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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768287/ultrasound-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-a-patient-with-medullary-cystic-kidney-disease
#1
Gilbert Whang, Hisham Tchelepi
Among the renal cystic diseases that result in end-stage renal disease, an important hereditary cause is medullary cystic kidney disease, which affects adults in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is characterized by progressive renal failure, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and formation of small cysts in the renal medulla and corticomedullary junction. While the appearance of medullary/corticomedullary cysts may not be pathognomonic for medullary cystic kidney disease, encountering a patient with renal failure and medullary/corticomedullary cysts should prompt further investigation, given the implication of having the disease...
May 15, 2018: Ultrasound Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766943/brain-stem-hemangioblastomas-the-seemingly-innocuous-lesion-in-a-perilous-location
#2
Jeena Joseph, Sanjay Behari, Shruti Gupta, Kamlesh Singh Bhaisora, Anish Gandhi, Arun Srivastava, Awadhesh K Jaiswal
Introduction: Hemangioblastomas [75% sporadic, 25% with Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease] are highly vascular, benign lesions. The surgical nuances, management, and complication avoidance in brain-stem hemangioblastomas (BHs) have been studied. Material and Methods: Over 18 years, 27(mean age: 29 years; range 15-60 years) consecutive cases of BH underwent microsurgical excision. All patients were assessed clinico-radiologically for neurological deficits and screened for VHL disease...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764227/responsiveness-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-i1-imidazoline-receptor-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-to-cardiovascular-regulation-is-enhanced-in-conscious-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#3
Masanobu Yamazato, Minori Nakamoto, Atsushi Sakima, Yoriko Yamazato, Shuichi Takishita, Yusuke Ohya
Stimulation of α2-adrenoceptor/I1-imidazoline receptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla decreases the blood pressure via sympathoinhibition. However, alteration of receptor responses in genetically hypertensive rats remains unclear. We examined cardiovascular responses of α2-adrenoceptor/I1-imidazoline receptor agonist and antagonists microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla of conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats. Injection of 2-nmol clonidine-an α2-adrenoceptor/I1-imidazoline receptor agonist-unilaterally into the rostral ventrolateral medulla decreased the blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity; the responses were significantly enhanced in spontaneously hypertensive rats than in Wistar Kyoto rats...
May 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759594/liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-and-lipidomics-reveal-toxicological-mechanisms-of-bisphenol-f-in-breast-cancer-xenografts
#4
Chao Zhao, Peisi Xie, Hailin Wang, Zongwei Cai
Bisphenol F (BPF) is a major alternative to bisphenol (BPA) and has been widely used. Although BPA exposure is known to generate various toxic effects, toxicity of BPF remains under-explored. A comprehensive method involving mass spectrometry (MS)-based global lipidomics and metabolomics, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI)- MS imaging (MSI) was used to study toxic effects of BPF and the underlying mechanisms on tumor metastasis-related tissues (liver and kidney) in breast cancer xenografts...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750873/the-effect-of-superoxide-dismutase-sod-enzyme-inhibition-on-renal-microcirculation-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-stroke-prone-shrsp-and-wistar-rats
#5
A F Ahmeda, M G Rae, L M Anweigi, M F Al Otaibi, A A Al-Masri, E J Johns
A significant factor in the development of hypertension may be excessive vasoconstriction within the renal medulla. This study therefore investigated the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the regulation of renal medullary and cortical blood perfusion (MBP and CBP respectively) in both stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and normotensive Wistar rats. CBP and MBP were measured before and after intra-renal infusion of the SOD inhibitor, diethyldithio-carbamic acid (DETC). Under basal conditions, mean arterial pressure was significantly greater in SHRSP than Wistar rats, but both MBP and heart rate (HR) were significantly lower in SHRSP relative to Wistar rats (P < 0...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739889/farnesoid-x-receptor-is-essential-for-the-survival-of-renal-medullary-collecting-duct-cells-under-hypertonic-stress
#6
Sujuan Xu, Shizheng Huang, Zhilin Luan, Tingyue Chen, Yuanyi Wei, Miaomiao Xing, Yaqing Li, Chunxiu Du, Bing Wang, Feng Zheng, Nanping Wang, Youfei Guan, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Xiaoyan Zhang
Hypertonicity in renal medulla is critical for the kidney to produce concentrated urine. Renal medullary cells have to survive high medullary osmolarity during antidiuresis. Previous study reported that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor transcription factor activated by endogenous bile acids, increases urine concentrating ability by up-regulating aquaporin 2 expression in medullary collecting duct cells (MCDs). However, whether FXR is also involved in the maintenance of cell survival of MCDs under dehydration condition and hypertonic stress remains largely unknown...
May 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735857/sonographic-evaluation-of-renal-parameters-in-individuals-with-essential-hypertension-and-correlation-with-normotensives
#7
N N Nwafor, A A Adeyekun, O A Adenike
Background: Hypertension can secondarily involve the kidneys, and renal sonographic parameters can be used to indirectly assess renal function or status. Ultrasound is an inexpensive and safe modality for evaluating the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to sonographically assess renal parameters in patients with essential hypertension to determine the parameters that may indicate increased risk of renal damage. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty individuals (96 females and 54 males) with essential hypertension attending consultant outpatient clinic in University of Benin Teaching Hospital were evaluated...
May 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735631/renal-specific-silencing-of-tnf-tumor-necrosis-factor-unmasks-salt-dependent-increases-in-blood-pressure-via-an-nkcc2a-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-isoform-a-dependent-mechanism
#8
Shoujin Hao, Mary Hao, Nicholas R Ferreri
We tested the hypothesis that TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α produced within the kidney and acting on the renal tubular system is part of a regulatory mechanism that attenuates increases in blood pressure in response to high salt intake. Intrarenal administration of a lentivirus construct, which specifically silenced TNF in the kidney, did not affect baseline blood pressure. However, blood pressure increased significantly 1 day after mice with intrarenal silencing of TNF ingested 1% NaCl in the drinking water...
May 7, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671622/changes-in-kidney-tissue-and-effects-of-erythropoietin-after-acute-heart-failure
#9
A Güven Bağla, M Içkin Gülen, F Ercan, F Aşgün, E Ercan, C Bakar
Impairment of cardiac function causes renal damage. Renal failure after heart failure is attributed to hemodynamic derangement including reduced renal perfusion and increased venous pressure. One mechanism involves apoptosis and is defined as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine that induces erythropoiesis under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) plays a regulatory role in cellular response to hypoxia. Protective effects of EPO on heart, kidney and nervous system are unrelated to red blood cell production...
April 19, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669331/previous-exercise-effects-in-cisplatin-induced-renal-lesions-in-rats
#10
Heloísa D C Francescato, Lucas F Almeida, Natany G Reis, Camila M Faleiros, Marcelo Papoti, Roberto S Costa, Terezila M Coimbra
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Physical training has beneficial effects on endothelial function and can influence the regeneration of the endothelial cell. We investigated the effect of physical training on cisplatin (CP)-induced acute kidney injury and assessed the impact of training on endothelial structure and function, and on the inflammatory processes in rats. METHODS: We injected male Wistar rats subjected to previous physical training in treadmill running (trained, TR) or not (sedentary, SED) with CP (5 mg/kg) (TR+CP and SED+CP groups, respectively)...
April 13, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667915/chronic-lithium-treatment-induces-novel-patterns-of-pendrin-localization-and-expression
#11
Nathaniel J Himmel, Yirong Wang, Daniel A Rodriguez, Michael A Sun, Mitsi A Blount
Prolonged lithium treatment is associated with various renal side effects and is known to induce inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) remodeling. In animals treated with lithium, the fraction of intercalated cells (ICs), which are responsible for acid-base homeostasis, increases as compared to renal principal cells (PCs). In order to investigate the intricacies of lithium-induced IMCD remodeling, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a lithium-enriched diet for 0,1, 2, 3, 6, 9, or 12 weeks. Urine osmolality was decreased at 1 week, and from 2-12 weeks, animals were severely polyuric...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643981/nephroprotective-effect-of-sonchus-oleraceus-extract-against-kidney-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-wistar-rats
#12
Liliana Torres-González, Eduardo Cienfuegos-Pecina, Marlene M Perales-Quintana, Gabriela Alarcon-Galvan, Linda E Muñoz-Espinosa, Edelmiro Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula Cordero-Pérez
Introduction: Kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of delayed graft function in solid organ transplantation. Sonchus oleraceus is a plant with well-known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its effects on renal I/R are unknown. Objective: To evaluate whether S. oleraceus extract (S.O.e.) has nephroprotective activity in an I/R model in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Animal groups ( n = 6): sham, I/R (45 min/15 h), S...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643817/overexpression-of-%C3%A3-arrestin1-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-downregulates-angiotensin-receptor-and-lowers-blood-pressure-in-hypertension
#13
Jia-Cen Sun, Bing Liu, Ru-Wen Zhang, Pei-Lei Jiao, Xing Tan, Yang-Kai Wang, Wei-Zhong Wang
Background: Hypertension is characterized by sympathetic overactivity, which is associated with an enhancement in angiotensin receptor type I (AT1R) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). β-arrestin1, a canonical scaffold protein, has been suggested to show a negative effect on G protein-coupled receptors via its internalization and desensitization and/or the biased signaling pathway. The major objectives of the present study were to observe the effect of β-arrestin1 overexpression in the RVLM on cardiovascular regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and further determine the effect of β-arrestin1 on AT1R expression in the RVLM...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620262/dynamic-expression-and-roles-of-sequestome%C3%A2-1-p62-in-lps%C3%A2-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-mice
#14
Ting Li, Jie Zhao, Shuying Miao, Yunfei Xu, Xianzhong Xiao, Ying Liu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common complications of sepsis. The roles of autophagy in AKI have been demonstrated in previous studies. Sequestosome‑1 (p62) has been demonstrated to serve essential roles in autophagy. The dysregulation of autophagy causes p62 accumulation, which is associated with increased inflammation and tumorigenesis. However, the expression patterns and role of p62 in septic AKI remain unknown. The present study detected the renal autophagy level, and the expression and localization of p62, in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced AKI mouse model...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608911/renal-aquaporin-4-associated-pathology-in-tg-26-mice
#15
Joseph L Bryant, Poornachander R Guda, Sugata Ray, Girma Asemu, Avinash R Sagi, Fahad Mubariz, Muhammed I Arvas, Omar S Khalid, Vivek Shukla, Vamshi K C Nimmagadda, Tapas K Makar
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in HIV patients, which is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and renal tubular dysfunction. Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is a membrane bound water channel protein that plays a distinct role in water reabsorption from renal tubular fluid. It has been proven that failure of AQP-4 insertion into the renal tubular membrane leads to renal dysfunction. However, the role of AQP-4 in HIVAN is unclear. We hypothesize that impaired water reabsorption leads to renal injury in HIVAN, where AQP-4 plays a crucial role...
March 30, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605768/perinatal-exposure-to-energy-drink-induces-oxidative-damage-in-the-liver-kidney-and-brain-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mice-offspring
#16
Gadh I Al-Basher, Hanan Aljabal, Rafa S Almeer, Ahmed A Allam, Ayman M Mahmoud
The worldwide consumption of energy drinks (EDs) has increased in recent years. EDs have several side effects and can be linked to liver injury, kidney damage and risk-seeking behavior. The impact of perinatal consumption of EDs on the newborns has not been previously investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of perinatal exposure to a caffeinated ED on the liver, kidney, brain, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 2.5 or 5 ml ED by oral gavage from the first day of pregnancy until day 15 after birth...
March 29, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603402/expression-of-crym-in-different-rat-organs-during-development-and-its-decreased-expression-in-degenerating-pyramidal-tracts-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Reiji Hommyo, Satoshi O Suzuki, Nona Abolhassani, Hideomi Hamasaki, Masahiro Shijo, Norihisa Maeda, Hiroyuki Honda, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Toru Iwaki
The protein μ-crystallin (CRYM) is a novel component of the marsupial lens that has two functions: it is a key regulator of thyroid hormone transportation and a reductase of sulfur-containing cyclic ketimines. In this study, we examined changes of the expression pattern of CRYM in different rat organs during development using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. As CRYM is reportedly expressed in the corticospinal tract, we also investigated CRYM expression in human cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using immunohistochemistry...
March 30, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602296/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-inflammatory-and-metabolic-pathways-which-are-regulated-by-renal-perfusion-pressure-in-the-outer-medulla-of-dahl-s-rats
#18
Louise C Evans, Alex Dayton, Chun Yang, Pengyuan Liu, Theresa Kurth, Kwang Woo Ahn, Steve Komas, Francesco C Stingo, Purushottam W Laud, Marina Vannucci, Mingyu Liang, Allen W Cowley
Studies exploring the development of hypertension have traditionally been unable to distinguish which of the observed changes are underlying causes from those which are a consequence of elevated blood pressure. In this study, a custom designed servo-control system was utilized to precisely control renal perfusion pressure to the left kidney continuously during the development of hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. In this way, we maintained the left kidney at control blood pressure while the right kidney was exposed to hypertensive pressures...
March 30, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592526/combination-exposure-of-melamine-and-cyanuric-acid-is-associated-with-polyuria-and-activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-rats
#19
Feifei Wang, Qiaojuan Liu, Lizi Jin, Shan Hu, Renfei Luo, Mengke Han, Yonggong Zhai, Weidong Wang, Chunling Li
The molecular mechanism of melamine-induced renal toxicity have not been fully understood. The purpose of the study aimed to investigate whether melamine and cyanuric acid induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the kidney, which may contribute to abnormal water and sodium handling in a rat model. Wistar rats were received melamine (Mel, 200 mg/kg BW/day), cyanuric acid (CA, 200 mg/kg BW/day), or Mel plus CA (Mel+CA, 100 mg/kg BW/day, each) for two weeks. Mel+CA caused damaged tubular epithelial structure and organelles, dilated tubular lumen, and inflammatory responses...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571782/attenuation-values-of-renal-parenchyma-in-virtual-noncontrast-images-acquired-from-multiphase-renal-dual-energy-ct-comparison-with-standard-noncontrast-ct
#20
Yuan-Mao Lin, Yi-You Chiou, Mei-Han Wu, Shan-Su Huang, Shu-Huei Shen
OBJECTIVES: To compare the renal parenchyma attenuation of virtual noncontrast (VNC) images derived from multiphase renal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with standard noncontrast (SNC) images, and to determine the optimum phase for VNC images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine men and 16 women (mean age, 61 ± 13 years; range, 37-89 years) underwent dynamic renal DECT (100/Sn140 kVp) were included in this institutional review board-approved retrospective study...
April 2018: European Journal of Radiology
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