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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923152/hydronephrosis-in-the-wnt5a-ablated-kidney-is-caused-by-an-abnormal-ureter-bladder-connection
#1
Kangsun Yun, Alan O Perantoni
The Wnt5a null mouse is a complex developmental model which, among its several posterior-localized axis defects, exhibits multiple kidney phenotypes, including duplex kidney and loss of the medullary zone. We previously reported that ablation of Wnt5a in nascent mesoderm causes duplex kidney formation as a result of aberrant development of the nephric duct and abnormal extension of intermediate mesoderm. However, these mice also display a loss of the medullary region late in gestation. We have now genetically isolated duplex kidney formation from the medullary defect by specifically targeting the progenitors for both the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme...
December 3, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900941/the-kidney-in-sickle-hemoglobinopathies%C3%A2
#2
Medha Airy, Garabed Eknoyan
With improvements in the care of patients with sickle hemoglobinopathies, sickle cell disease (SCD) has evolved from a disease that was fatal in childhood into one in which most survive past their 5th decade and some into old age. As a result, the renal complications of sickle hemoglobinopathies, which are age dependent, have emerged as a common and serious complication of SCD. Approximately 14 - 18% of mortality in SCD is attributed to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which develops in 1/3 of individuals with SCD and progresses to end-stage renal disease in 4 - 18% of them...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895733/improved-laparoscopic-nephron-sparing-surgery-for-renal-cell-carcinoma-based-on-the-precise-anatomy-of-the-nephron
#3
Gang Guo, Wei Cai, Xu Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate a method of laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery (LNSS) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on the precise anatomy of the nephron, and to decrease the incidence of hemorrhage and urinary leakage. Between January 2012 and December 2013, 31 patients who presented to the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army (Beijing, China) were treated for RCC. The mean tumor size was 3.4±0.7 cm in diameter (range, 1.2-6.0 cm). During surgery, the renal artery was blocked, and subsequently, an incision in the renal capsule and renal cortex was performed, at 3-5 mm from the tumor edge...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885332/2-3-5-4-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-promotes-expression-of-the-longevity-gene-klotho
#4
Shuang Ling, Ju Duan, Rongzhen Ni, Jin-Wen Xu
The longevity gene klotho has numerous physiological functions, such as regulating calcium and phosphorus levels, delaying senescence, improving cognition, reducing oxidative stress, and protecting vascular endothelial cells. This study tested whether 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), a small molecule with antiaging effects, regulates the expression and physiological effects of klotho. Our results showed that THSG dose-dependently increased the luciferase reporter activity of the klotho gene, reversed the decrease in mRNA and protein expression of klotho which was induced by angiotensin II in NRK-52E renal tubular epithelial cells, and increased klotho mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, testis, and kidney medulla of spontaneously hypertensive rats...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864568/value-of-dynamic-mri-using-the-ktrans-technique-for-assessment-of-native-kidneys-in-pre-emptive-renal-transplantation
#5
Recep Sade, Mecit Kantarci, Leyla Karaca, Aylin Okur, Hayri Ogul, Mustafa Keles, Erdem Çankaya, Arif Kursad Ayan
BACKGROUND: Different non-invasive imaging techniques such as Doppler ultrasonography and renal scintigraphy are commonly employed to assess allograft function and associated complications. However, all such methods lack sufficient specificity to discriminate between residual renal function of native kidneys. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) evaluates signal dynamics during the passage of contrast material through the renal cortex, medulla, and collecting system...
November 18, 2016: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861247/overactivation-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-1-in-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-promotes-cardiovascular-responses-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#6
Tao Wang, Guo-Qi Li, Hui-Ping Zhang, Yi Zhang, Qian Li
OBJECTIVE: Stimulation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) increases renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in rats. Thus, we hypothesized that abnormal expression of CB1 receptor in the RVLM may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of intra-RVLM infusions of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), selective CB1 receptor agonist, with or without AM251, selective CB1 receptor antagonist, on BP, heart rate (HR), and RSNA in spontaneously hypertensive rats and wild-type rats...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849390/adverse-effects-of-tempol-on-hidrosaline-balance-in-rats-with-acute-sodium-overload
#7
N M Kouyoumdzian, Nl Rukavina Mikusic, G Cao, M R Choi, Sl Della Penna, B E Fernández, J E Toblli, M I Rosón
We studied the effects of tempol, an oxygen radical scavenger, on hydrosaline balance in rats with acute sodium overload. Male rats with free access to water were injected with isotonic (control group) or hypertonic saline solution (0.80 mol/l NaCl) either alone (Na group) or with tempol (Na-T group). Hydrosaline balance was determined during a 90 min experimental period. Protein expressions of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), aquaporin 2 (AQP2), angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured in renal tissue...
November 2016: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814606/regulation-and-function-of-renal-medullary-cyclooxygenase-2-during-high-salt-loading
#8
Tianxin Yang, Mi Liu
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important autocrine/paracrine regulators that contribute to sodium balance and blood pressure control. Along the nephron, the highest amount of PGE2 is found in the distal nephron, an important site for fine-tuning of urinary sodium and water excretion. Cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is abundantly expressed in the renal medulla and its expression along with urinary PGE2 excretion is highly induced by chronic salt loading. Factors involved in high salt-induced COX-2 expression in the renal medulla include the hypertonicity, fluid shear stress (FSS), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803669/the-role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-renal-system
#9
REVIEW
Xu Cao, Jin-Song Bian
Hydrogen sulfide has gained recognition as the third gaseous signaling molecule after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This review surveys the emerging role of H2S in mammalian renal system, with emphasis on both renal physiology and diseases. H2S is produced redundantly by four pathways in kidney, indicating the abundance of this gaseous molecule in the organ. In physiological conditions, H2S was found to regulate the excretory function of the kidney possibly by the inhibitory effect on sodium transporters on renal tubular cells...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802451/microrna-193b-3p-as-a-predictive-biomarker-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-undergoing-radical-nephrectomy-for-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Francesco Trevisani, Michele Ghidini, Alessandro Larcher, Andrea Lampis, Hazel Lote, Paolo Manunta, Maria Teresa Sciarrone Alibrandi, Laura Zagato, Lorena Citterio, Giacomo Dell'Antonio, Cristina Carenzi, Giovambattista Capasso, Massimo Rugge, Paolo Rigotti, Roberto Bertini, Luciano Cascione, Alberto Briganti, Andrea Salonia, Fabio Benigni, Chiara Braconi, Matteo Fassan, Jens Claus Hahne, Francesco Montorsi, Nicola Valeri
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of patients undergoing radical nephrectomy (RN) for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) develop chronic kidney disease (CKD) within a few years following surgery. Chronic kidney disease has important health, social and economic impact and no predictive biomarkers are currently available. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs implicated in several pathological processes. METHODS: Primary objective of our study was to define miRs whose deregulation is predictive of CKD in patients treated with RN...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789056/transcription-factor-nrf2-hyperactivation-in-early-phase-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-prevents-tubular-damage-progression
#11
Masahiro Nezu, Tomokazu Souma, Lei Yu, Takafumi Suzuki, Daisuke Saigusa, Sadayoshi Ito, Norio Suzuki, Masayuki Yamamoto
Acute kidney injury is a devastating disease with high morbidity in hospitalized patients and contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. An underlying mechanism of acute kidney injury involves ischemia-reperfusion injury which, in turn, induces oxidative stress and provokes organ damage. Nrf2 is a master transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to oxidative stress. Here, we examined the role of Nrf2 in the progression of ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced kidney damage in mice using genetic and pharmacological approaches...
October 20, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784295/the-findings-of-ct-and-mri-in-patients-with-metanephric-adenoma
#12
Jing Yan, Jing-Liang Cheng, Chen-Fei Li, Yan-Bang Lian, Yuan Zheng, Xue-Ping Zhang, Chao-Yan Wang
BACKGROUND: Metanephric adenoma (MA) is a benign renal tumor that is difficult to distinguish from a malignant tumor via traditional radiography. The diagnosis of MA is often dependent on postsurgical histopathological examination. In the present report, the imaging features of MA on computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were retrospectively evaluated. METHODS: Eight MA patients, 17-67 years of age, were pathologically confirmed and recruited between April 2009 and November 2014...
October 27, 2016: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783283/electron-microscopic-study-of-the-inner-medulla-in-rat-kidneys-under-conditions-of-vasopressin-treatment-combined-with-prostaglandin-synthesis-blockade
#13
A V Babina, V A Lavrinenko
Ultrastructural changes in cells of the renal inner medulla involved in the realization of the antidiuretic effect of vasopressin under conditions of prostaglandin synthesis blockade were studied in the kidneys of Wistar rats and endogenous vasopressin-deficient homozygous Brattleboro rats. The results indicated uniform trend to an increase in the number of clathrincoated vesicles under conditions of hormone treatment combined with prostaglandin synthesis blockade in animals with different neurohypophyseal status...
October 25, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754863/selective-deletion-of-the-brain-specific-isoform-of-renin-causes-neurogenic-hypertension
#14
Keisuke Shinohara, Xuebo Liu, Donald A Morgan, Deborah R Davis, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez, Martin D Cassell, Justin L Grobe, Kamal Rahmouni, Curt D Sigmund
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is a critical determinant of blood pressure, but the mechanisms regulating RAS activity in the brain remain unclear. Expression of brain renin (renin-b) occurs from an alternative promoter-first exon. The predicted translation product is a nonsecreted enzymatically active renin whose function is unknown. We generated a unique mouse model by selectively ablating the brain-specific isoform of renin (renin-b) while preserving the expression and function of the classical isoform expressed in the kidney (renin-a)...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754058/os-15-06-sequential-activation-of-intrarenal-ace-ace2-as-the-progression-of-hypertensive-nephropathy-in-2-kidney-10clip-2k1c-goldblatt-rats
#15
Yang Gyun Kim, Sangho Lee, Ju Young Moon, Se Yeon Kim, Yu Ho Lee, Seok Jong Song, Kyung Whan Jeoung, Tae Won Lee, Chun Gyu Ihm
OBJECTIVE: Intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) had an important role to generate and maintain hypertension in 2-kidny 1-clip (2K1C) rats. This study purposed to assess how various intrarenal RAS components of 2K1C rats contributed to hypertension in different parts (cortex, medulla) of both sides (CK; clipped-kidney, NCK; non-clipped kidney) at different times (2 weeks; 2w and 5 weeks; 5w after clipping operation). DESIGN AND METHOD: We conducted to insert clip to left renal artery or sham operation to SD rats, then systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at one week interval...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746009/quantitative-differences-between-the-first-and-second-injection-of-contrast-agent-in-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography-of%C3%A2-feline-kidneys-and-spleen
#16
Emmelie Stock, Katrien Vanderperren, Hendrik Haers, Luc Duchateau, Myriam Hesta, Jimmy H Saunders
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a valuable and safe technique for the evaluation of organ perfusion. Repeated injections of ultrasound contrast agent are often administered during the same imaging session. However, it remains unclear if quantitative differences are present between the consecutive microbubble injections. Therefore, the first and second injection of contrast agent for the left renal cortex, renal medulla and the splenic parenchyma in healthy cats were compared. A lower peak intensity and area under the curve were observed for the first injection of contrast agent in the feline kidney, both for the renal cortex and medulla, and spleen...
October 13, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720832/effects-of-renal-sympathetic-denervation-on-the-stellate-ganglion-and-the-brain-stem-in-dogs
#17
Wei-Chung Tsai, Yi-Hsin Chan, Kroekkiat Chinda, Zhenhui Chen, Jheel Patel, Changyu Shen, Ye Zhao, Zhaolei Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Michael Ye, Lan S Chen, Amanda A Riley, Scott A Persohn, Paul R Territo, Thomas H Everett, Shien-Fong Lin, Harry V Vinters, Michael C Fishbein, Peng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Renal sympathetic denervation (RD) is a promising method of neuromodulation for the management of cardiac arrhythmia. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that RD is antiarrhythmic in ambulatory dogs because it reduces the stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA) by remodeling the stellate ganglion (SG) and brain stem. METHODS: We implanted a radiotransmitter to record SGNA and electrocardiogram in 9 ambulatory dogs for 2 weeks, followed by a 2nd surgery for RD and 2 months SGNA recording...
October 5, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716094/modulation-of-renal-oxygenation-and-perfusion-in-rat-kidney-monitored-by-quantitative-diffusion-and-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-magnetic-resonance-imaging-on-a-clinical-1-5t-platform
#18
Neil P Jerome, Jessica K R Boult, Matthew R Orton, James d'Arcy, David J Collins, Martin O Leach, Dow-Mu Koh, Simon P Robinson
BACKGROUND: To investigate the combined use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted (DW) and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess rat renal function using a 1.5T clinical platform. METHODS: Multiple b-value DW and BOLD MR images were acquired from adult rats using a parallel clinical coil arrangement, enabling quantitation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), IVIM-derived diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*) and perfusion fraction (f), and the transverse relaxation time T2*, for whole kidney, renal cortex, and medulla...
October 3, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697008/noninvasive-assessment-of-renal-fibrosis-with-magnetization-transfer-mr-imaging-validation-and-evaluation-in-murine-renal-artery-stenosis
#19
Kai Jiang, Christopher M Ferguson, Behzad Ebrahimi, Hui Tang, Timothy L Kline, Tyson A Burningham, Prassana K Mishra, Joseph P Grande, Slobodan I Macura, Lilach O Lerman
Purpose To test the utility of magnetization transfer imaging in detecting and monitoring the progression of renal fibrosis in mice with unilateral renal artery stenosis. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Renal artery stenosis surgery (n = 10) or sham surgery (n = 5) was performed, and the stenotic and contralateral kidneys were studied longitudinally in vivo at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery. After a 16.4-T magnetic resonance imaging examination, magnetization transfer ratio was measured as an index of fibrosis (guided by parameters selected in preliminary phantom studies)...
October 3, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682519/influence-of-p2x-receptors-on-renal-medullary-circulation-is-not-altered-by-angiotensin-ii-pretreatment
#20
Marta Kuczeriszka, Leszek Dobrowolski, Agnieszka Walkowska, Janusz Sadowski
BACKGROUND: Purine P2X and P2Y receptors (P2-R) are involved in control of renal circulation, especially in the medulla, wherein they appear to interact with angiotensin II (Ang II). Our experimental approach enabled examination of interaction with Ang II per se, in the absence of blood pressure elevation. In this whole-kidney functional study we focused on the influence of P2X1-R on perfusion of the renal medulla. METHODS: Acute experiments were conducted with normal rats, untreated or subjected to two weeks' infusion of Ang II (osmotic minipumps)...
August 1, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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