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pre-operative radiotherapy

Shu Y Ng, Kathryn L Colborn, Lajhem Cambridge, Carla Hajj, T Jonathan Yang, Abraham J Wu, Karyn A Goodman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We examined acute toxicity profiles and outcomes among rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemoradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) to identify predictive clinical factors associated with increased acute toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 301 consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy (median dose 5000cGy) at our institution between 2007 and 2014...
October 14, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Marco Krengli, Carla Pisani, Letizia Deantonio
The guidelines of the European and American Societies of Radiation Oncology (GEC-ESTRO and ASTRO) defined the selection criteria to offer partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy in patients with low risk breast cancer regardless pre-operative staging. A recent publication by Tallet et al. explored the impact of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on patient eligibility for PBI. From their study, an ipsilateral BC was detected in 4% of patients, excluding these patients from intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT)...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Fred Saad, Mathieu Latour, Jean-Baptiste Lattouf, Hugues Widmer, Kevin C Zorn, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Veronique Ouellet, Genevieve Saad, Amol Prakash, Sibgat Choudhury, Gang Han, Pierre Karakiewicz, Jerome P Richie
PURPOSE: Current clinicopathologic parameters are insufficient to predict the likelihood of biochemical recurrence in patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. Such information may help to identify patients who would likely benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy rather than active surveillance. A multiplex proteomic assay, previously tested on biopsies and found to be predictive of favorable or unfavorable pathology at radical prostatectomy, was assessed for its predictive value to identify patients at higher risk of biochemical relapse...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Urology
J Wiskemann, M E Schmidt, O Klassen, J Debus, C M Ulrich, K Potthoff, K Steindorf
Exercise is considered to be an effective supportive treatment approach in breast cancer (BC) patients. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a 12-week PRT during radiotherapy. Strength performance was assessed by maximal isokinetic peak torque (MIPT) in two different angular velocities (60°/s and 180°/s) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction for shoulder external and internal rotation, as well as for knee extension and flexion were assessed pre- and post-intervention in 146 patients randomized to PRT or a control group...
October 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Po-Cheng Hung, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Tang-Her Jaing, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, Ming-Liang Chou, Kuang-Lin Lin
BACKGROUND: Pediatric primary spinal tumors (PST) are fairly uncommon, with little available data regarding incidence and outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the 22 consecutive patients less than 18 years old diagnosed with PST between March 1997 and May 2011 and treated at Chang Gung Children Hospital. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pre-operative evaluation and operations for PST. The extent of tumor removal was assessed by surgical report by the neurosurgeon or by post-operative MRI if available...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Jayant S Vaidya, Frederik Wenz, Max Bulsara, Jeffrey S Tobias, David J Joseph, Christobel Saunders, Chris Brew-Graves, Ingrid Potyka, Stephen Morris, Hrisheekesh J Vaidya, Norman R Williams, Michael Baum
BACKGROUND: Based on our laboratory work and clinical trials we hypothesised that radiotherapy after lumpectomy for breast cancer could be restricted to the tumour bed. In collaboration with the industry we developed a new radiotherapy device and a new surgical operation for delivering single-dose radiation to the tumour bed - the tissues at highest risk of local recurrence. We named it TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT). From 1998 we confirmed its feasibility and safety in pilot studies...
September 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Ming-Sound Tsao, Licun Wu, Ghassan Allo, Thomas John, Ming Li, Tetsuzo Tagawa, Isabelle Opitz, Masaki Anraku, Zhihong Yun, Melania Pintilie, Geoffrey Liu, Bethany Pitcher, Ron Feld, Michael R Johnston, Marc de Perrot
PURPOSE: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but aggressive disease with few therapeutic options. The tumor stromal interface is important in MPM, but this is lost in cell lines, the main model used for preclinical studies. We sought to characterise MPM patient derived xenografts (PDX) to determine their suitability as pre-clinical models and whether tumors that engraft reflect a more aggressive biological phenotype. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fresh tumors were harvested from extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), decortication or biopsy samples of 50 MPM patients, and implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice and serially passaged for up to five generations...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Mohamed A Ahmed, Edgar Selzer, Wolfgang Dörr, Gerd Jomrich, Felix Harpain, Gerd R Silberhumer, Leonhard Müllauer, Klaus Holzmann, Bettina Grasl-Kraupp, Michael Grusch, Walter Berger, Brigitte Marian
In colorectal cancer (CRC), fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is upregulated and acts as an oncogene. This study investigated the impact of this receptor on the response to neoadjuvant radiotherapy by analyzing its levels in rectal tumors of patients with different responses to the therapy. Cellular mechanisms of FGFR4-induced radioresistance were analyzed by silencing or over-expressing FGFR4 in CRC cell line models. Our findings showed that the FGFR4 staining score was significantly higher in pre-treatment biopsies of non-responsive than responsive patients...
September 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Heath Foley, Shane Hopley, Elizabeth Brown, Anne Bernard, Matthew Foote
INTRODUCTION: New surgical methods have enabled resection of previously in-operable tumours in the region of the parotid gland and ear. This has translated to deeper target volumes being treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. Due to the limitations of existing conformal techniques, alternative planning approaches are required to cover the target volume with appropriate sparing of adjacent critical structures. Although intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may be able to achieve these goals compared with the existing conformal method, a new orbital sparing radiation therapy (OSRaT) technique was evaluated as an alternative conformal planning process...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Geraint J Sunderland, Michael D Jenkinson, Rasheed Zakaria
The diagnosis of brain metastases is associated with a poor prognosis reflecting uncontrolled primary disease that has spread to the relative sanctuary of the central nervous system. 20 % of brain metastases occur in the posterior fossa and are associated with significant morbidity. The risk of acute hydrocephalus and potential for sudden death means these metastases are often dealt with as emergency cases. This approach means a full pre-operative assessment and staging of underlying disease may be neglected and a proportion of patients undergo comparatively high risk surgery with little or no survival benefit...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Daniel L P Holyoake, Elizabeth Ward, Derek Grose, David McIntosh, David Sebag-Montefiore, Ganesh Radhakrishna, Neel Patel, Michael Silva, Somnath Mukherjee, Victoria Y Strauss, Lang'o Odondi, Emmanouil Fokas, Alan Melcher, Maria A Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Standard therapy for borderline-resectable pancreatic cancer in the UK is surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy, but rates of resection with clear margins are unsatisfactory and overall survival remains poor. Meta-analysis of single-arm studies shows the potential of neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy but the relative radio-resistance of pancreatic cancer means the efficacy of conventional dose schedules is limited. Stereotactic radiotherapy achieves sufficient accuracy and precision to enable pre-operative margin-intensive dose escalation with the goal of increasing rates of clear resection margins and local disease control...
2016: BMC Cancer
Shouki Bazarbashi, Ayman Omar, Ali Aljubran, Ahmad Alzahrani, Nasser Alsanea, Alaa Abduljabbar, Samar Alhomoud, Luai Ashari, Khalid Balaraj, Hussein Soudy, Mohammad Nematallah, Musa Fagih
BACKGROUND: Achieving a high rate of complete pathological response with pre-operative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer is an unmet need. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of cetuximab, capecitabine and radiation therapy in the pre-operative setting of localized rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinically staged T3, T4 or nodepositive rectal cancer were treated with concurrent capecitabine and radiotherapy with weekly cetuximab starting one week before the start of radiation...
September 2, 2016: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
Emma Holliday, Clifton D Fuller, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Daniel Gomez, Andreas Rimner, Ying Li, Suresh Senan, Lynn D Wilson, Jehee Choi, Ritsuko Komaki, Charles R Thomas
OBJECTIVES: We sought to quantitatively determine the inter-observer variability of expert radiotherapy target-volume delineation for thymic cancers, as part of a larger effort to develop an expert-consensus contouring atlas. METHODS: A pilot dataset was created consisting of a standardized case presentation with pre- and post-operative DICOM CT image sets from a single patient with Masaoka-Koga Stage III thymoma. Expert thoracic radiation oncologists delineated tumor targets on the pre- and post-operative scans as they would for a definitive and adjuvant case, respectively...
March 2016: Journal of Radiation Oncology
Nilufer Cetinkaya, İlker Selcuk, Bulent Ozdal, Mehmet Mutlu Meydanli, Tayfun Gungor
OBJECTIVE: To document the experience regarding patients treated for endometrial clear cell carcinoma (ECCC), with reference to clinical, biochemical, histopathologic, and prognostic features. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-six ECCC patients, diagnosed and treated between 2008 and 2014, were reviewed retrospectively. From the hospital records, all data related to patients' demographic, clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic assessments and adjuvant therapy adjustments were evaluated...
August 22, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Yurdal Gezercan, Gökhan Çavuş, Ali Ihsan Ökten, Güner Menekşe, Mustafa Çikili, Fulya Adamhasan, Ali Arslan, Vedat Açik
OBJECTIVE: Currently, anterior, posterior or combined approaches are used in various spinal disorders. However, a single-stage posterolateral transpedicular approach with 360-degree stabilization and vertebrectomy provides better results for spinal tumors. METHODS: We evaluated the age, gender distribution, presenting symptoms, neurological examination findings according to the pre- and post-operative Frankel classification, pre- and post-operative VAS pain scores, pre-operatively administered medical therapies, pre- and post-operative corset use, level of the lesion, levels of previous surgical interventions, root ligation (if performed), results of the primary disease, hospitalization duration (after the operation), post-operative complications (if any), post-operative follow-up duration and post-operative survival duration of 22 patients...
August 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Eder-Czembirek Christina, Czembirek Cornelia, Selzer Edgar
OBJECTIVES: Preoperative radiotherapy followed by surgery is an effective treatment option for solid tumors including locally advanced squamous cell cancers of the head and neck region. Histopathologic response to radiation has been shown to be associated with survival. However, the relative prognostic importance of regression grade compared to other potential biomarkers has not been established yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred forty-four oral squamous cell carcinoma patients with stage III/IV disease were included in this analysis...
September 2016: Oral Oncology
Brenton Pennicooke, Ilya Laufer, Arjun Sahgal, Peter P Varga, Ziya L Gokaslan, Mark H Bilsky, Yoshiya J Yamada
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review. OBJECTIVE: To assess the toxicity, common radiation doses, and local control (LC) rates of radiation therapy for chordoma of the spine and sacrum and identify the difference in LC and toxicity between adjuvant, salvage, and primary therapy using radiation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chordoma of the spine is typically a low-grade malignant tumor thought to be relatively radioresistant with a high rate of local recurrence and the potential for metastases...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Pietro Valerio Foti, Giuseppe Privitera, Sebastiano Piana, Stefano Palmucci, Corrado Spatola, Roberta Bevilacqua, Luigi Raffaele, Vincenzo Salamone, Rosario Caltabiano, Gaetano Magro, Giovanni Li Destri, Pietro Milone, Giovanni Carlo Ettorre
PURPOSE: to investigate the added value of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in response assessment after neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). METHODS: 31 patients with LARC (stage ≥ T3) were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI before starting therapy and after neoadjuvant CRT. All patients underwent surgery; pathologic staging represented the reference standard...
2016: European Journal of Radiology Open
David Habashy, Giovanni Losco, Vincent Tse, Ruth Collins, Lewis Chan
PURPOSE: To determine mid-term durability of the AdVance sling for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) and impact of prior radiotherapy and storage dysfunction. METHOD: Eighty men undergoing AdVance sling for PPI during 2008-2013 were reviewed. Pre-op urodynamics, pre and post-op pad usage, prior radiotherapy, and PGI-I scores were recorded. RESULT: Mean follow-up was 36 months (range 14-72). Twelve men had radiotherapy pre-op, 10 had detrusor overactivity (DO), and 20 reduced compliance...
July 26, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Audrius Dulskas, Povilas Miliauskas, Renatas Tikuisis, Ricardo Escalante, Narimantas E Samalavicius
Introduction For more than the last 20 years, low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) is a gold standard for rectal cancer treatment. Oncological outcomes have improved significantly and now more and more reports of functional outcomes appear. Due to the close relationship between the rectum and pelvic nerves, bowel, bladder, and sexual function are frequently affected during TME. Methods A search for published data was performed using the MEDLINE database (from 1 January 2005 to 31 January 2015) to perform a systematic review of the studies that described anorectal, bladder, and sexual dysfunction following rectal cancer surgery...
February 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
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