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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898024/perinatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-is-associated-to-materno-fetal-immune-activation-and-intracranial-arteritis
#1
Clémence Guiraut, Nicole Cauchon, Martin Lepage, Guillaume Sébire
The medium-size intra-cranial arteries arising from the carotid bifurcation are prone to perinatal arterial ischemic strokes (PAIS). PAIS' physiopathology needs to be better understood to develop preventive and therapeutic interventions that are currently missing. We hypothesized that materno-fetal inflammation leads to a vasculitis affecting selectively the carotidian tree and promoting a focal thrombosis and subsequent stroke. Dams were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865168/peristrut-microhemorrhages-a-possible-cause-of-in-stent-neoatherosclerosis
#2
Zaven Terzian, T Christian Gasser, Francis Blackwell, Fabien Hyafil, Liliane Louedec, Catherine Deschildre, Walid Ghodbane, Richard Dorent, Antonino Nicoletti, Marion Morvan, Mohammed Nejjari, Laurent Feldman, Graciela Pavon-Djavid, Jean-Baptiste Michel
BACKGROUND: In-stent neoatherosclerosis is characterized by the delayed appearance of markers of atheroma in the subintima, but the pathophysiology underlying this new disease entity remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected 20 human coronary artery stents by removal from explanted hearts. The mean duration of stent implantation was 34 months. In all samples, neoatherosclerosis was detected, particularly in peristrut areas. It consisted of foam cells and cholesterol clefts, with or without calcification, associated with neovascularization...
August 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853578/influence-of-shear-stress-magnitude-and-direction-on-atherosclerotic-plaque-composition
#3
Ryan M Pedrigi, Vikram V Mehta, Sandra M Bovens, Zahra Mohri, Christian Bo Poulsen, Willy Gsell, Jordi L Tremoleda, Leila Towhidi, Ranil de Silva, Enrico Petretto, Rob Krams
The precise flow characteristics that promote different atherosclerotic plaque types remain unclear. We previously developed a blood flow-modifying cuff for ApoE(-/-) mice that induces the development of advanced plaques with vulnerable and stable features upstream and downstream of the cuff, respectively. Herein, we sought to test the hypothesis that changes in flow magnitude promote formation of the upstream (vulnerable) plaque, whereas altered flow direction is important for development of the downstream (stable) plaque...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830569/a-review-on-atherosclerotic-biology-wall-stiffness-physics-of-elasticity-and-its-ultrasound-based-measurement
#4
REVIEW
Anoop K Patel, Harman S Suri, Jaskaran Singh, Dinesh Kumar, Shoaib Shafique, Andrew Nicolaides, Sanjay K Jain, Luca Saba, Ajay Gupta, John R Laird, Argiris Giannopoulos, Jasjit S Suri
Functional and structural changes in the common carotid artery are biomarkers for cardiovascular risk. Current methods for measuring functional changes include pulse wave velocity, compliance, distensibility, strain, stress, stiffness, and elasticity derived from arterial waveforms. The review is focused on the ultrasound-based carotid artery elasticity and stiffness measurements covering the physics of elasticity and linking it to biological evolution of arterial stiffness. The paper also presents evolution of plaque with a focus on the pathophysiologic cascade leading to arterial hardening...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814428/modeling-the-effect-of-red-blood-cells-deformability-on-blood-flow-conditions-in-human-carotid-artery-bifurcation
#5
Janez Urevc, Iztok Žun, Milan Brumen, Boris Štok
The purpose of this work is to predict the effect of impaired red blood cells (RBCs) deformability on blood flow conditions in human carotid artery bifurcation. First, a blood viscosity model is developed that predicts the steady-state blood viscosity as a function of shear rate, plasma viscosity, and mechanical (and geometrical) properties of RBC's. Viscosity model is developed by modifying the well-known Krieger and Dougherty equation for monodisperse suspensions by using the dimensional analysis approach...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790472/arterial-stiffness-and-trace-elements-in-apparently-healthy-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Gangapatnam Subrahmanyam, Rama Mohan Pathapati, Krishnan Ramalingam, Selvam Armugam Indira, Katari Kantha, Bhemasen Soren
INTRODUCTION: Stiffening of arteries is a natural ageing process. Any diseases/disorders or risk factors that escalate oxidative stress, microvascular inflammation and endothelial damage may promote to premature vascular stiffening. Any imbalance in these trace element levels may independently contribute to the changes in the components in the arterial wall and thus, arterial stiffness via one or more mechanisms. AIM: To evaluate the severity of arterial stiffness in apparently healthy population and also to evaluate role of various risk factors and trace elements in the severity of arterial stiffness...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754200/ish-pre-1-reduction-of-cardiovascular-mortality-in-hypertensives-with-comorbidities-beyond-blood-pressure-lowering-the-role-of-arterial-aging
#7
Michel E Safar
Mid-life elevated BP is classically associated with a raised systemic vascular resistance. A classical interpretation of the association between aortic stiffness and blood pressure (BP) invokes hypertension as a simple form of premature aging that increases stress on the arterial wall and accelerates age-related stiffening of the aorta. Recent clinical and experimental data have called into question the directionality of this sequence of events associating stiffness and hypertension.Therefore an initial abnormality in stiffness may antedate and contribute initially to the pathogenesis of hypertension, namely isolated systolic hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721669/asymptomatic-internal-carotid-artery-occlusion-after-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-pituitary-adenoma-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Giorgio Spatola, Laura Frosio, Marco Losa, Antonella Del Vecchio, Martina Piloni, Pietro Mortini
BACKGROUND: Gamma knife radiosurgery is an effective and safe treatment modality in the management of pituitary adenomas. Internal carotid occlusion is a rare but possible complication of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for lesions within the cavernous sinus. AIM: To stress the importance of considering the Internal carotid artery as an organ at risk in cavernous sinus invading adenomas and reduce the dose delivered to this structure whenever possible. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report two cases of asymptomatic occlusion of the intracavernous segment of the internal carotid artery seven years after treatment in acromegalic patients...
November 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703060/quantitative-assessment-of-parent-vessel-and-distal-intracranial-hemodynamics-following-pipeline-flow-diversion
#9
Sophia F Shakur, Victor A Aletich, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ahmed E Hussein, Fady T Charbel, Ali Alaraj
BACKGROUND: Pipeline embolization devices (PEDs) are commonly used for endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms but can be associated with delayed ipsilateral intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Although intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic changes have been studied, parent vessel and intracranial hemodynamics after PED use are unknown. We examine the impact of flow diversion on parent artery and distal intracranial hemodynamics. METHOD: Patients with internal carotid cerebral aneurysms treated with PED who had flow volume rate, flow velocities, pulsatility index, resistance index, Lindegaard ratio, and wall shear stress (WSS) obtained after treatment using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography were reviewed...
October 4, 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669568/the-effect-of-spatial-and-temporal-resolution-of-cine-phase-contrast-mri-on-wall-shear-stress-and-oscillatory-shear-index-assessment
#10
Merih Cibis, Wouter V Potters, Frank J Gijsen, Henk Marquering, Pim van Ooij, Ed vanBavel, Jolanda J Wentzel, Aart J Nederveen
INTRODUCTION: Wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) are associated with atherosclerotic disease. Both parameters are derived from blood velocities, which can be measured with phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Limitations in spatiotemporal resolution of PC-MRI are known to affect these measurements. Our aim was to investigate the effect of spatiotemporal resolution using a carotid artery phantom. METHODS: A carotid artery phantom was connected to a flow set-up supplying pulsatile flow...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643157/ish-pre-1-reduction-of-cardiovascular-mortality-in-hypertensives-with-comorbidities-beyond-blood-pressure-lowering-the-role-of-arterial-aging
#11
Michel E Safar
Mid-life elevated BP is classically associated with a raised systemic vascular resistance. A classical interpretation of the association between aortic stiffness and blood pressure (BP) invokes hypertension as a simple form of premature aging that increases stress on the arterial wall and accelerates age-related stiffening of the aorta. Recent clinical and experimental data have called into question the directionality of this sequence of events associating stiffness and hypertension.Therefore an initial abnormality in stiffness may antedate and contribute initially to the pathogenesis of hypertension, namely isolated systolic hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624687/the-effect-of-an-acute-bout-of-resistance-exercise-on-carotid-artery-strain-and-strain-rate
#12
Jane M Black, Eric J Stöhr, Keeron Stone, Christopher J A Pugh, Mike Stembridge, Rob Shave, Joseph I Esformes
Arterial wall mechanics likely play an integral role in arterial responses to acute physiological stress. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the impact of low and moderate intensity double-leg press exercise on common carotid artery (CCA) wall mechanics using 2D vascular strain imaging. Short-axis CCA ultrasound images were collected in 15 healthy men (age: 21 ± 3 years; stature: 176.5 ± 6.2 cm; body mass; 80.6 ± 15.3 kg) before, during, and immediately after short-duration isometric double-leg press exercise at 30% and 60% of participants' one-repetition maximum (1RM: 317 ± 72 kg)...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601367/neonatal-arterial-morphology-is-related-to-body-size-in-abnormal-human-fetal-growth
#13
Rasmus F W Olander, Johnny K M Sundholm, Tiina H Ojala, Sture Andersson, Taisto Sarkola
BACKGROUND: Restriction in fetal growth is associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It is unclear whether abnormal intrauterine growth influences arterial morphology during the fetal or neonatal stage. The objective was to study the regional arterial morphology with respect to gestational age and abnormal fetal body size. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied body anthropometrics and arterial morphology and physiology in 174 neonates born between 31 and 42 weeks of gestation, including neonates with birth weights appropriate, small, and large for age, with very high resolution vascular ultrasound (35-55 MHz)...
September 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546999/computational-fluid-dynamic-simulation-of-human-carotid-artery-bifurcation-based-on-anatomy-and-volumetric-blood-flow-rate-measured-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Hamidreza Gharahi, Byron A Zambrano, David C Zhu, J Kevin DeMarco, Seungik Baek
Blood flow patterns and local hemodynamic parameters have been widely associated with the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in the carotid artery. Assessment of these parameters can be performed noninvasively using cine phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, in the last two decades, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation in three dimensional models derived from anatomic medical images has been employed to investigate the blood flow in the carotid artery. This study developed a workflow of a subject-specific CFD analysis using MRI to enhance estimating hemodynamics of the carotid artery...
March 2016: International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508805/-op-1c-04-structural-and-functional-arterial-abnormalities-in-fibromuscular-dysplasia-are-in-the-continuum-of-hypertension-an-imaging-and-biomechanical-study
#15
L Marais, P Boutouyrie, H Khettab, C Boulanger, A Lorthiroir, M Frank, R Niarra, J Renard, Y Chambon, X Jeunemaitre, M Zidi, P-F Plouin, S Laurent, M Azizi
OBJECTIVE: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic non-inflammatory arterial disease, which occurs mostly in middle-aged women and affects medium-sized arteries. We previously showed abnormalities within common carotid artery (CCA) wall, with the presence of triple signal (TS) at ultrasound suggesting the presence of supplementary layers. We aimed at coupling TS presence with microconstituents of the vessel wall, derived from fitting of the pressure-diameter curve. DESIGN AND METHOD: We included 50 non-smoking patients with multifocal FMD, 50 essential hypertensive (EH) patients and 50 healthy subjects (HS) matched for age, sex, ethnicity and BP (EH and FD)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501407/experimental-investigation-of-secondary-flow-structures-downstream-of-a-model-type-iv-stent-failure-in-a-180%C3%A2-curved-artery-test-section
#16
Kartik V Bulusu, Michael W Plesniak
The arterial network in the human vasculature comprises of ubiquitously present blood vessels with complex geometries (branches, curvatures and tortuosity). Secondary flow structures are vortical flow patterns that occur in curved arteries due to the combined action of centrifugal forces, adverse pressure gradients and inflow characteristics. Such flow morphologies are greatly affected by pulsatility and multiple harmonics of physiological inflow conditions and vary greatly in size-strength-shape characteristics compared to non-physiological (steady and oscillatory) flows (1 - 7)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472843/large-artery-biomechanical-geometrical-and-structural-remodeling-elicited-by-long-term-propranolol-administration-in-an-animal-model
#17
Konstantinos M Lampropoulos, Dimitrios P Sokolis
BACKGROUND: Limited attention has been paid to the role of beta-adrenergic blocking agents on large artery function/structure, despite being clinically useful for treating many forms of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term consequences of beta-blocker administration on the biomechanical properties, geometry, and histological structure of two major elastic arteries. METHODS: Healthy male rats received water with their food, while beta-blockade was produced in rats by adding propranolol in their drinking water...
July 29, 2016: Biorheology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464834/photoplethysmography-and-ultrasonic-measurement-integrated-simulation-to-clarify-the-relation-between-two-dimensional-unsteady-blood-flow-field-and-forward-and-backward-waves-in-a-carotid-artery
#18
Shusaku Sone, Toshiyuki Hayase, Kenichi Funamoto, Atsushi Shirai
Understanding the spatiotemporal change in hemodynamics is essential for the basic research of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to establish a methodology to clarify the relation between a two-dimensional (2D) unsteady blood flow field and forward and backward propagating waves in a carotid artery. This study utilized photoplethysmography (PPG) for blood pressure measurement and two-dimensional ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (2D-UMI) simulation for flow field analysis. The validity of the methodology was confirmed in an experiment for a carotid artery of a healthy volunteer...
July 27, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417292/magnetic-nanoparticles-and-blood-flow-behavior-in-non-newtonian-pulsating-flow-within-the-carotid-artery-in-drug-delivery-application
#19
Morsal Momeni Larimi, Abas Ramiar, Ali A Ranjbar
Nanoparticles play an important role in the molecular diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring therapeutic outcomes in various diseases. Magnetic nanoparticles are being of great interest due to their unique purposes, especially medicine, in which the application of magnetic nanoparticles is much promising. Magnetic nanoparticles have been actively investigated as the next generation of targeted drug delivery for more than three decades. This article is devoted to study on the magnetic drug targeting technique by particle tracking in the presence of a magnetic field in the carotid artery...
July 14, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376865/toward-translating-near-infrared-spectroscopy-oxygen-saturation-data-for-the-non-invasive-prediction-of-spatial-and-temporal-hemodynamics-during-exercise
#20
Laura Ellwein, Margaret M Samyn, Michael Danduran, Sheila Schindler-Ivens, Stacy Liebham, John F LaDisa
Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies conducted at rest have shown that atherosclerotic plaque in the thoracic aorta (TA) correlates with adverse wall shear stress (WSS), but there is a paucity of such data under elevated flow conditions. We developed a pedaling exercise protocol to obtain phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) blood flow measurements in the TA and brachiocephalic arteries during three-tiered supine pedaling at 130, 150, and 170 % of resting heart rate (HR), and relate these measurements to non-invasive tissue oxygen saturation [Formula: see text] acquired by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while conducting the same protocol...
July 4, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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