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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732438/investigation-of-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-kir-and-hla-genotypes-to-predict-the-occurrence-of-acute-allograft-rejection-after-kidney-transplantation
#1
Davood Jafari, Mohsen Nafar, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Razieh Abdolvahabi, Mahboob Lesan Pezeshki, Efat Razaghi, Ali Akbar Amirzargar
After kidney transplantation, natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in triggering the immune response to the allogeneic grafts primarily by their killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). This process may be one mechanism that contributes to graft rejection. In this study, we have evaluated whether acute rejection after kidney transplantation was associated with predicted NK cell alloreactivity based on KIR gene and ligand along with KIR/HLA compound genotype analysis. After kidney transplantation, natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in triggering the immune response to the allogeneic grafts primarily by their killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR)...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732401/can-brook-trout-survive-climate-change-in-large-rivers-if-it-rains
#2
Eric R Merriam, Rodrigo Fernandez, J Todd Petty, Nicolas Zegre
We provide an assessment of thermal characteristics and climate change vulnerability for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) habitats in the upper Shavers Fork sub-watershed, West Virginia. Spatial and temporal (2001-2015) variability in observed summer (6/1-8/31) stream temperatures was quantified in 23 (9 tributary, 14 main-stem) reaches. We developed a mixed effects model to predict site-specific mean daily stream temperature from air temperature and discharge and coupled this model with a hydrologic model to predict future (2016-2100) changes in stream temperature under low (RCP 4...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732395/microalgae-bacteria-models-evolution-from-microalgae-steady-state-to-integrated-microalgae-bacteria-wastewater-treatment-models-a-comparative-review
#3
REVIEW
Alessandro Solimeno, Joan García
The search for environmentally neutral alternative fuels had revived the interest for microalgae-bacteria wastewater treatment systems. The potential achieving of bioproducts from microalgae biomass has also greatly contributed. The reactions that occur in these systems are complex, and the degree of scientific knowledge is still scarce compared to that of conventional bacteria wastewater treatments. Mathematical models offer a great opportunity to study the simultaneous effect of the multiple factors affecting microalgae and bacteria, thus allowing for the prediction of final biomass production, and contributing to the system design optimization in terms of operation and control...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732337/critical-review-of-soil-contamination-by-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-nbfrs-concentrations-sources-and-congener-profiles
#4
REVIEW
Thomas J McGrath, Andrew S Ball, Bradley O Clarke
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a broad array of polymeric materials such as plastics, foams, resins and adhesives to inhibit the spread of fires since the 1970s. The widespread environmental contamination and well documented toxic effects of PBDEs have led to bans and voluntary withdrawals in many jurisdictions. Replacement novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) have, however, exhibited many of the same toxic characteristics as PBDEs and appear to share similar environmental fate...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732333/p-nitrophenol-degradation-by-electro-fenton-process-pathway-kinetic-model-and-optimization-using-central-composite-design
#5
J Meijide, E Rosales, M Pazos, M A Sanromán
The chemical process scale-up, from lab studies to industrial production, is challenging and requires deep knowledge of the kinetic model and the reactions that take place in the system. This knowledge is also useful in order to be employed for the reactor design and the determination of the optimal operational conditions. In this study, a model substituted phenol such as p-nitrophenol was degraded by electro-Fenton process and the reaction products yielded along the treatment were recorded. The kinetic model was developed using Matlab software and was based on main reactions that occurred until total mineralization which allowed predicting the degradation pathway under this advanced oxidation process...
July 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732320/do-cyclists-make-better-drivers-associations-between-cycling-experience-and-change-detection-in-road-scenes
#6
Vanessa Beanland, Lisa J Hansen
Efficient processing of visual information is crucial to safe driving. Previous research has demonstrated that driving experience strongly affects attentional allocation, with large differences between novice and experienced drivers. Expanding on this, we explored the influence of non-driving experiences on attentional allocation by comparing drivers with and without cycling experience. Based on situation awareness field studies, we predicted cyclist-drivers would demonstrate superior performance. Participants were 42 experienced drivers (17 female, 25 male) aged 30-50 years (M=39...
July 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732293/investigation-of-the-wash-off-process-using-an-innovative-portable-rainfall-simulator-allowing-continuous-monitoring-of-flow-and-turbidity-at-the-urban-surface-outlet
#7
Saja Al Ali, Céline Bonhomme, Philippe Dubois, Ghassan Chebbo
Development of appropriate models, based on an in-depth understanding of the wash-off process, is essential to accurately estimating pollutant loads transported by stormwater, thereby minimizing environmental contamination. To this end, we developed an innovative rainfall simulator, which simulated an intense rainfall (120mm/h) and permitted the acquisition of runoff samples as well as the in situ monitoring of continuous flow and turbidity dynamics. Relationships between deposited sediments and total suspended solids in simulated runoff were thus investigated on two different types of surfaces within the Paris region in terms of loads and particle size distribution...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732117/identification-by-phenotypic-and-genetic-approaches-of-an-indigenous-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-wine-strain-with-high-desiccation-tolerance
#8
Marianna Zambuto, Rossana Romaniello, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Patrizia Romano, Sonia Votta, Angela Capece
During active dry yeast (ADY) production process, cells are exposed to multiple stresses, such as thermal, oxidative and hyperosmotic shock. Previously, by analyzing cells in exponential growth phase, we selected an indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain, namely CD-6Sc, for its higher tolerance to desiccation and higher expression of specific desiccation stress-related genes in comparison to other yeast strains. In this study, we performed a desiccation treatment on stationary phase cells by comparing the efficacy of two different methods: a "laboratory dry test" in a small-scale (mild stress) and a treatment by spray-drying (severe stress), one of the most appropriate preservation method for yeasts and other micro-organisms...
July 21, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732052/protein-asparagine-deamidation-prediction-based-on-structures-with-machine-learning-methods
#9
Lei Jia, Yaxiong Sun
Chemical stability is a major concern in the development of protein therapeutics due to its impact on both efficacy and safety. Protein "hotspots" are amino acid residues that are subject to various chemical modifications, including deamidation, isomerization, glycosylation, oxidation etc. A more accurate prediction method for potential hotspot residues would allow their elimination or reduction as early as possible in the drug discovery process. In this work, we focus on prediction models for asparagine (Asn) deamidation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731985/accelerated-dna-methylation-age-associations-with-ptsd-and-mortality
#10
Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Tawni B Stoop, Steven A Schichman, Annjanette Stone, Naomi Sadeh, Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Miller
OBJECTIVE: Recently-developed indices of cellular age based on DNA methylation (DNAm) data, referred to as DNAm age, are being used to study factors that influence the rate of aging and the health correlates of these metrics of the epigenetic clock. This study evaluated associations between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and accelerated versus decelerated DNAm age among military veterans. We also examined if accelerated DNAm age predicted mortality over the course of a 6...
July 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731831/toward-a-predictive-framework-for-convergent-evolution-integrating-natural-history-genetic-mechanisms-and-consequences-for-the-diversity-of-life
#11
Anurag A Agrawal
A charm of biology as a scientific discipline is the diversity of life. Although this diversity can make laws of biology challenging to discover, several repeated patterns and general principles govern evolutionary diversification. Convergent evolution, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes, has been at the heart of one approach to understand generality in the evolutionary process. Yet understanding when and why organismal traits and strategies repeatedly evolve has been a central challenge. These issues were the focus of the American Society of Naturalists Vice Presidential Symposium in 2016 and are the subject of this collection of articles...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731825/convergent-phenotypic-evolution-despite-contrasting-demographic-histories-in-the-fauna-of-white-sands
#12
Erica Bree Rosenblum, Christine E Parent, Eveline T Diepeveen, Clay Noss, Ke Bi
When are evolutionary outcomes predictable? Cases of convergent evolution can shed light on when, why, and how different species exhibit shared evolutionary trajectories. In particular, studying diverse species in a common environment can illuminate how different factors facilitate or constrain adaptive evolution. Here we integrate studies of pattern and process in the fauna at White Sands (New Mexico) to understand the determinants of convergent evolution. Numerous animal species at White Sands exhibit phenotypic convergence in response to a novel-and shared-selective environment: geologically young gypsum dunes...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731798/most-colorful-example-of-genetic-assimilation-exploring-the-evolutionary-destiny-of-recurrent-phenotypic-accommodation
#13
Alexander V Badyaev, Ahva L Potticary, Erin S Morrison
Evolution of adaptation requires both generation of novel phenotypic variation and retention of a locally beneficial subset of this variation. Such retention can be facilitated by genetic assimilation, the accumulation of genetic and molecular mechanisms that stabilize induced phenotypes and assume progressively greater control over their reliable production. A particularly strong inference into genetic assimilation as an evolutionary process requires a system where it is possible to directly evaluate the extent to which an induced phenotype is progressively incorporated into preexisting developmental pathways...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731758/noncontact-cohesive-swimming-of-bacteria-in-two-dimensional-liquid-films
#14
Ye Li, He Zhai, Sandra Sanchez, Daniel B Kearns, Yilin Wu
Bacterial swimming in confined two-dimensional environments is ubiquitous in nature and in clinical settings. Characterizing individual interactions between swimming bacteria in 2D confinement will help to understand diverse microbial processes, such as bacterial swarming and biofilm formation. Here we report a novel motion pattern displayed by flagellated bacteria in 2D confinement: When two nearby cells align their moving directions, they tend to engage in cohesive swimming without direct cell body contact, as a result of hydrodynamic interaction but not flagellar intertwining...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731622/mechanistic-modeling-based-pat-implementation-for-ion-exchange-process-chromatography-of-charge-variants-of-monoclonal-antibody-products
#15
Vijesh Kumar, Anurag S Rathore
Process chromatography is typically used to remove product related impurities and variants that have very similar physicochemical properties to the product. Baseline separation may not be achieved in most cases due to high protein loading and thus, pooling of the elution peak can be challenging for maximizing yield and achieving consistency in product quality. Batch-to-batch variability in quality of the feed material also occurs in commercial manufacturing. Mechanistic modeling of process chromatography, though non-trivial, can be an enabler for implementation of Process Analytical Technology...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731476/exact-sequence-variants-should-replace-operational-taxonomic-units-in-marker-gene-data-analysis
#16
Benjamin J Callahan, Paul J McMurdie, Susan P Holmes
Recent advances have made it possible to analyze high-throughput marker-gene sequencing data without resorting to the customary construction of molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs): clusters of sequencing reads that differ by less than a fixed dissimilarity threshold. New methods control errors sufficiently such that amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) can be resolved exactly, down to the level of single-nucleotide differences over the sequenced gene region. The benefits of finer resolution are immediately apparent, and arguments for ASV methods have focused on their improved resolution...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730718/impact-of-binding-mechanism-on-selective-inhibition-of-histone-deacetylase-isoforms
#17
Christian Meyners, Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes
Industrialized drug screening campaigns usually deliver hundreds of compounds that are active on a particular pharmaceutical target. In light of high failure rates of drug candidates due to unforeseeable off-target toxicity, the early identification of the most promising compounds with high potential for target selectivity is an urgent need to improve the quality of lead compounds and lower attrition rates in the drug development process. The reliable prediction of the selectivity of active substances for a target protein is a challenging task...
June 14, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730182/tracking-deceased-related-thinking-with-neural-pattern-decoding-of-a-cortical-basal-ganglia-circuit
#18
Noam Schneck, Stefan Haufe, Tao Tu, George A Bonanno, Kevin Ochsner, Paul Sajda, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Deceased-related thinking is central to grieving and potentially critical to processing of the loss. Self-report measurements might fail to capture important elements of deceased-related thinking and processing. Here, we used a machine learning approach applied to fMRI - known as neural decoding - to develop a measure of ongoing deceased-related processing. METHODS: 23 subjects grieving the loss of a first-degree relative, spouse or partner within 14 months underwent two fMRI tasks...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729962/the-protective-effects-of-family-support-on-the-relationship-between-official-intervention-and-general-delinquency-across-the-life-course
#19
Beidi Dong, Marvin D Krohn
PURPOSE: Previous research on the labeling perspective has identified mediational processes and the long-term effects of official intervention in the life course. However, it is not yet clear what factors may moderate the relationship between labeling and subsequent offending. The current study integrates Cullen's (1994) social support theory to examine how family social support conditions the criminogenic, stigmatizing effects of official intervention on delinquency and whether such protective effects vary by developmental stage...
March 2017: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729844/not-merely-experiential-unconscious-thought-can-be-rational
#20
Katie E Garrison, Ian M Handley
Individuals often form more reasonable judgments from complex information after a period of distraction vs. deliberation. This phenomenon has been attributed to sophisticated unconscious thought during the distraction period that integrates and organizes the information (Unconscious Thought Theory; Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006). Yet, other research suggests that experiential processes are strengthened during the distraction (relative to deliberation) period, accounting for the judgment and decision benefit...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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