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carotid wall stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153397/embolic-stroke-due-to-carotidynia-potentially-associated-with-moving-carotid-artery-caused-by-swallowing
#1
Yoshitaka Yamaguchi, Mikito Hayakawa, Naoto Kinoshita, Chiaki Yokota, Toshiya Ishihara, Kazunori Toyoda
A 63-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis discontinued her medication for rheumatoid arthritis with prednisolone and azathioprine. One month later, she was admitted because of consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple hyperintensities in her left frontal and parietal lobes. She also developed high fever and left neck pain. Carotid ultrasonography showed calcified plaque with vessel wall swelling at the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and surrounding hypoechoic soft tissue...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124548/development-of-an-experimental-and-digital-cardiovascular-arterial-model-for-transient-hemodynamic-and-postural-change-studies-a-preliminary-framework-analysis
#2
Rodward L Hewlin, John P Kizito
The ultimate goal of the present work is to aid in the development of tools to assist in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Gaining an understanding of hemodynamic parameters for medical implants allow clinicians to have some patient-specific proposals for intervention planning. In the present work an experimental and digital computational fluid dynamics (CFD) arterial model consisting of a number of major arteries (aorta, carotid bifurcation, cranial, femoral, jejunal, and subclavian arteries) were fabricated to study: (1) the effects of local hemodynamics (flow parameters) on global hemodynamics (2) the effects of transition from bedrest to upright position (postural change) on hemodynamics, and (3) diffusion of dye (medical drug diffusion simulation) in the arterial system via experimental and numerical techniques...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117252/preclinical-4d-flow-magnetic-resonance-phase-contrast-imaging-of-the-murine-aortic-arch
#3
Moritz Braig, Jochen Leupold, Marius Menza, Maximilian Russe, Cheng-Wen Ko, Juergen Hennig, Dominik von Elverfeldt
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular diseases remain the number one death cause worldwide. Preclinical 4D flow phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging can provide substantial insights in the analysis of aortic pathophysiologies in various animal models. These insights may allow a better understanding of pathophysiologies, therapy monitoring, and can possibly be translated to humans. This study provides a framework to acquire the velocity field within the aortic arch. It analyses important flow values at different locations within the aortic arch...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053072/quantitative-assessment-of-changes-in-hemodynamics-of-the-internal-carotid-artery-after-bypass-surgery-for-moyamoya-disease
#4
Fengping Zhu, Yi Qian, Bin Xu, Yuxiang Gu, Kaavya Karunanithi, Wei Zhu, Liang Chen, Ying Mao, Michael K Morgan
OBJECTIVE Although intracranial vessel remodeling has been observed in moyamoya disease, concerns remain regarding the effect of bypass surgery on hemodynamic changes within the internal carotid artery (ICA). The authors aimed to quantify the surgical effect of bypass surgery on bilateral ICAs in moyamoya disease and to estimate pressure drop (PD) along the length of the ICA to predict surgical outcomes. METHODS Records of patients who underwent bypass surgery for treatment of moyamoya disease and in whom flow rates were obtained pre- and postsurgery by quantitative MR angiography were retrospectively reviewed...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046974/stress-echocardiography-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#5
REVIEW
Sothinathan Gurunathan, Roxy Senior
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress echocardiography (SE) is a well-established technique for the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). This review article summarizes the status of SE in CAD, including testing protocols, clinical efficacy and current use of newer technologies: myocardial perfusion, strain imaging, three-dimensional echocardiography and adjunctive carotid ultrasonography. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent major findings in SE include the clinical value of myocardial perfusion imaging in multicentre studies, as well as when added to left ventricular (LV) wall motion assessment in clinical service...
October 18, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037843/spatio-temporal-flow-and-wall-shear-stress-mapping-based-on-incoherent-ensemble-correlation-of-ultrafast-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-images
#6
Chee Hau Leow, Meng-Xing Tang
In this study, a technique for high-frame-rate ultrasound imaging velocimetry (UIV) is extended first to provide more robust quantitative flow velocity mapping using ensemble correlation of images without coherent compounding, and second to generate spatio-temporal wall shear stress (WSS) distribution. A simulation model, which couples the ultrasound simulator with analytical flow solution, was implemented to evaluate its accuracy. It is shown that the proposed approach can reduce errors in velocity estimation by up to 10-fold in comparison with the coherent correlation approach...
October 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975258/contractile-smooth-muscle-and-active-stress-generation-in-porcine-common-carotids
#7
Boran Zhou, David A Prim, Eva J Romito, Liam P McNamara, Francis G Spinale, Tarek Shazly, John F Eberth
The mechanical response of intact blood vessels to applied loads can be delineated into passive and active components using an isometric decomposition approach. Whereas the passive response is due predominantly to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and amorphous ground substance, the active response depends on the presence of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the contractile machinery activated within those cells. To better understand determinants of active stress generation within the vascular wall, we subjected porcine common carotid arteries (CCAs) to biaxial inflation-extension testing under maximally contracted or passive SMC conditions and semiquantitatively measured two known markers of the contractile SMC phenotype: smoothelin and smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955233/hydrogen-sulfide-facilitates-the-impaired-sensitivity-of-carotid-sinus-baroreflex-in-rats-with-vascular-calcification
#8
Hui Li, Xu Teng, Rui Yang, Qi Guo, Hongmei Xue, Lin Xiao, Xiaocui Duan, Danyang Tian, Xiaohong Feng, Yuming Wu
Arterial baroreflex is a general mechanism maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis; its sensitivity is reduced in vascular calcification (VC). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment facilitates baroreflexive sensitivity in normal and hypertensive rats. Here, we aimed to detect the effect of H2S on baroreflexive sensitivity in rats with VC. The rat VC model was induced by vitamin D3 plus nicotine for 4 weeks. The sensitivity of baroreflex was detected by perfusing the isolated carotid sinus. VC was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Ca(2+) content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945849/influence-of-relative-residence-time-on-side-wall-aneurysm-inception
#9
Gerald J Riccardello, Darshan N Shastri, Abhinav R Changa, Kiran G Thomas, Max Roman, Charles J Prestigiacomo, Chirag D Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Relative residence time (RRT) is a marker of disturbed blood flow, marked by low magnitude and high oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS). The relation between solute residence time in proximity to the vascular endothelium and the atherosclerotic process is well appreciated in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of RRT on side-wall aneurysm inception to better understand the role of atherosclerosis in aneurysm formation. METHODS: Fourteen side-wall internal carotid artery aneurysms from the Aneurisk repository which met criteria for parent vessel reconstruction were reconstructed with Vascular Modeling Toolkit...
August 9, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934533/carotid-artery-wall-thickness-in-obese-and-nonobese-adults-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-before-and-following-positive-airway-pressure-treatment
#10
Jinyoung Kim, Emile R Mohler, Brendan T Keenan, David Maislin, Erna Sif Arnardottir, Thorarinn Gislason, Bryndis Benediktsdottir, Sigrun Gudmundsdottir, Andrea Sifferman, Bethany Staley, Frances M Pack, Greg Maislin, Julio A Chirinos, Raymond R Townsend, Allan I Pack, Samuel T Kuna
Study objectives: Debate persists as to whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an early sign of atherosclerosis, in obese and nonobese adults with OSA before and following positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods: A total of 206 adults newly diagnosed with OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 15-75 events/hour and 53 controls with AHI <10 were studied...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912279/differences-in-morphologic-and-hemodynamic-characteristics-for-phases-based-intracranial-aneurysm-locations
#11
N Varble, H Rajabzadeh-Oghaz, J Wang, A Siddiqui, H Meng, A Mowla
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several recent prospective studies have found that unruptured intracranial aneurysms at various anatomic locations have different propensities for future rupture. This study aims to uncover the lack of understanding regarding rupture-prone characteristics, such as morphology and hemodynamic factors, associated with different intracranial aneurysm location. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the characteristics of 311 unruptured aneurysms at our center...
September 14, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900625/direct-assessment-of-wall-shear-stress-by-signal-intensity-gradient-from-time-of-flight-magnetic-resonance-angiography
#12
Kap-Soo Han, Sang Hyuk Lee, Han Uk Ryu, Se-Hyoung Park, Gyung-Ho Chung, Young I Cho, Seul-Ki Jeong
The aim of the study was to calculate the arterial wall signal intensity gradient (SIG) from time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF-MRA) and represent arterial wall shear stress. We developed a new algorithm that uses signal intensity (SI) of a TOF-MRA to directly calculate the signal intensity gradient (SIG). The results from our phantom study showed that the TOF-MRA SIG could be used to distinguish the magnitude of blood flow rate as high (mean SIG ± SD, 2.2 ± 0.4 SI/mm for 12.5 ± 2.3 L/min) and low (0...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889098/reversal-of-arterial-stiffness-and-maladaptative-arterial-remodeling-after-kidney-transplantation
#13
Alexandre Karras, Pierre Boutouyrie, Marie Briet, Erwan Bozec, Jean-Philippe Haymann, Christophe Legendre, Lawrence P McMahon, Michel Delahousse
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is characterized by stiffening, thinning, dilatation, and increased circumferential wall stress of large arteries, associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Kidney transplantation (KT) reverses many pathological features of chronic kidney disease and improves life expectancy; however, longitudinal studies exploring the impact of KT on recipient large arteries are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was designed to appraise arterial changes following KT...
September 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887805/quantitative-analysis-of-effects-of-hemodynamic-stress-on-temporal-variations-of-cardiac-phases-in-models-of-human-carotid-bulbs
#14
Tatsunori Saho, Hideo Onishi
In this study, we evaluated the hemodynamics of carotid artery models with carotid bulbs of various sizes using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the Fluent CFD software. The oscillatory shear index (OSI) and flow velocity distribution were evaluated in carotid models without a carotid bulb and with carotid bulbs of known geometry (major axis of 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 mm; carotid bifurcation angle of 50°). Furthermore, the diameters of the common carotid artery, the external carotid artery, and the internal carotid artery were defined as 7...
September 8, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870356/the-childhood-roots-of-cardiovascular-disease-disparities
#15
REVIEW
Donald A Barr
A recent national review of the social determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) underscored the growing recognition that poor socioeconomic conditions early in life place children at higher risk for CVD as adults. There is growing evidence that chronic elevation of allostatic load as a consequence of high levels of early childhood stress can trigger early atherosclerotic changes in children independently of behaviors. Elevated levels of circulating cortisol have been documented in children as young as 4 years who were raised in highly stressful circumstances...
September 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755660/computational-and-experimental-assessment-of-influences-of-hemodynamic-shear-stress-on-carotid-plaque
#16
Hui Zhou, Long Meng, Wei Zhou, Lin Xin, Xiangxiang Xia, Shuai Li, Hairong Zheng, Lili Niu
BACKGROUND: Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress as an important determinant of endothelial function and atherosclerosis. In this study, we assess the influences of hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. METHODS: Carotid stenosis phantoms with three severity (30, 50, 70%) were made from 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. The phantoms were placed in a pulsatile flow loop with the same systolic/diastolic phase (35/65) and inlet flow rate (16 L/h)...
July 29, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744840/organ-dynamics-and-fluid-dynamics-of-the-hh25-chick-embryonic-cardiac-ventricle-as-revealed-by-a-novel-4d-high-frequency-ultrasound-imaging-technique-and-computational-flow-simulations
#17
Sheldon Ho, Germaine Xin Yi Tan, Toon Jin Foo, Nhan Phan-Thien, Choon Hwai Yap
Past literature has provided evidence that a normal mechanical force environment of blood flow may guide normal development while an abnormal environment can lead to congenital malformations, thus warranting further studies on embryonic cardiovascular flow dynamics. In the current study, we developed a non-invasive 4D high-frequency ultrasound technique, and use it to analyze cardiovascular organ dynamics and flow dynamics. Three chick embryos at stage HH25 were scanned with high frequency ultrasound in cine-B-mode at multiple planes spaced at 0...
October 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744783/towards-the-identification-of-hemodynamic-parameters-involved-in-arteriovenous-fistula-maturation-and-failure-a-review
#18
Marco Franzoni, Michael T Walsh
Native arteriovenous fistulas have a high failure rate mainly due to the lack of maturation and uncontrolled neo-intimal hyperplasia development. Newly established hemodynamics is thought to be central in driving the fistula fate, after surgical creation. To investigate the effects of realistic wall shear stress stimuli on endothelial cells, an in vitro approach is necessary in order to reduce the complexity of the in vivo environment. After a systematic review, realistic WSS waveforms were selected and analysed in terms of magnitude, temporal gradient, presence of reversing phases (oscillatory shear index, OSI) and frequency content (hemodynamics index, HI)...
September 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715441/mri-based-patient-specific-human-carotid-atherosclerotic-vessel-material-property-variations-in-patients-vessel-location-and-long-term-follow-up
#19
Qingyu Wang, Gador Canton, Jian Guo, Xiaoya Guo, Thomas S Hatsukami, Kristen L Billiar, Chun Yuan, Zheyang Wu, Dalin Tang
BACKGROUND: Image-based computational models are widely used to determine atherosclerotic plaque stress/strain conditions and investigate their association with plaque progression and rupture. However, patient-specific vessel material properties are in general lacking in those models, limiting the accuracy of their stress/strain measurements. A noninvasive approach of combining in vivo 3D multi-contrast and Cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational modeling was introduced to quantify patient-specific carotid plaque material properties for potential plaque model improvements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701695/optimized-analysis-of-blood-flow-and-wall-shear-stress-in-the-common-carotid-artery-of-rat-model-by-phase-contrast-mri
#20
Shin-Lei Peng, Cheng-Ting Shih, Chiun-Wei Huang, Shao-Chieh Chiu, Wu-Chung Shen
The present study systemically investigated the influence of gated/non-gated sequences, velocity encoding (VENC), and spatial resolution on blood flow, wall shear stress (WSS), and artery area evaluations when scanning the common carotid artery (CCA) in rats using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). We first tested whether or not non-gated PC-MRI was appropriate for evaluating blood flow and WSS in rats. For both gated and non-gated techniques, VENC values in the range of 60-120 cm/s with an interval of 10 cm/s were also tested...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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