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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755660/computational-and-experimental-assessment-of-influences-of-hemodynamic-shear-stress-on-carotid-plaque
#1
Hui Zhou, Long Meng, Wei Zhou, Lin Xin, Xiangxiang Xia, Shuai Li, Hairong Zheng, Lili Niu
BACKGROUND: Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress as an important determinant of endothelial function and atherosclerosis. In this study, we assess the influences of hemodynamic shear stress on carotid plaques. METHODS: Carotid stenosis phantoms with three severity (30, 50, 70%) were made from 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. The phantoms were placed in a pulsatile flow loop with the same systolic/diastolic phase (35/65) and inlet flow rate (16 L/h)...
July 29, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744840/organ-dynamics-and-fluid-dynamics-of-the-hh25-chick-embryonic-cardiac-ventricle-as-revealed-by-a-novel-4d-high-frequency-ultrasound-imaging-technique-and-computational-flow-simulations
#2
Sheldon Ho, Germaine Xin Yi Tan, Toon Jin Foo, Nhan Phan-Thien, Choon Hwai Yap
Past literature has provided evidence that a normal mechanical force environment of blood flow may guide normal development while an abnormal environment can lead to congenital malformations, thus warranting further studies on embryonic cardiovascular flow dynamics. In the current study, we developed a non-invasive 4D high-frequency ultrasound technique, and use it to analyze cardiovascular organ dynamics and flow dynamics. Three chick embryos at stage HH25 were scanned with high frequency ultrasound in cine-B-mode at multiple planes spaced at 0...
July 25, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744783/towards-the-identification-of-hemodynamic-parameters-involved-in-arteriovenous-fistula-maturation-and-failure-a-review
#3
Marco Franzoni, Michael T Walsh
Native arteriovenous fistulas have a high failure rate mainly due to the lack of maturation and uncontrolled neo-intimal hyperplasia development. Newly established hemodynamics is thought to be central in driving the fistula fate, after surgical creation. To investigate the effects of realistic wall shear stress stimuli on endothelial cells, an in vitro approach is necessary in order to reduce the complexity of the in vivo environment. After a systematic review, realistic WSS waveforms were selected and analysed in terms of magnitude, temporal gradient, presence of reversing phases (oscillatory shear index, OSI) and frequency content (hemodynamics index, HI)...
July 25, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715441/mri-based-patient-specific-human-carotid-atherosclerotic-vessel-material-property-variations-in-patients-vessel-location-and-long-term-follow-up
#4
Qingyu Wang, Gador Canton, Jian Guo, Xiaoya Guo, Thomas S Hatsukami, Kristen L Billiar, Chun Yuan, Zheyang Wu, Dalin Tang
BACKGROUND: Image-based computational models are widely used to determine atherosclerotic plaque stress/strain conditions and investigate their association with plaque progression and rupture. However, patient-specific vessel material properties are in general lacking in those models, limiting the accuracy of their stress/strain measurements. A noninvasive approach of combining in vivo 3D multi-contrast and Cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational modeling was introduced to quantify patient-specific carotid plaque material properties for potential plaque model improvements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701695/optimized-analysis-of-blood-flow-and-wall-shear-stress-in-the-common-carotid-artery-of-rat-model-by-phase-contrast-mri
#5
Shin-Lei Peng, Cheng-Ting Shih, Chiun-Wei Huang, Shao-Chieh Chiu, Wu-Chung Shen
The present study systemically investigated the influence of gated/non-gated sequences, velocity encoding (VENC), and spatial resolution on blood flow, wall shear stress (WSS), and artery area evaluations when scanning the common carotid artery (CCA) in rats using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). We first tested whether or not non-gated PC-MRI was appropriate for evaluating blood flow and WSS in rats. For both gated and non-gated techniques, VENC values in the range of 60-120 cm/s with an interval of 10 cm/s were also tested...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693818/arterial-wall-remodeling-under-sustained-axial-twisting-in-rats
#6
Guo-Liang Wang, Li-Yi Wang, Shao-Xiong Yang, Ping Zhang, Xiao-Hu Chen, Qing-Ping Yao, Xiao-Bo Gong, Ying-Xin Qi, Zong-Lai Jiang, Hai-Chao Han
Blood vessels often experience torsion along their axes and it is essential to understand their biological responses and wall remodeling under torsion. To this end, a rat model was developed to investigate the arterial wall remodeling under sustained axial twisting in vivo. Rat carotid arteries were twisted at 180° along the longitudinal axis through a surgical procedure and maintained for different durations up to 4weeks. The wall remodeling in these twisted arteries was examined using histology, immunohistochemistry and fluorescent microscopy...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611395/shear-stress-induces-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-transcription-factor-snail
#7
Marwa M Mahmoud, Jovana Serbanovic-Canic, Shuang Feng, Celine Souilhol, Rouyu Xing, Sarah Hsiao, Akiko Mammoto, Jing Chen, Markus Ariaans, Sheila E Francis, Kim Van der Heiden, Victoria Ridger, Paul C Evans
Blood flow influences atherosclerosis by generating wall shear stress, which alters endothelial cell (EC) physiology. Low shear stress induces dedifferentiation of EC through a process termed endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). The mechanisms underlying shear stress-regulation of EndMT are uncertain. Here we investigated the role of the transcription factor Snail in low shear stress-induced EndMT. Studies of cultured EC exposed to flow revealed that low shear stress induced Snail expression. Using gene silencing it was demonstrated that Snail positively regulated the expression of EndMT markers (Slug, N-cadherin, α-SMA) in EC exposed to low shear stress...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592592/late-systolic-myocardial-loading-is-associated-with-left-atrial-dysfunction-in-hypertension
#8
Julio A Chirinos, Timothy S Phan, Amer A Syed, Zeba Hashmath, Harry G Oldland, Maheswara R Koppula, Ali Tariq, Khuzaima Javaid, Rachana Miller, Swapna Varakantam, Anjaneyulu Dunde, Vadde Neetha, Scott R Akers
BACKGROUND: Late systolic load has been shown to cause diastolic dysfunction in animal models. Although the systolic loading sequence of the ventricular myocardium likely affects its coupling with the left atrium (LA), this issue has not been investigated in humans. We aimed to assess the relationship between the myocardial loading sequence and LA function in human hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 260 subjects with hypertension and 19 normotensive age- and sex-matched controls...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573970/uncertainty-quantification-of-wall-shear-stress-in-intracranial-aneurysms-using-a-data-driven-statistical-model-of-systemic-blood-flow-variability
#9
Ali Sarrami-Foroushani, Toni Lassila, Ali Gooya, Arjan J Geers, Alejandro F Frangi
Adverse wall shear stress (WSS) patterns are known to play a key role in the localisation, formation, and progression of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Complex region-specific and time-varying aneurysmal WSS patterns depend both on vascular morphology as well as on variable systemic flow conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been proposed for characterising WSS patterns in IAs; however, CFD simulations often rely on deterministic boundary conditions that are not representative of the actual variations in blood flow...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506222/computational-fluid-dynamics-study-of-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-for-oral-cancer
#10
Hiroaki Kitajima, Marie Oshima, Toshinori Iwai, Yoshihito Ohhara, Yasuharu Yajima, Kenji Mitsudo, Iwai Tohnai
BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for oral cancer can deliver a higher concentration of anticancer agent into a tumor-feeding artery than intravenous systemic chemotherapy. However, distribution of anticancer agent into several branches of the external carotid artery (ECA) in IAC has not demonstrated sufficient treatment efficacy. To improve the effectiveness of IAC, the flow distribution of anticancer agent into the branches of the ECA in several IAC methods was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
May 15, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501327/echo-particle-image-velocimetry-for-estimation-of-carotid-artery-wall-shear-stress-repeatability-reproducibility-and-comparison-with-phase-contrast-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Arati Gurung, Phillip E Gates, Luciano Mazzaro, Jonathan Fulford, Fuxing Zhang, Alex J Barker, Jean Hertzberg, Kunihiko Aizawa, William D Strain, Salim Elyas, Angela C Shore, Robin Shandas
Measurement of hemodynamic wall shear stress (WSS) is important in investigating the role of WSS in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Echo particle image velocimetry (echo PIV) is a novel ultrasound-based technique for measuring WSS in vivo that has previously been validated in vitro using the standard optical PIV technique. We evaluated the repeatability and reproducibility of echo PIV for measuring WSS in the human common carotid artery. We measured WSS in 28 healthy participants (18 males and 10 females, mean age: 56 ± 12 y)...
May 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409823/a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-type-1-agonist-asp4058-suppresses-intracranial-aneurysm-through-promoting-endothelial-integrity-and-blocking-macrophage-transmigration
#12
Rie Yamamoto, Tomohiro Aoki, Hirokazu Koseki, Miyuki Fukuda, Jun Hirose, Keiichi Tsuji, Katsumi Takizawa, Shinichiro Nakamura, Haruka Miyata, Nozomu Hamakawa, Hidetoshi Kasuya, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Yoshitaka Hirayama, Ichiro Aramori, Shuh Narumiya
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial aneurysm (IA), common in the general public, causes lethal subarachnoid haemorrhage on rupture. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to prevent the IA from rupturing. However, there is currently no medical treatment. Recent studies suggest that IA is the result of chronic inflammation in the arterial wall caused by endothelial dysfunction and infiltrating macrophages. The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1 receptor) is present on the endothelium and promotes its barrier function...
July 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382440/tetralogy-of-fallot-surgical-repair-shunt-configurations-ductus-arteriosus-and-the-circle-of-willis
#13
Senol Piskin, Gozde Unal, Ahmet Arnaz, Tayyar Sarioglu, Kerem Pekkan
In this study, hemodynamic performance of three novel shunt configurations that are considered for the surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) disease are investigated in detail. Clinical experience suggests that the shunt location, connecting angle, and its diameter can influence the post-operative physiology and the neurodevelopment of the neonatal patient. An experimentally validated second order computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and a parametric neonatal diseased great artery model that incorporates the ductus arteriosus (DA) and the full patient-specific circle of Willis (CoW) are employed...
June 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372866/increased-interarm-blood-pressure-difference-is-associated-with-autonomic-dysfunction-and-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-chest-pain-and-no-history-of-coronary-artery-disease
#14
Hui-Jeong Hwang, Il Suk Sohn, Dong-Hee Kim, Chang-Bum Park, Jin-Man Cho, Chong-Jin Kim
OBJECTIVES: Interarm blood pressure (BP) difference has been reported to be associated with atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular death. We were to investigate associations of interarm systolic blood pressure (SBP) difference with heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise, an index of autonomic function, and carotid atherosclerotic markers, and to evaluate the association of interarm SBP difference with concurrent coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: A total of 995 consecutive patients who underwent treadmill stress echocardiography with chest pain but no history of CAD were enrolled...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344561/fetal-growth-restriction-induces-heterogeneous-effects-on-vascular-biomechanical-and-functional-properties-in-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus
#15
Daniel Cañas, Emilio A Herrera, Claudio García-Herrera, Diego Celentano, Bernardo J Krause
Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339485/chronic-parp-1-inhibition-reduces-carotid-vessel-remodeling-and-oxidative-damage-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#16
Krisztian Eros, Klara Magyar, Laszlo Deres, Arpad Skazel, Adam Riba, Zoltan Vamos, Tamas Kalai, Ferenc Gallyas, Balazs Sumegi, Kalman Toth, Robert Halmosi
Vascular remodeling during chronic hypertension may impair the supply of tissues with oxygen, glucose and other compounds, potentially unleashing deleterious effects. In this study, we used Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats with or without pharmacological inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 by an experimental compound L-2286, to evaluate carotid artery remodeling and consequent damage of neuronal tissue during hypertension. We observed elevated oxidative stress and profound thickening of the vascular wall with fibrotic tissue accumulation induced by elevated blood pressure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273662/dedifferentiated-fat-cells-as-a-novel-source-for-cell-therapy-to-target-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#17
Alkisti Mikrogeorgiou, Yoshiaki Sato, Taiki Kondo, Tetsuo Hattori, Yuichiro Sugiyama, Miharu Ito, Akiko Saito, Keiko Nakanishi, Masahiro Tsuji, Tomohiko Kazama, Koichiro Kano, Taro Matsumoto, Masahiro Hayakawa
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) remains a major cause of mortality and persistent neurological disabilities in affected individuals. At present, hypothermia is considered to be the only applicable treatment option, although growing evidence suggests that cell-based therapy might achieve better outcomes. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are derived from mature adipocytes via a dedifferentiation strategy called ceiling culture. Their abundance and ready availability might make them an ideal therapeutic tool for the treatment of HIE...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223475/reduced-first-phase-ejection-fraction-and-sustained-myocardial-wall-stress-in-hypertensive-patients-with-diastolic-dysfunction-a-manifestation-of-impaired-shortening-deactivation-that-links-systolic-to-diastolic-dysfunction-and-preserves-systolic-ejection-fraction
#18
Haotian Gu, Ye Li, Henry Fok, John Simpson, Jonathan C Kentish, Ajay M Shah, Philip J Chowienczyk
Impaired shortening deactivation of cardiac myocytes could sustain myocardial contraction, preserving ejection fraction at the expense of diastolic dysfunction. We examined the relationship between first-phase ejection fraction (EF1), the fraction of left ventricular volume ejected from the start of systole to the time of the first peak in left ventricular pressure (corresponding to the time of maximal ventricular shortening) to the duration of myocardial contraction and diastolic function in patients with hypertension (n=163), and varying degrees of diastolic dysfunction...
April 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218795/defensive-coping-and-essential-amino-acid-markers-as-possible-predictors-for-structural-vascular-disease-in-an-african-and-caucasian-male-cohort-the-sabpa-study
#19
Marisa Möller, Leoné Malan, Martin Magnusson, Carina M C Mels, Nico T Malan
Defensive coping (DefS), oxidative stress, inflammation, and related amino acids (phenylalanine [Phe] and tyrosine [Tyr]) have been implicated in cardiovascular disease. This study assessed whether inflammation, oxidative stress, changes in essential amino acids, and altered coping strategies are correlated with subclinical vascular changes in African (n = 82) and Caucasian (n = 100) men from the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study. The Coping Strategy Indicator questionnaire identified DefS participants...
May 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209576/differences-in-hemodynamics-and-rupture-rate-of-aneurysms-at-the-bifurcation-of-the-basilar-and-internal-carotid-arteries
#20
R Doddasomayajula, B Chung, F Hamzei-Sichani, C M Putman, J R Cebral
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral aneurysms in the posterior circulation are known to have a higher rupture risk than those in the anterior circulation. We sought to test the hypothesis that differences in hemodynamics can explain the difference in rupture rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 117 aneurysms, 63 at the tip of the basilar artery (27 ruptured, 36 unruptured, rupture rate = 43%) and 54 at the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (11 ruptured, 43 unruptured, rupture rate = 20%) were analyzed with image-based computational fluid dynamics...
February 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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