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Renal medulla

Keisuke Shinohara, Xuebo Liu, Donald A Morgan, Deborah R Davis, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez, Martin D Cassell, Justin L Grobe, Kamal Rahmouni, Curt D Sigmund
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is a critical determinant of blood pressure, but the mechanisms regulating RAS activity in the brain remain unclear. Expression of brain renin (renin-b) occurs from an alternative promoter-first exon. The predicted translation product is a nonsecreted enzymatically active renin whose function is unknown. We generated a unique mouse model by selectively ablating the brain-specific isoform of renin (renin-b) while preserving the expression and function of the classical isoform expressed in the kidney (renin-a)...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Yang Gyun Kim, Sangho Lee, Ju Young Moon, Se Yeon Kim, Yu Ho Lee, Seok Jong Song, Kyung Whan Jeoung, Tae Won Lee, Chun Gyu Ihm
OBJECTIVE: Intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) had an important role to generate and maintain hypertension in 2-kidny 1-clip (2K1C) rats. This study purposed to assess how various intrarenal RAS components of 2K1C rats contributed to hypertension in different parts (cortex, medulla) of both sides (CK; clipped-kidney, NCK; non-clipped kidney) at different times (2 weeks; 2w and 5 weeks; 5w after clipping operation). DESIGN AND METHOD: We conducted to insert clip to left renal artery or sham operation to SD rats, then systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at one week interval...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Emmelie Stock, Katrien Vanderperren, Hendrik Haers, Luc Duchateau, Myriam Hesta, Jimmy H Saunders
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a valuable and safe technique for the evaluation of organ perfusion. Repeated injections of ultrasound contrast agent are often administered during the same imaging session. However, it remains unclear if quantitative differences are present between the consecutive microbubble injections. Therefore, the first and second injection of contrast agent for the left renal cortex, renal medulla and the splenic parenchyma in healthy cats were compared. A lower peak intensity and area under the curve were observed for the first injection of contrast agent in the feline kidney, both for the renal cortex and medulla, and spleen...
October 13, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Wei-Chung Tsai, Yi-Hsin Chan, Kroekkiat Chinda, Zhenhui Chen, Jheel Patel, Changyu Shen, Ye Zhao, Zhaolei Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Michael Ye, Lan S Chen, Amanda A Riley, Scott A Persohn, Paul R Territo, Thomas H Everett, Shien-Fong Lin, Harry V Vinters, Michael C Fishbein, Peng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Renal sympathetic denervation (RD) is a promising method of neuromodulation for the management of cardiac arrhythmia. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that RD is antiarrhythmic in ambulatory dogs because it reduces the stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) by remodeling the stellate ganglion (SG) and brain stem. METHODS: We implanted a radiotransmitter to record SGNA and electrocardiogram in 9 ambulatory dogs for 2 weeks, followed by a 2nd surgery for RD and 2 months SGNA recording...
October 5, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Neil P Jerome, Jessica K R Boult, Matthew R Orton, James d'Arcy, David J Collins, Martin O Leach, Dow-Mu Koh, Simon P Robinson
BACKGROUND: To investigate the combined use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted (DW) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess rat renal function using a 1.5T clinical platform. METHODS: Multiple b-value DW and BOLD MR images were acquired from adult rats using a parallel clinical coil arrangement, enabling quantitation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), IVIM-derived diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*) and perfusion fraction (f), and the transverse relaxation time T2*, for whole kidney, renal cortex, and medulla...
October 3, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Kai Jiang, Christopher M Ferguson, Behzad Ebrahimi, Hui Tang, Timothy L Kline, Tyson A Burningham, Prassana K Mishra, Joseph P Grande, Slobodan I Macura, Lilach O Lerman
Purpose To test the utility of magnetization transfer imaging in detecting and monitoring the progression of renal fibrosis in mice with unilateral renal artery stenosis. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Renal artery stenosis surgery (n = 10) or sham surgery (n = 5) was performed, and the stenotic and contralateral kidneys were studied longitudinally in vivo at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery. After a 16.4-T magnetic resonance imaging examination, magnetization transfer ratio was measured as an index of fibrosis (guided by parameters selected in preliminary phantom studies)...
October 3, 2016: Radiology
Marta Kuczeriszka, Leszek Dobrowolski, Agnieszka Walkowska, Janusz Sadowski
BACKGROUND: Purine P2X and P2Y receptors (P2-R) are involved in control of renal circulation, especially in the medulla, wherein they appear to interact with angiotensin II (Ang II). Our experimental approach enabled examination of interaction with Ang II per se, in the absence of blood pressure elevation. In this whole-kidney functional study we focused on the influence of P2X1-R on perfusion of the renal medulla. METHODS: Acute experiments were conducted with normal rats, untreated or subjected to two weeks' infusion of Ang II (osmotic minipumps)...
August 1, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Haseeb A Khan, Khalid E Ibrahim, Ayaat Khan, Salman H Alrokayan, Abdullah S Alhomida
Recently, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have shown promising applications in targeted drug delivery and contrast imaging. Although in vitro cytotoxicity of GNPs has been thoroughly studied, there are limited data on in vivo toxicity of GNPs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of intraperitoneally injected 10 nm and 50 nm GNPs (5 μg/animal) on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) on day 1 and day 5, post-exposure. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that both 10 nm and 50 nm GNPs induced an acute phase expression of proinflammatory cytokines in renal cortex and medulla...
September 28, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Bulent Ergin, Philippe Guerci, Lara Zafrani, Frank Nocken, Asli Kandil, Ebru Gurel-Gurevin, Cihan Demirci-Tansel, Can Ince
BACKGROUND: Modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress appears to limit sepsis-induced damage in experimental models. The kidney is one of the most sensitive organs to injury during septic shock. In this study, we evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration in conjunction with fluid resuscitation on renal oxygenation and function. We hypothesized that reducing inflammation would improve the microcirculatory oxygenation in the kidney and limit the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI)...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Chengyan Wang, Kai Zhao, Rui Zhang, Li Jiang, Rui Wang, Xiaodong Zhang, He Wang, Lixin Jin, Jue Zhang, Xiaoying Wang, Jing Fang
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic renal R2 /R2 '/R2 * measurements based on a method, denoted psMASE-ME, in which a periodic 180° pulse-shifting multi-echo asymmetric spin echo (psMASE) sequence, combined with a moving estimation (ME) strategy, is adopted. Following approval by the institutional animal care and use committee, a block design of respiratory challenge with interleaved air and carbogen (97% O2 , 3% CO2 ) breathing was employed in nine rabbits. Parametrical R2 /R2 '/R2 * maps were computed and average R2 /R2 '/R2 * values were measured in regions of interest in the renal medulla and cortex...
September 27, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
David Kenkel, Borna K Barth, Marco Piccirelli, Lukas Filli, Tim Finkenstädt, Cäcilia S Reiner, Andreas Boss
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to implement a protocol for simultaneous multislice (SMS) accelerated diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the kidneys and to perform a systematic analysis of image quality of the data sets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with renal masses underwent DWI of the kidney in this prospective institutional review board-approved study on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner. Simultaneous multislice DWI echo-planar sequences (acceleration factors [AFs] 2 and 3) were compared with conventional echo-planar DWI as reference standard for each acquisition scheme...
September 22, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Yang Gyun Kim, Sangho Lee, Ju Young Moon, Se Yeon Kim, Yu Ho Lee, Seok Jong Song, Kyung Whan Jeoung, Tae Won Lee, Chun Gyu Ihm
OBJECTIVE: Intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) had an important role to generate and maintain hypertension in 2-kidny 1-clip (2K1C) rats. This study purposed to assess how various intrarenal RAS components of 2K1C rats contributed to hypertension in different parts (cortex, medulla) of both sides (CK; clipped-kidney, NCK; non-clipped kidney) at different times (2 weeks; 2w and 5 weeks; 5w after clipping operation). DESIGN AND METHOD: We conducted to insert clip to left renal artery or sham operation to SD rats, then systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at one week interval...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Katja Hueper, Marcel Gutberlet, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Mi-Sun Jang, Anja Thorenz, Rongjun Chen, Barbara Hertel, Amelie Barrmeyer, Martina Schmidbauer, Martin Meier, Sibylle von Vietinghoff, Abedalrazag Khalifa, Dagmar Hartung, Hermann Haller, Frank Wacker, Song Rong, Faikah Gueler
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation (ktx) in mice is used to learn about rejection and to develop new treatment strategies. Past studies have mainly been based on histological or molecular biological methods. Imaging techniques to monitor allograft pathology have rarely been used. METHODS: Here we investigated mice after isogenic and allogenic ktx over time with functional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and mapping of T2-relaxation time (T2-mapping) to assess graft inflammation and edema formation...
2016: PloS One
Luciana C Veiras, Jiyang Han, Donna L Ralph, Alicia A McDonough
Angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension increases distal tubule Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) abundance and phosphorylation (NCCp), as well as epithelial Na(+) channel abundance and activating cleavage. Acutely raising plasma [K(+)] by infusion or ingestion provokes a rapid decrease in NCCp that drives a compensatory kaliuresis. The first aim tested whether acutely raising plasma [K(+)] with a single 3-hour 2% potassium meal would lower NCCp in Sprague-Dawley rats after 14 days of AngII (400 ng/kg per minute). The potassium-rich meal neither decreased NCCp nor increased K(+) excretion...
October 2016: Hypertension
Débora Delwing-Dal Magro, Roberto Roecker, Gustavo M Junges, André F Rodrigues, Daniela Delwing-de Lima, José G P da Cruz, Angela T S Wyse, Heloisa S Pitz, Ana L B Zeni
We investigated, in vivo (acute and chronic), the effects of proline on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) and on the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in renal tissues (cortex and medulla) of rats. For acute administration, 29-day-old rats received a single subcutaneous injection of proline (18.2μmol/g body weight) or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution and were sacrificed 1h later. For chronic treatment, proline was injected subcutaneously in the rats twice a day from the 6th to the 28th day of age, and the animals were killed 12h after the last injection...
August 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Irene Martínez de Toda, Carmen Vida, Eduardo Ortega, Mónica De La Fuente
Under stressful conditions, the expression of the chaperone Hsp70 is induced, which acts as a cellular defense mechanism. The impairment in this induction has been related to aging, whereas an increased expression has been related to longevity. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the basal levels of Hsp70 can be indicative of the aging rate of different tissues. The aim of this study was to quantify the basal levels of Hsp70 in tissues from female mice throughout their aging process including long-lived mice, as well as from prematurely aging mice (PAM)...
November 2016: Experimental Gerontology
María Constanza Potilinski, Rosalía Moretta, Leonardo Casal, Eduardo García Gras, Carlos E Amorena
With aging the kidney exhibits progressive deterioration, with a decrease in renal function. Most of the filtered Na+ is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubules through different transporters located in apical membrane. This process is possible because basolateral Na+/K+-ATP-ase generates electrochemical conditions necessary for energetically favorable Na+ transport. The a-subunit is the catalytic domain of Na+/K+-ATP-ase. There are three isoforms of the a/subunit present in rat kidney. The present study was undertaken to examine the expression pattern of rat a-Na+/K+-ATP-ase during senescence...
2016: Medicina
Jiangfeng Liu, Weiling Wang, Ming Liu, Limin Su, Hong Zhou, Yin Xia, Jianhua Ran, Herbert Y Lin, Baoxue Yang
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a monogenetic disease that still lacks effective therapy. Repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb), a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and a ligand for neogenin, is expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells. Previous studies showed that RGMb plays negative roles in several types of tumors and prevents the immune system from over activation. The present study was designed to explore the effects of RGMb in ADPKD development. We found that expression of RGMb in kidney was less in PKD mice than wild-type mice...
December 2016: Cellular Signalling
Alton B Farris, Carla L Ellis, Thomas E Rogers, Diane Lawson, Cynthia Cohen, Seymour Rosen
Renal tubulointerstitial injury often leads to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA). IF/TA is typically assessed in the renal cortex and can be objectively quantitated with computerized image analysis (IA). However, the human medulla accounts for a substantial proportion of the nephron; therefore, medullary scarring will have important cortical consequences and may parallel overall chronic renal injury. Trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and collagen III immunohistochemistry (IHC) were visually examined and quantitated on scanned whole slide images (WSIs) (N = 67 cases)...
2016: PloS One
Anna Calió, Kathleen A Warfel, John N Eble
Although angiomyolipoma of the kidney is a well-described and broadly studied neoplasm, little is known about clinical and morphological features of small incidental tumors occurring sporadically. Sections from 58 small angiomyolipomas found in 37 patients from 402 consecutive unselected autopsies were studied. A female predominance and a bimodal age distribution (30-50 and >70 years) were observed. No angiomyolipoma was found in a prepubertal patient. Six patients had multiple and bilateral angiomyolipomas (2-8 tumors per patient)...
August 17, 2016: Human Pathology
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