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Renal medulla

Hiroki Maruyama, Atsumi Taguchi, Yuji Nishikawa, Chu Guili, Mariko Mikame, Masaaki Nameta, Yutaka Yamaguchi, Mitsuhiro Ueno, Naofumi Imai, Yumi Ito, Takahiko Nakagawa, Ichiei Narita, Satoshi Ishii
A main feature of Fabry disease is nephropathy, with polyuria an early manifestation; however, the mechanism that underlies polyuria and affected tubules is unknown. To increase globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) levels, we previously crossbred asymptomatic Glatm mice with transgenic mice that expressed human Gb3 synthase (A4GALT) and generated the Glatm Tg(CAG-A4GALT) symptomatic Fabry model mice. Additional analyses revealed that these mice exhibit polyuria and renal dysfunction without remarkable glomerular damage...
March 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sheung-Fat Ko, Hon-Kan Yip, Chen-Chang Lee, Chia-Chang Lee, Chia-Hao Su, Chung-Cheng Huang, Shu-Hang Ng, Yi-Ling Chen, Min-Chi Chen
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the potential of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for monitoring adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) therapy of renal ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). PROCEDURES: After baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 36 Sprague-Dawley rats with bilateral renal IRI were divided equally as groups 1, 2, and 3 (non-treated rats) and groups 4, 5, and 6 (ADMSC-treated rats, with 2 million ADMSCs injected via the tail vein at 6 h after IRI)...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Kotoku Kawaguchi, Ryo Hatano, Mitsunobu Matsubara, Shinji Asano
Moesin is expressed in several types of cells including epithelial and endothelial cells. Several groups reported that moesin plays important roles in the regulation of the cellular motility, and the process of internalization of membrane proteins. However, the physiological roles of moesin in the kidney still remain unclear. Herein, we examined the physiological function of moesin in the kidney using moesin knockout (Msn-/y ) mice. There was no obvious abnormality in the renal morphology of Msn-/y mice. However, we found that Msn-/y mice exhibited mild hyperchloremia, and reduced glomerular filtration rate compared to wild type (WT) mice...
March 15, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Fen Chen, Shulin Li, Dong Sun
Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently been utilized as a noninvasive tool for evaluating renal oxygenation. Several methods have been proposed for analyzing BOLD images. Regional ROI selection is the earliest and most widely used method for BOLD analysis. In the last 20 years, many investigators have used this method to evaluate cortical and medullary oxygenation in patients with ischemic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury and renal allograft rejection...
March 8, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Ahmed E Noreldin, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Yasuhiro Kon, Katsuhiko Warita, Yoshinao Z Hosaka
Osteoblast activating peptide (OBAP) is a newly discovered peptide detected in the rat stomach, which has a major role in osteogenesis. Recently, we revealed its localization in the parietal cells of the rat stomach. There have been no data regarding OBAP expression in the kidney, despite its role in calcium reabsorption in renal tubules. The current study aimed to inspect the expression of OBAP in the kidney of twelve 10-week-old male C3H/HeNJc1 mice using immunohistochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopic localization...
March 10, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Atsushi Okada, Shuzo Hamamoto, Kazumi Taguchi, Rei Unno, Teruaki Sugino, Ryosuke Ando, Kentaro Mizuno, Keiichi Tozawa, Kenjiro Kohri, Takahiro Yasui
BACKGROUND: We investigated the renoprotective ability of healthy people against kidney stone formation. To clarify intratubular crystal kinetics and processing in human kidneys, we performed a quantitative and morphological observation of nephrectomized renal parenchyma tissues. METHODS: Clinical data and pathological samples from 60 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for renal cancer were collected from June 2004 to June 2010. The patients were retrospectively classified as stone formers (SFs; n = 30, kidney stones detected by preoperative computed tomography) and non-stone formers (NSFs; n = 30, no kidney stone history)...
March 12, 2018: BMC Urology
Pierre Durieux, Pierre Alain Gevenois, Alain Van Muylem, Nigel Howarth, Caroline Keyzer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the magnitude of differences between attenuation values measured on virtual unenhanced images and true unenhanced images obtained using third-generation dual-source dual-energy CT (DECT). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 83 patients requiring thoracoabdominal CT for cancer workup were included in this prospective study. CT examinations included true unenhanced acquisitions (tube potential, 120 kVp) and arterial and portal phase dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions (tube potential, 100 kVp and Sn 150 kVp [where Sn denotes the interposition of a tin filter in the high-energy beam]; tube current-exposure time product, 190 and 95 mAs)...
March 12, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
You-Zhen Feng, Xiao-Qiao Chen, Juan Yu, Xiao-Ling Liu, Zhong-Yuan Cheng, Wei-Wei Ren, Lie Feng, Xiang-Ran Cai
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM DWI) parameters in identifying early renal function changes in diabetics. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 20 healthy control subjects underwent multiple b value DWI. The diabetic patients were stratified into two groups based on albuminuria category: NAU (normal to mildly increased albuminuria; ACR < 30 mg/g) and MAU (moderately increased albuminuria; 30 ≤ ACR < 300 mg/g)...
March 10, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Mamoru Tanida, Zhang Tao, Lingling Sun, Jie Song, Wei Yang, Yuichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Toshishige Shibamoto
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether anaphylaxis affects sympathetic outflows to the brown adipose tissue (BAT) and adrenal grand is not known. Moreover, it is unknown whether anaphylaxis affects some brain areas in association with sympathetic regulation. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that sympathoexcitatory responses to anaphylaxis regionally occurred in the kidney and adrenal grand, but not in the thermogenesis-related BAT. Further, anaphylactic hypotension also caused increase in c-fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic and medullary areas...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Lu-Ping Li, Jon Thacker, Wei Li, Huan Tan, Chi Wang, Orly Kohn, Stuart Sprague, Pottumarthi Prasad
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients with progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those likely to respond to candidate therapeutics is urgently needed. Functional MRI measurements have shown promise. However, knowledge about the consistency of the measurements is essential to conduct longitudinal studies. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the consistency of repeated functional MRI measurements in healthy subjects. STUDY TYPE: Prospective, longitudinal study...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Ezinne Ozurumba, Omana Mathew, Katsuri Ranganna, Myung Choi, Adebayo Oyekan
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)/prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-containing proteins are involved in renal adaptive response to high salt (HS). Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor involved in fatty acid oxidation is implicated in the regulation of renal function. As both HIF-1α/PHD and PPARα contribute to the adaptive changes to altered oxygen tension, this study tested the hypothesis that PHD-induced renal adaptive response to HS is PPARα-dependent...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Andres F Correa, Amir Toussi, Milon Amin, Ronald L Hrebinko, Bishoy A Gayed, Anil V Parwani, Jodi K Maranchie
INTRODUCTION: Recent reports show a correlation between renal tumor radiographic characteristics and pathologic features. We hypothesize that a more central location within the relatively hypoxic renal medulla might confer a more aggressive tumor phenotype. To test this, radiographic tumor characteristics were compared with tumor grade and histology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed renal masses <4 cm in diameter that underwent resection between 2008 and 2013...
February 5, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Guo-Qi Li, Zhe Wang, Tong Zhao, Shi-Xuan Dai, Jia-Ming Liu, Bo-Zhi Jia, Yi Zhang, Qian Li
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) increases renal sympathetic activity (RSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in rats. Thus, we hypothesized that CB1 receptor in the RVLM may play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced hypertension. METHODS: To this end, we evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors in the RVLM in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertensive rats. We then used pharmacological and molecular methods to examine the role of RVLM CB1 receptors in regulation of BP, heart rate (HR), and RSNA in obesity-induced hypertensive rats...
April 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Stephan Rodrigo Marticorena Garcia, Markus Grossmann, Sophia Theresa Lang, Manh Nguyen Trong, Michael Schultz, Jing Guo, Bernd Hamm, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack, Heiko Tzschätzsch
The purpose of this study was to analyze full-field-of-view maps of renal shear wave speed (SWS) measured by time-harmonic elastography (THE) in healthy volunteers in terms of reproducibility, regional variation and physiologic effects. The kidneys of 37 healthy volunteers were investigated by multifrequency THE. The complete renal parenchyma, as well as cortex and medulla, was analyzed. A subgroup was investigated to test reproducibility (n = 3). Significant differences between SWS in cortex, medulla and full parenchyma were observed (2...
February 22, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Henrik Dimke, Jürgen Schnermann
The thick ascending limb (TAL) extends from the border of the inner medulla to the renal cortex, thus ascending through regions with wide differences in tissue solute and electrolyte concentrations. Structural and functional differences between TAL cells in the medulla (mTAL) and the cortex (cTAL) would therefore be useful to adapt TAL transport function to a changing external fluid composition. While mechanisms common to all TAL cells play a central role in the reclamation of about 25% of the NaCl filtered by the kidney, morphological features, Na+ / K+ -ATPase activity, NKCC2 splicing and phosphorylation does vary between segments and cells...
February 24, 2018: Acta Physiologica
George J Dugbartey
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common global health challenge characterized by irreversible pathological processes that reduce kidney function and culminates in development of end-stage renal disease. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in addition to increased caregiver burden and higher financial cost. A central player in CKD pathogenesis and progression is renal hypoxia. Renal hypoxia stimulates induction of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which in turn, promote cellular susceptibility and further aggravate hypoxia, thus forming a pathological vicious cycle in CKD progression...
October 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Jie Zhang, Jing Cong, Jie Yang, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Arne Andreasen, Shi-Jie Chang, Kai-Yue Wang, Ling Gu, Xiao-Yue Zhai
A proper morphogenesis of the renal microvasculature is crucial not only for fulfilling the renal function, but also to slow down the progression of chronic kidney disease in adulthood. However, the current description of the developing microvasculature is incomplete. The present study investigated the morphogenesis and volume densities of the renal microvasculature using computer-assisted tubular tracing, immunohistochemistry for CD34, and unbiased stereology. The earliest glomerular capillaries were observed at the lower cleft of the S-shape nephrons, as simple loops connecting the afferent and efferent arterioles...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yuan-Cheng Wang, Yinglian Feng, Chun-Qiang Lu, Shenghong Ju
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the renal fat fraction and water molecular diffusion features in patients with early-stage DN using Dixon imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Sixty-one type 2 diabetics (normoalbuminuria: n = 40; microalbuminuria: n = 21) and 34 non-diabetic volunteers were included. All participants received three-point Dixon imaging and DTI using a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imager. The fat fraction [FF] and DTI features [fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tract counts and length from DTI tractography] were collected...
February 15, 2018: European Radiology
Qidong Wang, Chuangen Guo, Lan Zhang, Rui Zhang, Zhaoming Wang, Ying Xu, Wenbo Xiao
Objective To investigate changes in renal oxygenation levels by blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate BOLD-MRI for detecting early diabetic renal injury. Methods Seventy-five rats, with unilateral nephrectomy, were randomly divided into streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM, n = 65) and normal control (NC, n = 10) groups. BOLD-MRI scans were performed at baseline (both groups) and at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 and 70 days (DM only). Renal cortical (C) and medullary (M) R2* signals were measured and R2* medulla/cortex ratio (MCR) was calculated...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Pavlos Msaouel, Nizar M Tannir, Cheryl Lyn Walker
Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a highly aggressive malignancy that predominantly afflicts young adults and adolescents with sickle hemoglobinopathies. It is characterized by complete loss of expression of the chromatin remodeler and tumor suppressor SMARCB1. Despite therapy, the outcomes of patients with RMC remain very poor, highlighting the need to understand the etiology of this cancer, and develop new diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic strategies. A key knowledge gap in RMC biology is why sickle hemoglobinopathies predispose to the development of this cancer...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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