue samples were obtained from 121 renal cell carcinoma patients who underwent radical nephrectomy. Staining with CD31 and CD34 was used to differentiate between immature (CD31+) and mature (CD34+) blood vessels. We quantified the microvascular density, microvascular area and different morphometric parameters: maximum diameter, minimum diameter, major axis, minor axis, perimeter, radius ratio and roundness...
July 1, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656614/automatic-renal-segmentation-for-mr-urography-using-3d-grabcut-and-random-forests
#14
Umit Yoruk, Brian A Hargreaves, Shreyas S Vasanawala
PURPOSE: To introduce and evaluate a fully automated renal segmentation technique for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assessment in children. METHODS: An image segmentation method based on iterative graph cuts (GrabCut) was modified to work on time-resolved 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data sets. A random forest classifier was trained to further segment the renal tissue into cortex, medulla, and the collecting system. The algorithm was tested on 26 subjects and the segmentation results were compared to the manually drawn segmentation maps using the F1-score metric...
June 27, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632534/administration-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-bh4-protects-the-renal-microcirculation-from-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#15
Lokmane Rahmania, Diego Orbegozo, Fuhong Su, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Jean-Louis Vincent, Daniel De Backer
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery with suprarenal cross-clamping is often associated with renal injury. Although the mechanism underlying such injury is unclear, tissue ischemia and reperfusion, which induces endothelial dysfunction and decreases the availability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), may play a role. We evaluated whether BH4 administration prevents renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in an animal model of aortic cross-clamping. METHODS: Nineteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and invasively monitored adult sheep were randomized into 3 groups: sham animals (n = 5) that underwent surgical preparation but no aortic clamping; an ischemia/reperfusion group (n = 7), where the aorta was clamped above the renal arteries for 1 hour, and a BH4 group (n = 7), in which animals received 20 mg/kg of BH4 followed by aortic cross-clamp for 1 hour...
June 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617689/paracellular-transport-and-energy-utilization-in-the-renal-tubule
#16
Alan S L Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616236/effect-of-applied-energy-in-renal-sympathetic-denervation-with-magnetic-resonance-guided-focused-ultrasound-in-a-porcine-model
#17
Jill Shea, Joshua de Bever, Eugene Kholmovski, Hannah Beal, J Rock Hadley, Emilee Minalga, Mohamed E Salama, Nassir F Marrouche, Allison Payne
BACKGROUND: Past catheter-based and focused ultrasound renal denervation studies have indicated that procedure efficacy is related to the number of ablations performed or the amount of energy used for the ablation. This study extends those prior results and investigates energy level effects on the efficacy of MR guided focused ultrasound renal denervation performed in a porcine model. METHODS: Twenty-four normotensive pigs underwent unilateral denervation at three intensity levels...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608403/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-reduced-renal-damage-caused-by-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rodent-kidneys-longitudinal-observations-of-t2-weighted-imaging-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#18
Xiaoge Liu, Michael P Murphy, Wei Xing, Huanhuan Wu, Rui Zhang, Haoran Sun
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ in reducing the severity of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats using T2 -weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). METHODS: Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by temporarily clamping the left renal artery. Rats were pretreated with MitoQ or saline. The MRI examination was performed before and after IRI (days 2, 5, 7, and 14). The T2 -weighted standardized signal intensity of the outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) was measured...
June 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577741/-role-of-the-kidneys-in-glucose-homeostasis-implication-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-in-diabetes-mellitus-treatment
#19
Jean Girard
Kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, both in the post-absorptive and postprandial period. Kidney produces glucose by gluconeogenesis in the renal cortex and uses glucose for covering energy needs of the medulla. Kidney participates also to the reabsorption of filtered glucose in order the terminal urine was devoided of glucose, as long as blood glucose did not exceed 180mg/dL. Reabsorption of glucose is mediated by sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT1 et SGLT2) expressed in S1 and S3 segments of proximal tubule...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562422/serum-calcification-propensity-is-associated-with-renal-tissue-oxygenation-and-resistive-index-in-patients-with-arterial-hypertension-or-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Menno Pruijm, Yimin Lu, Fatma Megdiche, Maciej Piskunowicz, Bastien Milani, Matthias Stuber, Matthias Bachtler, Bruno Vogt, Michel Burnier, Andreas Pasch
BACKGROUND: Arterial calcifications increase arterial stiffness and are associated with a faster decline of kidney function in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Yet the underlying mechanisms linking arterial calcifications, vascular stiffness and renal function decline are incompletely understood. A novel in-vitro blood test evaluates the propensity of patient's serum to prevent the formation of calcifications by measuring the maturation time of calciprotein particles (CPP) [transformation time of amorphous calcium phosphate-containing primary CPP to crystalline hydroxyapatite-containing secondary CPP (T50)]...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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