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Renal medulla

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434125/kidney-morphological-parameters-measured-using-noncontrast-enhanced-steady-state-free-precession-mri-with-spatially-selective-inversion-recovery-pulse-correlate-with-egfr-in-patients-with-advanced-ckd
#1
Tadashi Otsuka, Yoshikatsu Kaneko, Yuya Sato, Ryohei Kaseda, Ryuji Aoyagi, Suguru Yamamoto, Shin Goto, Ichiei Narita
BACKGROUND: It is well known that atrophic renal changes are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but conventional diagnostic imaging methods such as noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been insufficient for precisely assessing kidney function because they cannot clearly distinguish between the medulla and cortex. Hence, here we used noncontrast-enhanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) MRI with a spatially selective inversion recovery (IR) pulse to improve visibility for renal corticomedullary differentiation and evaluated the association between morphological parameters and kidney function in patients with CKD...
April 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428757/circadian-rhythm-in-kidney-tissue-oxygenation-in-the-rat
#2
Tonja W Emans, Ben J Janssen, Jaap A Joles, C T Paul Krediet
Blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, electrolyte, and water excretion all display diurnal oscillation. Disturbance of these patterns is associated with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Kidney oxygenation is dependent on oxygen delivery and consumption that in turn are determined by renal hemodynamics and metabolism. We hypothesized that kidney oxygenation also demonstrates 24-h periodicity. Telemetric oxygen-sensitive carbon paste electrodes were implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g), either in renal medulla (n = 9) or cortex (n = 7)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414294/salt-and-water-not-so-simple
#3
Mark L Zeidel
It has long been viewed that the maintenance of osmotic balance in response to high salt intake is a passive process that is mediated largely by increased water consumption to balance the salt load. Two studies in this issue of the JCI challenge this notion and demonstrate that osmotic balance in response to high salt intake involves a complex regulatory process that is influenced by hormone fluctuation, metabolism, food consumption, water intake, and renal salt and water excretion. Rakova et al. report the unexpected observation that long-term high salt intake did not increase water consumption in humans but instead increased water retention...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405625/resistance-to-hypertension-mediated-by-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#4
Johannes Stegbauer, Daian Chen, Marcela Herrera, Matthew A Sparks, Ting Yang, Eva Königshausen, Susan B Gurley, Thomas M Coffman
The renal collecting duct (CD), as the terminal segment of the nephron, is responsible for the final adjustments to the amount of sodium excreted in urine. While angiotensin II modulates reabsorptive functions of the CD, the contribution of these actions to physiological homeostasis is not clear. To examine this question, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors from the CD. Elimination of AT1A receptors from both principal and intercalated cells (CDKO mice) had no effect on blood pressures at baseline or during successive feeding of low- or high-salt diets...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392446/the-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-mediated-inhibition-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-contributes-to-regulation-of-blood-pressure-in-hypertensive-rats
#5
Xing Tan, Ji-Kui Li, Jia-Cen Sun, Pei-Lei Jiao, Yang-Kai Wang, Zhao-Tang Wu, Bing Liu, Wei-Zhong Wang
Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the central control of cardiovascular activity. The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) has been recognized as a pivotal region for maintaining basal blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic tone. It is reported that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), characterized as a cardiovascular risk marker, is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis. The present was designed to determine the role of ADMA in the RVLM in the central control of BP in hypertensive rats. In Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, microinjection of ADMA into the RVLM dose-dependently increased BP, heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic never activity (RSNA), but also reduced total NO production in the RVLM...
April 7, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384101/novel-therapeutic-approaches-of-natural-oil-from-black-seeds-and-its-underlying-mechanisms-against-kidney-dysfunctions-in-haloperidol-induced-male-rats
#6
Jacob K Akintunde, Opeyemi K Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs could be nephrotoxic in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: The present study investigated the protective effect of oil from black seed on kidney dysfunctions using several biological approaches in adult rats. The animals were divided into six groups (n=10): normal control rats; haloperidol (HAL)-induced rats: induced rats were pre-, co- and post-treated with black seed oil (BSO), respectively, and the last group was treated with the oil only...
April 6, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363084/the-metabolic-syndrome-induces-early-changes-in%C3%A2-the-swine-renal-medullary-mitochondria
#7
Alfonso Eirin, John R Woollard, Christopher M Ferguson, Kyra L Jordan, Hui Tang, Stephen C Textor, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with nutrient surplus and kidney hyperfiltration, accelerating chronic renal failure. Mitochondria can be overwhelmed by substrate excess, leading to inefficient energy production and thereby tissue hypoxia. Mitochondrial dysfunction is emerging as an important determinant of renal damage, but whether it contributes to MetS-induced renal injury remains unknown. We hypothesized that early MetS induces kidney mitochondrial abnormalities and dysfunction, which would be notable in the vulnerable renal medulla...
March 11, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356289/sex-specific-computational-models-of-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-kidneys-factors-affecting-nitric-oxide-bioavailability
#8
Ying Chen, Jennfier C Sullivan, Aurélie Edwards, Anita T Layton
The goals of this study were to (i) develop a computational model of solute transport and oxygenation in the kidney of the female spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and (ii) apply that model to investigate sex differences in nitric oxide (NO) levels in SHR and their effects on medullary oxygenation and oxidative stress. To accomplish these goals, we first measured NO synthase (NOS) NOS1 and NOS3 protein expression levels in the renal microvessels of male and female SHR. We found that the expression of both NOS1 and NOS3 is higher in the renal vasculature of females compared to males...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341428/renal-papillary-necrosis-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-how-to-recognize-this-forgotten-diagnosis
#9
REVIEW
Michaël M E L Henderickx, Tim Brits, Karen De Baets, Mattias Seghers, Philip Maes, Dominique Trouet, Stefan De Wachter, Gunter De Win
INTRODUCTION: Renal papillary necrosis is not commonly seen in daily practice, but can have severe consequences when it is not diagnosed in time. It is known to be associated with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies; however a wide range of etiologies are possible, and it is therefore not the first diagnosis clinicians consider in patients with sickle cell disease who present with hematuria. METHODS: A literature search was performed to summarize the current knowledge about renal papillary necrosis associated with sickle cell disease...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332960/evaluation-of-transplanted-kidneys-and-comparison-with-healthy-volunteers-and-kidney-donors-with-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-initial-experience
#10
Ümit Özçelik, Halime Çevik, Hüseyin Yüce Bircan, Feza Yarbuğ Karakayalı, İclal Işıklar, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance, by comparing imaging in renal allograft recipients for functional assessment of kidney transplants versus imaging of these features in healthy volunteers and kidney donors with native kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy renal transplant recipients (group A) with stable graft function at postoperative month 1, 40 healthy volunteers (group B), and 40 kidney donors (group C) underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
March 22, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332473/correlation-analysis-of-renal-ultrasound-elastography-and-clinical-and-pathological-changes-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease%C3%A2
#11
Lingyan Peng, Tingting Zhong, Qiuling Fan, Yanjun Liu, Xuemei Wang, Lining Wang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations of renal tissue elastography with clinical biochemical indicators and pathological changes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as to explore the potential for renal tissue elastography as a new, noninvasive method for the dynamic monitoring of renal disease progression, efficacy assessment, and prognosis evaluation. METHODS: Patients admitted to the Department of Nephrology of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from August 2014 to January 2015 who had undergone renal biopsies were selected...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319118/functional-mri-for-characterization-of-renal-perfusion-impairment-and-edema-formation-due-to-acute-kidney-injury-in-different-mouse-strains
#12
Susanne Tewes, Faikah Gueler, Rongjun Chen, Marcel Gutberlet, Mi-Sun Jang, Martin Meier, Michael Mengel, Dagmar Hartung, Frank Wacker, Song Rong, Katja Hueper
PURPOSE: The purpose was to characterize acute kidney injury (AKI) in C57BL/6 (B6)- and 129/Sv (Sv)-mice by noninvasive measurement of renal perfusion and tissue edema using functional MRI. METHODS: Different severities of AKI were induced in B6- and Sv-mice by renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI) or 45 min (severe AKI) was done. MRI (7-Tesla) was performed 1, 7 and 28 days after surgery using a flow alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300186/renal-medulla-is-more-sensitive-to-cisplatin-than-cortex-revealed-by-untargeted-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-in-rats
#13
Pei Zhang, Jia-Qing Chen, Wan-Qiu Huang, Wei Li, Yin Huang, Zun-Jian Zhang, Feng-Guo Xu
Nephrotoxicity has long been the most severe and life-threatening side-effect of cisplatin, whose anticancer effect is therefore restricted. Previous pathological studies have shown that both renal cortex and medulla could be injured by cisplatin. Our TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling) assay results further uncovered that medulla subjected more severe injury than cortex. In order to depict the underlying metabolic mechanism of spatial difference in response to cisplatin, in the present study, mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach was applied to profile renal cortex and medulla metabolites of rat after receiving a single dose of cisplatin (2...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298361/intrarenal-signaling-mediated-by-cck-plays-a-role-in-salt-intake-induced-natriuresis
#14
Hiromi Takahashi-Iwanaga, Shunsuke Kimura, Kohtarou Konno, Masahiko Watanabe, Toshihiko Iwanaga
The natriuretic hormone CCK exhibits its gene transcripts in total kidney extracts. To test the possibility of CCK acting as an intrarenal mediator of sodium excretion, we examined mouse kidneys by: (i) an in situ hybridization technique for CCK mRNA in animals fed a normal or a high-sodium diet; (ii) immuno-electron microscopy for the CCK peptide, (iii) an in situ hybridization method and immunohistochemistry for the CCK-specific receptor CCKAR; (iv) confocal image analysis of receptor-mediated Ca2+ responses in isolated renal tubules; and (v) metabolic cage experiments for the measurement of urinary sodium excretion in high salt-fed mice either treated or untreated with the CCKAR antagonist lorglumide...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288124/c1-neurons-mediate-a-stress-induced-anti-inflammatory-reflex-in-mice
#15
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Mabel A Inglis, Kenneth E Viar, Liping Huang, Hong Ye, Diane L Rosin, Ruth L Stornetta, Mark D Okusa, Patrice G Guyenet
C1 neurons, located in the medulla oblongata, mediate adaptive autonomic responses to physical stressors (for example, hypotension, hemorrhage and presence of lipopolysaccharides). We describe here a powerful anti-inflammatory effect of restraint stress, mediated by C1 neurons: protection against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Restraint stress or optogenetic C1 neuron (C1) stimulation (10 min) protected mice from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The protection was reproduced by injecting splenic T cells that had been preincubated with noradrenaline or splenocytes harvested from stressed mice...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282605/variations-of-renal-tissue-oxygenation-during-abdominal-compartment-syndrome-and-sepsis
#16
Stavros Kalfadis, Vaia Nalbanti, Orestis Ioannidis, George Porfiriou, Dimitrios Botsios, Konstantinos Tsalis
PURPOSE: This experimental study was designed to evaluate the renal tissue oxygenation under the coexistence of abdominal compartment syndrome and sepsis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen non-breed dogs were divided into two groups: the control group (8) and the study group (6). Sepsis was established with intravenous endotoxin infusion at 100μg/kg for over 30min. Insufflation of CO2 in the peritoneal cavity was used for the increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)...
March 7, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275931/the-concentration-of-vanadium-in-pathologically-altered-human-kidneys
#17
Aleksandra Wilk, Barbara Wiszniewska, Dagmara Szypulska-Koziarska, Paulina Kaczmarek, Maciej Romanowski, Jacek Różański, Marcin Słojewski, Kazimierz Ciechanowski, Małgorzata Marchelek-Myśliwiec, Elżbieta Kalisińska
Vanadium has a unique and beneficial effect on both humans and animal organisms; however, excessive amount of the above-mentioned metal can cause many alterations in tissues and organs, including the kidneys. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of vanadium (V) in the kidneys removed from patients due to lesions of various etiologies, including the rejection of the transplanted kidneys. Additionally, we determined the influence of selected biological and environmental factors on the V concentration...
March 9, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272693/glipizide-blocks-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-akt-signaling-pathway
#18
G Yang, G Zeng, J-P Wu, O Jiang, Y-B Zeng, S-J Huang, J-J Huang, D-Q Wu
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes affects the renal function at a certain stage. Oral medication glipizide plays a hypoglycemic effect mainly through releasing insulin, while more insulin is derived from islet β cells. It is still controversy whether antidiabetics. This study mainly intends to investigate the role of glipizide in inhibiting renal interstitial fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 93 SD rats were purchased from Guangdong animal monitoring and established unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model to simulate renal interstitial fibrosis...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254489/sex-chromosome-complement-involvement-in-angiotensin-receptor-sexual-dimorphism
#19
Florencia M Dadam, Carla D Cisternas, Ana F Macchione, Andrea Godino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, María J Cambiasso, Laura M Vivas, Ximena E Caeiro
This study aimed to define whether sex chromosome complement (SCC) may differentially modulate sex differences in relative gene expression of basal Agtr1a, Agtr2, and Mas1 receptors at fore/hindbrain nuclei and at medulla/cortical kidney. Samples were collected from gonadectomized male (XX and XY) and female (XX and XY) mice of the "four core genotypes" model. At brain level, a SCC effect at the area postrema was demonstrated. An increase in mRNA level of Agtr1a and Agtr1a/Agtr2 ratio in XY-SCC mice was associated with a decrease in Mas1 compared to XX-SCC mice...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248433/application-of-bold-mri-and-dti-for-the-evaluation-of-renal-effect-related-to-viscosity-of-iodinated-contrast-agent-in-a-rat-model
#20
Yi Wang, Ke Ren, Yi Liu, Wen-Ge Sun, Jia-Huan Wang, Xin Zhang, Cheng-Hua Wu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of viscosity of contrast agent (CA) on intrarenal oxygenation and diffusion as measured by blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiocontrast iodixanol formulated in three viscosities were designated 270, 320, and 350 (mg iodine/mL). Sixty-three male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Saline and iodixanol (4 g iodine/kg) were administered...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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