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Renal medulla

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803730/renal-sodium-gradient-orchestrates-a-dynamic-antibacterial-defense-zone
#1
Miriam R Berry, Rebeccah J Mathews, John R Ferdinand, Chenzhi Jing, Kevin W Loudon, Elizabeth Wlodek, Thomas W Dennison, Christoph Kuper, Wolfgang Neuhofer, Menna R Clatworthy
Lower urinary tract infections are among the most common human bacterial infections, but extension to the kidneys is rare. This has been attributed to mechanical forces, such as urine flow, that prevent the ascent of bladder microbes. Here, we show that the regional hypersalinity, required for the kidney's urine-concentrating function, instructs epithelial cells to produce chemokines that localize monocyte-derived mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) to the medulla. This hypersaline environment also increases the intrinsic bactericidal and neutrophil chemotactic activities of MNPs to generate a zone of defense...
August 8, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798529/comparisons-of-l-cysteine-and-d-cysteine-toxicity-in-4-week-repeated-dose-toxicity-studies-of-rats-receiving-daily-oral-administration
#2
Yusuke Shibui, Ryosei Sakai, Yasuhiro Manabe, Takeshi Masuyama
Two 4-week repeated-dose toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the potential toxicity of l-cysteine and d-cysteine. In one study, three groups of 6 male rats were each administered l-cysteine once daily by gavage at doses of 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. The control group was administered a 0.5% methylcellulose vehicle solution. The other study followed a similar protocol except that the experimental groups received d-cysteine. Toxicological observations showed that the l-cysteine-treated groups exhibited renal injuries such as basophilic tubules with eosinophilic material in the lumen, and there were increased numbers of basophilic tubules in all treated groups...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796602/contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-gastric-emptying-and-motility-in-rats
#3
Kun-Han Lu, Jiayue Cao, Steven Oleson, Terry L Powley, Zhongming Liu
The assessment of gastric emptying and motility in humans and animals typically requires radioactive imaging or invasive measurements. Here, we developed a robust strategy to image and characterize gastric emptying and motility in rats based on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer-assisted image processing. The animals were trained to naturally consume a gadolinium-labeled dietgel while bypassing any need for oral gavage. Following this test meal, the animals were scanned under low-dose anesthesia for high-resolution T1-weighted MRI in 7-Tesla, visualizing the time-varying distribution of the meal with greatly enhanced contrast against non-GI tissues...
August 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796300/apelin-apj-system-a-novel-potential-therapy-target-for-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Zhen Huang, Lele Wu, Linxi Chen
Apelin is an endogenous ligand of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin and APJ are distributed in various tissues, including the heart, lung, kidney, and even in tumor tissues. Studies show that apelin mRNA is highly expressed in the inner stripe of kidney outer medulla, which plays an important role in process of water and sodium balance. Additionally, more studies also indicate that apelin/APJ system exerts a broad range of activities in kidney. Therefore, we review the role of apelin/APJ system in kidney diseases such as renal fibrosis, renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic nephropathy, polycystic kidney disease and hemodialysis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794065/vasa-recta-pericyte-density-is-negatively-associated-with-vascular-congestion-in-the-renal-medulla-following-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#5
G Ryan Crislip, Paul M O'Connor, Qingqing Wei, Jennifer C Sullivan
Recent evidence suggests that a greater density of pericytes in renal cadaveric allografts is associated with better recovery following transplant. The physiological mechanism(s) through which pericyte density may be beneficial is not well understood. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that lower medullary pericyte density is associated with greater renal injury following ischemia reperfusion (IR) in a rat model, providing a basis for future studies to better understand pericytes in a pathological environment...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789641/effect-of-renal-perfusion-and-structural-heterogeneity-on-shear-wave-elastography-of-the-kidney-an-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-study
#6
Xiaona Liu, Na Li, Tao Xu, Fang Sun, Rui Li, Qimin Gao, Lianxiang Chen, Chaoyang Wen
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of perfusion status on elasticity measurements of different compartments in the kidney using shear wave elastography (SWE) both in vivo and ex vivo. METHODS: Thirty-two rabbit kidneys were used to observe the elasticity variation caused by renal artery stenosis and vein ligation in vivo, and six beagle kidneys were studied ex vivo to explore the effect of renal perfusion on elasticity. Supersonic SWE was applied to quantify the elasticity values of different renal compartments (cortex, medulla and sinus)...
August 8, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777704/noninvasive-identification-of-renal-hypoxia-in-experimental-myocardial-infarctions-of-different-sizes-by-using-bold-mr-imaging-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Di Chang, Yuan-Cheng Wang, Ting-Ting Xu, Xin-Gui Peng, Yu Cai, Lin Wang, Ying-Ying Bai, Shenghong Ju
Purpose To test the feasibility of using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to measure alterations in renal oxygenation in a mouse model with experimental myocardial infarctions (MIs) of different sizes. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the local animal ethics committee. One hundred eighty-nine male C57BL/6 J mice were randomly subjected to MI surgery (with different locations of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion) or sham surgery, defined as the exposure of the heart but no ligation...
August 4, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774741/histopathological-evaluation-and-redox-assessment-in-blood-and-kidney-tissues-in-a-rabbit-contrast-induced-nephrotoxicity-model
#8
Maria-Malvina Tsamouri, Maria Rapti, Paraskevi Kouka, Charitini Nepka, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Anestis Soumelidis, George Koukoulis, Aristides Tsatsakis, Demetrios Kouretas, Christina Tsitsimpikou
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury as a result of iodinated contrast-media use for diagnostic purposes. Pathophysiology remains unclear. In the present study iopromide was administered to New Zealand white rabbits without any prior intervention. Oxidative stress was assessed in blood and tissue level at three anatomical kidney areas (medullary, cortical, juxtamedullary). Histopathological evaluation was also performed. Serum creatinine and urea increased in the CIN groups over 25% at two hours after administration and returned to baseline at 48 h...
July 31, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768662/stimulation-of-diuresis-and-natriuresis-by-renomedullary-infusion-of-a-dual-inhibitor-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-and-monoacylglycerol-lipase
#9
Ashfaq Ahmad, Zdravka Daneva, Guangbi Li, Sara K Dempsey, Ningjun Li, Justin Poklis, Aron Lichtman, Pin-Lan Li, Joseph Kraft Ritter
The renal medulla, considered critical for the regulation of salt and water balance and long-term blood pressure control, is enriched in anandamide and two of its major metabolizing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Infusion of anandamide (15, 30 and 60 nmol/min/kg) into the renal medulla of C57BL/6J mice stimulated diuresis and salt excretion in a COX-2- but not COX-1-dependent manner. To determine if endogenous endocannabinoids in the renal medulla can elicit similar effects, the effects of intramedullary isopropyl dodecyl fluorophosphate (IDFP), which inhibits the two major endocannabinoid hydrolases, were studied...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757600/relative-computed-tomography-ct-enhancement-value-for-the-assessment-of-microvascular-architecture-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Ai-Mei Ouyang, Zhao-Long Wei, Xin-You Su, Kun Li, Dong Zhao, De-Xin Yu, Xiang-Xing Ma
BACKGROUND To investigate the correlation between the relative computed tomography (CT) enhancement value and the microvascular architecture in different pathologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study included 55 patients with pathologically confirmed RCC. Immunohistochemistry for CD34 was performed for all surgical specimens. Microvascular architecture parameters (density, area, diameter, and perimeter) for the microvessels and the microvessels with lumen were determined...
July 31, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755508/solid-renal-tumors-isoenhancing-to-kidneys-on-contrast-enhanced-sonography-differentiation-from-pseudomasses
#11
Michele Bertolotto, Calogero Cicero, Orlando Catalano, Francesca Currò, Lorenzo Egildo Derchi
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of solid renal tumors isoenhancing to kidneys in all vascular phases on contrast-enhanced sonography and to investigate whether they can be differentiated from pseudomasses. METHODS: A computer search of the databases of 3 institutions identified 31 patients with pseudomasses and 380 patients with solid tumors investigated with contrast-enhanced sonography. Nineteen of 380 (5%) patients had tumors isoenhancing in all phases...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754823/elevation-of-fumarase-attenuates-hypertension-and-can-result-from-a-nonsynonymous-sequence-variation-or-increased-expression-depending-on-rat-strain
#12
Kristie Usa, Yong Liu, Aron M Geurts, Yuan Cheng, Jozef Lazar, Maria Angeles Baker, Michael Grzybowski, Yongcheng He, Zhongmin Tian, Mingyu Liang
The activity of fumarase, an enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is lower in Dahl salt-sensitive SS rats compared to SS.13(BN) rats. SS.13(BN) rats have a Brown Norway (BN) allele of fumarase and exhibit attenuated hypertension. The SS allele of fumarase differs from the BN allele by a K481E sequence variation. It remains unknown whether higher fumarase activities can attenuate hypertension and whether the mechanism is relevant in the absence of the K481E variation. We developed SS-TgFh1 transgenic rats over-expressing fumarase on the background of the SS rat...
July 28, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736155/integrin-linked-kinase-regulates-the-transcription-of-aqp2-by-nfatc3
#13
Marco Hatem-Vaquero, Mercedes Griera, Wieslawa Giermakowska, Alicia Luengo, Laura Calleros, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc, Diego Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Sergio De Frutos
Two processes are associated with progressive loss of renal function: 1) decreased aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression and urinary concentrating capacity (Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus, NDI); and 2) changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, e.g. increased collagen I (Col I) deposition, characteristic of tubule-interstitial fibrosis. AQP2 expression is regulated by both the ECM-to-intracellular scaffold protein integrin-linked kinase (ILK) by NFATc/AP1 and other transcription factors. In the present work, we used in vivo and in vitro approaches to examine ILK participation in NFATc3/AP-1-mediated increases in AQP2 gene expression...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720778/visualization-of-kidney-fibrosis-in-diabetic-nephropathy-by-long-diffusion-tensor-imaging-mri-with-spin-echo-sequence
#14
Jun-Ya Kaimori, Yoshitaka Isaka, Masaki Hatanaka, Satoko Yamamoto, Naotsugu Ichimaru, Akihiko Fujikawa, Hiroshi Shibata, Akira Fujimori, Sosuke Miyoshi, Takashi Yokawa, Kagayaki Kuroda, Toshiki Moriyama, Hiromi Rakugi, Shiro Takahara
Renal fibrosis (RF) is an indicator for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of CKD and end-stage renal disease in Western populations, the ability of MRI to evaluate RF in DN patients has not been determined. As a first step to identify possible MRI methods for RF evaluation, we examined the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI to evaluate RF in a rat model of DN (SHR/NDmcr-cp(cp/cp): SHR/ND). The signal-to-noise ratio in DTI MRI was enhanced using a spin-echo sequence, and a special kidney attachment was developed for long-term stabilization...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710580/assessment-of-acute-kidney-injury-with-t1-mapping-mri-following-solid-organ-transplantation
#15
Matti Peperhove, Van Dai Vo Chieu, Mi-Sun Jang, Marcel Gutberlet, Dagmar Hartung, Susanne Tewes, Gregor Warnecke, Christiane Fegbeutel, Axel Haverich, Wilfried Gwinner, Frank Lehner, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Hermann Haller, Frank Wacker, Faikah Gueler, Katja Hueper
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. METHODS: 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence...
July 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709641/glucocest-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in%C3%A2-vivo-may-be-diagnostic-of-acute-renal-allograft-rejection
#16
Dominik Kentrup, Philipp Bovenkamp, Annika Busch, Katharina Schuette-Nuetgen, Helga Pawelski, Hermann Pavenstädt, Eberhard Schlatter, Karl-Heinz Herrmann, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Bettina Löffler, Barbara Heitplatz, Veerle Van Marck, Nirbhay N Yadav, Guanshu Liu, Peter C M van Zijl, Stefan Reuter, Verena Hoerr
Acute cellular renal allograft rejection (AR) frequently occurs after kidney transplantations. It is a sterile T-cell mediated inflammation leading to increased local glucose metabolism. Here we demonstrate in an allogeneic model of Brown Norway rat kidneys transplanted into uninephrectomized Lewis rats the successful implementation of the recently developed glucose chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) magnetic resonance imaging. This technique is a novel method to assess and differentiate AR...
July 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707660/-increase-in-the-concentration-of-seh-protein-in-renal-medulla-of-isiah-rats-with-inherited-stress-induced-arterial-hypertension
#17
T O Abramova, M A Ryazanova, E V Antonov, O E Redina, A L Markel
The concentration of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) protein was studied in renal medulla of adult rats from hypertensive ISIAH strain and normotensive WAG strain. The sEH is a key enzyme in metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids capable of activating endothelial NO-synthase and nitrogen oxide formation, and therefore being vasodilators. An increase in the sEH protein concentration (that we found) allows one to assume that the oxidative stress is increased in the renal medulla of hypertensive rats, and the bloodflow is decreased...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707190/novel-porcine-model-for-calcium-oxalate-stone-formation
#18
Brandon P Trojan, Sara J Trojan, Andrew Navetta, Bryce Staches, Bryan Sutton, Stephanie Filleur, Thomas Nelius
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms for calcium-based stone formation are not clearly delineated. Porcine are the most anatomically and physiologically congruent mammal to humans. Our objectives were to develop a cost-effective and easily reproducible porcine model for the study of calcium-based nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Crossbred male pigs (n = 16) were assigned randomly to one of the following treatments: (1) control; (2) ethylene glycol (EG) + vitamin D (VD); (3) EG + ammonium chloride (AC); (4) EG + gentamicin (G); (5) EG + Lasix; (6) EG + VD + AC; (7) EG + VD + G...
July 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697319/renal-medullary-carcinoma-establishing-standards-in-practice
#19
Kathryn E Beckermann, Deva Sharma, Shruti Chaturvedi, Pavlos Msaouel, Miguel R Abboud, Yves Allory, Franck Bourdeaut, Julien Calderaro, Aguirre A de Cubas, Vimal K Derebail, Andrew L Hong, Rakhi P Naik, Gabriel G Malouf, Elizabeth A Mullen, Victor E Reuter, Charles W M Roberts, Cheryl L Walker, Christopher G Wood, Michael R DeBaun, Hendrik Van Poppel, Nizar M Tannir, W Kimryn Rathmell
Although renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare subtype of kidney cancer, it is particularly devastating in that it is nearly uniformly lethal. No established guidelines exist for the diagnosis and management of RMC. In April 2016, a panel of experts developed clinical guidelines on the basis of a literature review and consensus statements. The goal was to propose recommendations for standardized diagnostic and management approaches and to establish an international clinical registry and biorepository for RMC...
July 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693025/infusion-of-valproic-acid-into-the-renal-medulla-activates-stem-cell-population-and-attenuates-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-dahl-s-rats
#20
Zhengchao Wang, Qing Zhu, Weili Wang, Fan Yi, Pin-Lan Li, Krishna M Boini, Ningjun Li
BACKGROUND: Our previous study has detected a stem cell deficiency in the renal medulla in Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats. This study determined whether infusion of valproic acid (VA), an agent known to stimulate the stem cell function, attenuated salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats. METHODS: Uninephrectomized Dahl S rats were infused with vehicle or VA (50mg/kg/d) into the renal medulla and fed with a low (LS) or high salt diet (HS). Stem cell marker and number were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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