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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454214/observation-of-the-degradation-of-three-types-of-plastic-pellets-exposed-to-uv-irradiation-in-three-different-environments
#1
Liqi Cai, Jundong Wang, Jinping Peng, Ziqing Wu, Xiangling Tan
Plastic debris represents one of the most prevalent and persistent pollution problems in the marine environment. In particular, microplastics that are mainly degraded from larger plastic debris have become a growing environmental concern. However, studies on the degradation of plastics in the aquatic environment that hydrobios reside in have been limited, while several studies regarding the degradation of plastics have been conducted under outdoor or accelerated weathering conditions. Thus, observation of the degradation of three types of virgin plastic pellets exposed to UV irradiation in three different environments (i...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454093/silencing-circular-rna-hsa_circ_0000977-suppresses-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-progression-by-stimulating-mir-874-3p-and-inhibiting-plk1-expression
#2
Wen-Jie Huang, Yun-Chao Wang, Song-Song Liu, Jia-Li Yang, Shi-Xiang Guo, Li-Jiang Wang, Huai-Zhi Wang, Ying-Fang Fan
Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are a novel type of endogenous noncoding RNAs that regulate target gene expression by interacting with microRNA (miRNA). Emerging evidence shows that dysregulation of circRNAs plays important roles in biological and pathological processes, including cancer development and progression. The functional role of circRNA in PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) remains to be investigated. In this study, high throughput microarray assay revealed that hsa_circ_0000977 was aberrantly up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues; this was also validated by qRT-PCR...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454040/development-of-an-unrelated-donor-selection-score-predictive-of-survival-after-hct-donor-age-matters-most
#3
Bronwen E Shaw, Brent R Logan, Stephen R Spellman, Steven G E Marsh, James Robinson, Joseph Pidala, Carolyn Hurley, Juliet Barker, Martin Maiers, Jason Dehn, Hailin Wang, Mike Haagenson, David Porter, Effie W Petersdorf, Ann Woolfrey, Mary M Horowitz, Michael Verneris, Katharine C Hsu, Katharina Fleischhauer, Stephanie J Lee
Donor factors, in addition to HLA matching status, have been associated with recipient survival in unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), however there is no hierarchical algorithm that weights the characteristics of individual donors against each other in a quantitative manner to facilitate donor selection. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a donor selection score that prioritizes donor characteristics associated with better survival in 8/8 HLA-matched URDs. Two separate patient/donor cohorts, the first receiving HCT between 1999-2011 (n=5952, c1), and the second between 2012-2014 (n=4510, c2) were included in the analysis...
February 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454006/predicting-cognitive-decline-with-deep-learning-of-brain-metabolism-and-amyloid-imaging
#4
Hongyoon Choi, Kyong Hwan Jin
For effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is important to identify subjects who are most likely to exhibit rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to develop an automatic image interpretation system based on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) which can accurately predict future cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients using flurodeoxyglucose and florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). PET images of 139 patients with AD, 171 patients with MCI and 182 normal subjects obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database were used...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453753/pediatric-astrocytic-tumor-grading-comparison-between-arterial-spin-labeling-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri-perfusion
#5
Giovanni Morana, Domenico Tortora, Serena Staglianò, Paolo Nozza, Samantha Mascelli, Mariasavina Severino, Gianluca Piatelli, Alessandro Consales, Maarten Lequin, Maria Luisa Garrè, Andrea Rossi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI perfusion with respect to diagnostic performance in tumor grading in pediatric patients with low- and high-grade astrocytic tumors (AT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 37 children with histologically proven treatment naive low- and high-grade AT who underwent concomitant pre-operative ASL and DSC MRI perfusion. Studies were performed on a 1...
February 16, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453695/temporary-assist-device-support-for-the-right-ventricle-pre-implant-and-post-implant-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Michael Dandel, Roland Hetzer
Severe right ventricular (RV) failure is more likely reversible than similar magnitudes of left ventricular (LV) failure and, because reversal of both adaptive remodeling and impaired contractility require most often only short periods of support, the use of temporary RV assist devices (t-RVADs) can be a life-saving therapy option for many patients. Although increased experience with t-RVADs and progresses made in the development of safer devices with lower risk for complications has improved both recovery rate of RV function and patient survival, the mortality of t-RVAD recipients can still be high but it depends mainly on the primary cause of RV failure (RVF), the severity of end-organ dysfunction, and the timing of RVAD implantation, and much less on adverse events and complications related to RVAD implantation, support, or removal...
February 17, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453691/effect-of-phosphorylation-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-caspase-substrates-processing
#7
Sonu Kumar, Piotr Cieplak
Posttranslational modifications that involve either reversible covalent modification of proteins or irreversible proteolysis are central to the regulation of key cellular mechanisms, including apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation and signal transduction. There is mounting evidence suggesting cross-talk between proteases and kinases. For instance: caspases, a class of proteases involved in programmed cell death-apoptosis, cleave a large set of various types of proteins. Simultaneously, kinases restrict caspase activity by phosphorylating their protein substrates in the vicinity of cleavage site...
February 16, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453443/role-of-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-in-relief-learning
#8
Dana Mayer, Evelyn Kahl, Taygun C Uzuneser, Markus Fendt
The relief from an aversive event is rewarding. Since organisms are able to learn which environmental cues can cease an aversive event, relief learning helps to better cope with future aversive events. Literature data suggest that relief learning is affected in various psychopathological conditions, such as anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system in relief learning. Using a relief learning procedure in Sprague Dawley rats, we applied a combination of behavioral experiments with anatomical tracing, c-Fos immunohistochemistry, and local chemogenetic and pharmacological interventions to broadly characterize the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453409/a-potential-prognostic-long-noncoding-rna-signature-to-predict-recurrence-among-er-positive-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-tamoxifen
#9
Kang Wang, Jie Li, Yong-Fu Xiong, Zhen Zeng, Xiang Zhang, Hong-Yuan Li
Limited predictable long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) signature was reported in tamoxifen resistance among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (BC) patients. The aim of this study was to identify and assess prognostic lncRNA signature to predict recurrence among ER-positive BC patients treated with tamoxifen. Cohorts from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (n = 298) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n = 160) were defined as training and validation cohort, respectively. BC relapse associated lnRNAs was identify within training cohort, and the predictable value of recurrence was assessed in both cohorts...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453358/georeferenced-soil-provenancing-with-digital-signatures
#10
M Tighe, N Forster, C Guppy, D Savage, P Grave, I M Young
The provenance or origin of a soil sample is of interest in soil forensics, archaeology, and biosecurity. In all of these fields, highly specialized and often expensive analysis is usually combined with expert interpretation to estimate sample origin. In this proof of concept study we apply rapid and non-destructive spectral analysis to the question of direct soil provenancing. This approach is based on one of the underlying tenets of soil science - that soil pedogenesis is spatially unique, and thus digital spectral signatures of soil can be related directly, rather than via individual soil properties, to a georeferenced location...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453268/high-microbial-diversity-promotes-soil-ecosystem-functioning
#11
Pierre-Alain Maron, Amadou Sarr, Aurore Kaisermann, Jean Lévêque, Olivier Mathieu, Julien Guigue, Battle Karimi, Laetitia Bernard, Samuel Dequiedt, Sébastien Terrat, Abad Chabbi, Lionel Ranjard
In soil, the link between microbial diversity and carbon transformations is challenged by the concept of functional redundancy. Here, we hypothesized that functional redundancy may decrease with increasing carbon source recalcitrance, and that coupling of diversity with C-cycling may change accordingly. We manipulated microbial diversity to examine how diversity decrease affects the decomposition of easily degradable ( i.e. allochthonous plant residues) vs. recalcitrant ( i.e. autochthonous organic matter) C-sources...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452755/machine-learning-algorithms-based-on-signals-from-a-single-wearable-inertial-sensor-can-detect-surface-and-age-related-differences-in-walking
#12
B Hu, P C Dixon, J V Jacobs, J T Dennerlein, J M Schiffman
The aim of this study was to investigate if a machine learning algorithm utilizing triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data from an inertial motion unit (IMU) could detect surface- and age-related differences in walking. Seventeen older (71.5 ± 4.2 years) and eighteen young (27.0 ± 4.7 years) healthy adults walked over flat and uneven brick surfaces wearing an inertial measurement unit (IMU) over the L5 vertebra. IMU data were binned into smaller data segments using 4-s sliding windows with 1-s step lengths...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452723/q-marker-based-strategy-for-cmc-research-of-chinese-medicine-a-case-study-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins
#13
Yi Zhong, Jieqiang Zhu, Zhenzhong Yang, Qing Shao, Xiaohui Fan, Yiyu Cheng
BACKGROUND: To ensure pharmaceutical quality, chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) research is essential. However, due to the inherent complexity of Chinese medicine (CM), CMC study of CM remains a great challenge for academia, industry, and regulatory agencies. Recently, quality-marker (Q-marker) was proposed to establish quality standards or quality analysis approaches of Chinese medicine, which sheds a light on Chinese medicine's CMC study. PURPOSE: Here manufacture processes of Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) is taken as a case study and the present work is to establish a Q-marker based research strategy for CMC of Chinese medicine...
January 31, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452343/height-based-equations-can-improve-the-diagnosis-of-elevated-blood-pressure-in-children
#14
F A Mourato, S S Mattos, J L Lima Filho, M F Mourato, W Nadruz JÚnior
Background: High blood pressure (BP) is usually underdiagnosed in children and adolescents, particularly due to its complex diagnosis process. This study describes novel height-based equations for the detection of BP disorders (BP>90th percentile) and compares the accuracy of this approach with previously described screening methods to identify BP disorders. Methods: Height-based equations were built using the 90th percentile values for systolic and diastolic BP and respective height values from the current guideline of high BP management in children...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452030/comparative-phylogenetic-and-expression-analysis-of-small-gtpases-families-in-legume-and-non-legume-plants
#15
Ana Claudia Flores, Virginia Dalla Via, Virginia Savy, Ulises Mancini Villagra, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Blanco
BACKGROUND: Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair...
February 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451680/evaluating-the-kinetic-basis-of-plant-growth-from-organs-to-ecosystems
#16
REVIEW
Sean T Michaletz
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. ORCID References SUMMARY: Understanding how temperature influences the scaling of physiological rates through levels of biological organization is critical for predicting plant responses to climate. Metabolic theory predicts that many rates increase exponentially with temperature following an activation energy (E) of 0.32 eV for photosynthesis. Here, I evaluate this prediction for net photosynthesis and organ, individual, and ecosystem growth. Observed E for photosynthesis varied widely but was not statistically different from predictions, while E for organs was greater than predicted, and E for individuals and ecosystems only weakly characterized temperature responses...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451429/perceived-injustice-in-chronic-pain-an-examination-through-the-lens-of-predictive-processing
#17
Daniel A Bissell, Maisa S Ziadni, John A Sturgeon
Chronic pain conditions have been shown to be exacerbated by psychological factors, and a better understanding of these factors can inform clinical practice and improve the efficacy of interventions. The current paper investigates perceived injustice, a novel psychosocial construct, within a framework influenced by the tenets of predictive processing. The proposed conceptual model derived from tenets of predictive processing yields a single hierarchical self-reconfiguring system driven by prediction, which accounts for a wide range of human experiences such as perception, behavior, learning and emotion...
February 16, 2018: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451315/sensitivity-to-the-sampling-process-emerges-from-the-principle-of-efficiency
#18
Julian Jara-Ettinger, Felix Sun, Laura Schulz, Joshua B Tenenbaum
Humans can seamlessly infer other people's preferences, based on what they do. Broadly, two types of accounts have been proposed to explain different aspects of this ability. The first account focuses on spatial information: Agents' efficient navigation in space reveals what they like. The second account focuses on statistical information: Uncommon choices reveal stronger preferences. Together, these two lines of research suggest that we have two distinct capacities for inferring preferences. Here we propose that this is not the case, and that spatial-based and statistical-based preference inferences can be explained by the assumption that agents are efficient alone...
February 16, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451151/exosomal-microrna-10a-is-associated-with-liver-regeneration-in-rats-through-downregulation-of-epha4
#19
Lin Luo, Ze-Ping Yu, Han Qin, Ze-Xin Zhu, Ming-Heng Liao, Hao-Tian Liao, Ke-Fei Yuan, Yong Zeng
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play vital roles in liver regeneration. Previous studies mainly focused on the functions of intracellular miRNAs, while the functions of circulating exosomal miRNAs in liver regeneration remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the key exosomal miRNA that played vital roles in liver regeneration. Methods: The Sprague-Dawley male rats were assigned to 70% partially hepatectomized group (n = 6) and sham surgery group (n = 6)...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451141/associations-between-body-composition-indices-and-metabolic-disorders-in-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#20
Rong Zhang, Sheng-Yong Dong, Fei Wang, Cong Ma, Xiao-Lan Zhao, Qiang Zeng, Ao Fei
Background: Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
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