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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668041/warming-intensify-co-2-flux-and-nutrient-release-from-algal-wrack-subsidies-on-sandy-beaches
#1
M Lastra, J López, I F Rodil
Algal wrack subsidies underpin most of the food web structure of exposed sandy beaches, and are responsible of important biogeochemical processes that link marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The response in decomposition of algal wrack deposits to global warming has not been studied in ocean exposed sandy beaches to date. With this aim, passive open top chambers (OTCs) were used to increase soil temperature within the range predicted by the IPCC for western Europe (between 0.5 and 1.5 °C), following the hypothesis that the biogeochemical processing of macroalgal wrack subsidies would accelerate in response to temperature increase...
April 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667836/molecular-dynamics-simulations-are-redefining-our-view-of-peptides-interacting-with-biological-membranes
#2
Jakob P Ulmschneider, Martin B Ulmschneider
Ever since the first molecular mechanics computer simulations of biological molecules became possible, there has been the dream to study all complex biological phenomena in silico, simply bypassing the enormous experimental challenges and their associated costs. For this, two inherent requirements need to be met: First, the time scales achievable in simulations must reach up to the millisecond range and even longer. Second, the computational model must accurately reproduce what is measured experimentally. Despite some recent successes, the general consensus in the field to date has been that neither of these conditions have yet been met and that the dream will be realized, if at all, only in the distant future...
April 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667761/plant-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-proteins-at-the-plasma-membrane-cell-wall-nexus
#3
REVIEW
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667756/pharmacokinetic-profiling-of-anticancer-phytocompounds-using-computational-approach
#4
Ashish Sharma, Shilpa Sharma, Mansi Gupta, Shehnaz Fatima, Ravi Saini, Subhash Mohan Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: Natural products exhibit diverse scaffolds and are considered as suitable candidates for development of leads. However, poor pharmacokinetics often acts as a hindrance during the drug discovery process. OBJECTIVE: With a view of exploring the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) profile of plant-based anticancer compounds, open-access databases (NPACT, CancerHSP and TaxKB) were analysed to identify molecules having properties favourable for drug ability...
April 18, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667728/comparison-of-10-efficient-protocols-for-photodynamic-therapy-of-actinic-keratosis-how-relevant-are-effective-light-dose-and-local-damage-in-predicting-the-complete-response-rate-at-3-months
#5
Anne-Sophie Vignion-Dewalle, Gregory Baert, Elise Thecua, Fabienne Lecomte, Claire Vicentini, Henry Abi-Rached, Laurent Mortier, Serge Mordon
BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy is an established treatment modality for various dermatological conditions, including actinic keratosis. In Europe, the approved protocols for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis involve irradiation with either an Aktilite CL 128 lamp or daylight, whereas irradiation with the Blu-U illuminator is approved in the United States. Many other protocols using irradiation by a variety of light sources are also clinically efficient. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to compare 10 different protocols with clinically proven efficacy for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis and the available spectral irradiance of the light source...
April 18, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667706/preliteracy-impairments-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#6
Shelley S Arnold, Jonathan M Payne, Jennifer Lorenzo, Kathryn N North, Belinda Barton
AIM: This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the preliteracy abilities of young children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to identify which of these abilities best predicted conventional literacy (spelling). METHOD: Forty-two children with NF1 (23 males, 19 females; mean age [SD] 5y 6mo [6mo]) were compared with 32 unaffected children (15 males, 17 females; mean age [SD] 5y 4mo [6mo]). All children completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment including measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid automatic naming) and letter-sound knowledge...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667606/applying-a-new-computer-aided-detection-scheme-generated-imaging-marker-to-predict-short-term-breast-cancer-risk
#7
Seyedehnafiseh Mirniaharikandehei, Alan B Hollingsworth, Bhavika Patel, Morteza Heidari, Hong Liu, Bin Zheng
This study aims to investigate the feasibility of identifying a new quantitative imaging marker based on false-positives generated by computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to help predict short-term breast cancer risk. An image dataset including four view mammograms acquired from 1,044 women was retrospectively assembled. All mammograms were originally interpreted as negative by radiologists. In the next subsequent mammography screening, 402 women were diagnosed with breast cancer and 642 remained negative...
April 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667601/probing-ionization-potential-electron-affinity-and-self-energy-effect-on-the-spectral-shape-and-exciton-binding-energy-of-quantum-liquid-water-with-self-consistent-many-body-perturbation-theory-and-bethe-salpeter-equation
#8
Vafa Ziaei, Thomas Bredow
An accurate theoretical prediction of ionization potential (IP) and electron
 affinity (EA) is key for understanding of complex photochemical processes in
 aqueous environments. There have been numerous efforts in literature to
 accurately predict IP and EA of liquid water, however with often
 conflicting results depending on the level of theory and the underlying water
 structures. In a recent study based on hybrid-non-self-consistent many-body
 perturbation theory (MBPT)
 Gaiduk et al...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667547/new-markers-for-predicting-fertility-of-the-male-gametes-in-the-post-genomic-age
#9
Savina Dipresa, Luca De Toni, Carlo Foresta, Andrea Garolla
A number of test have been proposed to assess male fertility potential, ranging from routine testing by light microscopic method for evaluating semen samples, to screening test for DNA integrity aimed to look at sperm chromatin abnormalities. Spermatozoa are an extremely differentiated cell, they have critical functions for embryo development and heredity, in addiction to delivering a haploid paternal genome to the oocyte. Towards this goal certain requirements must always be met. The ability of spermatozoa to perform its reproductive function taking place in the spermatogenesis, a highly specialized process depending on multiple factors with effect on male fertility...
April 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667479/the-impact-of-contextual-priors-and-anxiety-on-performance-effectiveness-and-processing-efficiency-in-anticipation
#10
David P Broadbent, N Viktor Gredin, Jason L Rye, A Mark Williams, Daniel T Bishop
It is proposed that experts are able to integrate prior contextual knowledge with emergent visual information to make complex predictive judgments about the world around them, often under heightened levels of uncertainty and extreme time constraints. However, limited knowledge exists about the impact of anxiety on the use of such contextual priors when forming our decisions. We provide a novel insight into the combined impact of contextual priors and anxiety on anticipation in soccer. Altogether, 12 expert soccer players were required to predict the actions of an oncoming opponent while viewing life-sized video simulations of 2-versus-2 defensive scenarios...
April 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667477/return-to-work-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-national-study-with-a-one-year-follow-up-of-neurocognitive-and-behavioural-outcomes
#11
Solrun Sigurdardottir, Nada Andelic, Eike Wehling, Audny Anke, Toril Skandsen, Oyvor Oistensen Holthe, Unn Sollid Manskow, Cecilie Roe
The objectives were to investigate the frequency of return-to-work (RTW) one year after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI: Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS 3-8) and to identify which demographic and injury-related characteristics and neurocognitive factors are associated with RTW. This study is part of a prospective national study on sTBI conducted in all four Norwegian Trauma Referral Centres, including patients aged >15 years over a period of three years (n = 378). For the purpose of this study, only pre-employed individuals of working age (16 to 67 years) were investigated for RTW (n = 143), and of these, 104 participants underwent neuropsychological testing...
April 18, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667432/identification-and-characterisation-of-micrornas-and-piwi-interacting-rnas-in-cockerels-spermatozoa-by-solexa-sequencing
#12
Shengru Wu, Jiacheng Guo, Liqin Zhu, Jiantao Yang, Si Chen, Xiaojun Yang
1. There has been substantial research focused on the roles of microRNAs (miRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNA) delivered from mammalian spermatozoa, however comparatively little is known about the role of spermatozoa-delivered miRNAs and piRNAs within breeding cockerels' spermatozoa. 2. A small RNA library of cockerels' spermatozoa was constructed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. Unique sequences with lengths of 18-26 nucleotides were mapped to miRBase 21.0 and unique sequences with lengths of 25-37 nucleotides were mapped to a piRNA database...
April 18, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667366/divergent-effects-of-healthy-ageing-on-semantic-knowledge-and-control-evidence-from-novel-comparisons-with-semantically-impaired-patients
#13
Paul Hoffman
Effective use of semantic knowledge requires a set of conceptual representations and control processes which ensure that currently relevant aspects of this knowledge are retrieved and selected. It is well-established that levels of semantic knowledge increase across the lifespan. However, the effects of ageing on semantic control processes have not been assessed. I addressed this issue by comparing the performance profiles of young and older people on a verbal comprehension test. Two sets of variables were used to predict accuracy and RT in each group: (1) the psycholinguistic properties of words probed in each trial and (2) the performance on each trial by two groups of semantically impaired neuropsychological patients...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667359/predicting-responses-to-mechanical-ventilation-for-preterm-infants-with-acute-respiratory-illness-using-artificial-neural-networks
#14
Katharine Brigham, Samir Gupta, John C Brigham
Infants born prematurely are particularly susceptible to respiratory illness due to underdeveloped lungs, which can often result in fatality. Preterm infants in acute stages of respiratory illness typically require mechanical ventilation assistance, and the efficacy of the type of mechanical ventilation and its delivery has been the subject of a number clinical studies. With recent advances in machine learning approaches, particularly deep learning, it may be possible to estimate future responses to mechanical ventilation in real-time, based on ventilation monitoring up to the point of analysis...
April 17, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667161/diversity-of-neuropeptide-cell-cell-signaling-molecules-generated-by-proteolytic-processing-revealed-by-neuropeptidomics-mass-spectrometry
#15
Vivian Hook, Christopher B Lietz, Sonia Podvin, Tomas Cajka, Oliver Fiehn
Neuropeptides are short peptides in the range of 3-40 residues that are secreted for cell-cell communication in neuroendocrine systems. In the nervous system, neuropeptides comprise the largest group of neurotransmitters. In the endocrine system, neuropeptides function as peptide hormones to coordinate intercellular signaling among target physiological systems. The diversity of neuropeptide functions is defined by their distinct primary sequences, peptide lengths, proteolytic processing of pro-neuropeptide precursors, and covalent modifications...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667089/sex-skull-length-breed-and-age-predict-how-dogs-look-at-faces-of-humans-and-conspecifics
#16
Zsófia Bognár, Ivaylo B Iotchev, Enikő Kubinyi
The gaze of other dogs and humans is informative for dogs, but it has not been explored which factors predict face-directed attention. We used image presentations of unfamiliar human and dog heads, facing the observer (portrait) or facing away (profile), and measured looking time responses. We expected dog portraits to be aversive, human portraits to attract interest, and tested dogs of different sex, skull length and breed function, which in previous work had predicted human-directed attention. Dog portraits attracted longer looking times than human profiles...
April 17, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667069/the-versatile-role-of-exosomes-in-cancer-progression-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
REVIEW
Vignesh Sundararajan, Fazlul H Sarkar, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in cancer biology have highlighted the relevance of exosomes and nanovesicles as carriers of genetic and biological messages between cancer cells and their immediate and/or distant environments. It has been found that these molecular cues may play significant roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing diverse molecules that can be transferred to recipient cells and/or vice versa to induce a plethora of biological processes, including angiogenesis, metastasis formation, therapeutic resistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epigenetic/stemness (re)programming...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666759/phosphoproteomic-insights-into-processes-influenced-by-the-kinase-like-protein-dia1-c3orf58
#18
Agnieszka Hareza, Magda Bakun, Bianka Świderska, Małgorzata Dudkiewicz, Alicja Koscielny, Anna Bajur, Jacek Jaworski, Michał Dadlez, Krzysztof Pawłowski
Many kinases are still 'orphans,' which means knowledge about their substrates, and often also about the processes they regulate, is lacking. Here, DIA1/C3orf58, a member of a novel predicted kinase-like family, is shown to be present in the endoplasmic reticulum and to influence trafficking via the secretory pathway. Subsequently, DIA1 is subjected to phosphoproteomics analysis to cast light on its signalling pathways. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomic approach with phosphopeptide enrichment is applied to membrane fractions of DIA1-overexpressing and control HEK293T cells, and phosphosites dependent on the presence of DIA1 are elucidated...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666600/the-temporal-prediction-of-stress-in-speech-and-its-relation-to-musical-beat-perception
#19
REVIEW
Eleonora J Beier, Fernanda Ferreira
While rhythmic expectancies are thought to be at the base of beat perception in music, the extent to which stress patterns in speech are similarly represented and predicted during on-line language comprehension is debated. The temporal prediction of stress may be advantageous to speech processing, as stress patterns aid segmentation and mark new information in utterances. However, while linguistic stress patterns may be organized into hierarchical metrical structures similarly to musical meter, they do not typically present the same degree of periodicity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666461/the-neural-encoding-of-information-prediction-errors-during-non-instrumental-information-seeking
#20
Maja Brydevall, Daniel Bennett, Carsten Murawski, Stefan Bode
In a dynamic world, accurate beliefs about the environment are vital for survival, and individuals should therefore regularly seek out new information with which to update their beliefs. This aspect of behaviour is not well captured by standard theories of decision making, and the neural mechanisms of information seeking remain unclear. One recent theory posits that valuation of information results from representation of informative stimuli within canonical neural reward-processing circuits, even if that information lacks instrumental use...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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