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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355896/differential-effects-of-secukinumab-vs-ustekinumab-for-treatment-of-psoriasis-on-quality-of-life-work-productivity-and-activity-impairment-a-structural-equation-modelling-analysis
#1
D E Stull, C E M Griffiths, I Gilloteau, Y Zhao, A Guana, A Y Finlay, B Sherif, K Houghton, L Puig
PURPOSE: This study examined direct and indirect (mediated) effects of secukinumab vs. ustekinumab on quality of life, work productivity, and activity impairment based on psoriasis severity and symptoms. METHODS: Analyses were based on data from the CLEAR study. Structural equation modelling (SEM) examined the effects of secukinumab vs. ustekinumab on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and on the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire using Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) severity and symptoms (pain, itching, and scaling) as potential mediators...
January 21, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355542/no-appendix-necessary-fecal-transplants-and-antibiotics-can-resolve-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
Tejas Joshi, Bret D Elderd, Karen C Abbott
The appendix has been hypothesized to protect the colon against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by providing a continuous source of commensal bacteria that crowd out the potentially unhealthy bacteria and/or by contributing to defensive immune dynamics. Here, a series of deterministic systems comprised of ordinary differential equations, which treat the system as an ecological community of microorganisms, model the dynamics of colon microbiome. The first model includes migration of commensal bacteria from the appendix to the gut, while the second model expands this to also include immune dynamics...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355536/a-mathematical-model-of-the-mevalonate-cholesterol-biosynthesis-pathway
#3
Frances Pool, Richard Currie, Peter K Sweby, José Domingo Salazar, Marcus J Tindall
We formulate, parameterise and analyse a mathematical model of the mevalonate pathway, a key pathway in the synthesis of cholesterol. Of high clinical importance, the pathway incorporates rate limiting enzymatic reactions with multiple negative feedbacks. In this work we investigate the pathway dynamics and demonstrate that rate limiting steps and negative feedbacks within it act in concert to tightly regulate intracellular cholesterol levels. Formulated using the theory of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and parameterised in the context of a hepatocyte, the governing equations are analysed numerically and analytically...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353950/a-hybrid-three-scale-model-of-tumor-growth
#4
H L Rocha, R C Almeida, E A B F Lima, A C M Resende, J T Oden, T E Yankeelov
Cancer results from a complex interplay of different biological, chemical, and physical phenomena that span a wide range of time and length scales. Computational modeling may help to unfold the role of multiple evolving factors that exist and interact in the tumor microenvironment. Understanding these complex multiscale interactions is a crucial step towards predicting cancer growth and in developing effective therapies. We integrate different modeling approaches in a multiscale, avascular, hybrid tumor growth model encompassing tissue, cell, and sub-cell scales...
January 2018: Mathematical Models & Methods in Applied Sciences: M3AS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352385/outer-wall-segmentation-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-by-variable-neighborhood-search-through-intensity-and-gradient-spaces
#5
Thanongchai Siriapisith, Worapan Kusakunniran, Peter Haddawy
Aortic aneurysm segmentation remains a challenge. Manual segmentation is a time-consuming process which is not practical for routine use. To address this limitation, several automated segmentation techniques for aortic aneurysm have been developed, such as edge detection-based methods, partial differential equation methods, and graph partitioning methods. However, automatic segmentation of aortic aneurysm is difficult due to high pixel similarity to adjacent tissue and a lack of color information in the medical image, preventing previous work from being applicable to difficult cases...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351304/evolutionary-algorithm-based-heuristic-scheme-for-nonlinear-heat-transfer-equations
#6
Azmat Ullah, Suheel Abdullah Malik, Khurram Saleem Alimgeer
In this paper, a hybrid heuristic scheme based on two different basis functions i.e. Log Sigmoid and Bernstein Polynomial with unknown parameters is used for solving the nonlinear heat transfer equations efficiently. The proposed technique transforms the given nonlinear ordinary differential equation into an equivalent global error minimization problem. Trial solution for the given nonlinear differential equation is formulated using a fitness function with unknown parameters. The proposed hybrid scheme of Genetic Algorithm (GA) with Interior Point Algorithm (IPA) is opted to solve the minimization problem and to achieve the optimal values of unknown parameters...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347802/entropy-production-and-volume-contraction-in-thermostated-hamiltonian-dynamics
#7
John D Ramshaw
Patra et al. [Int. J. Bifurcat. Chaos 26, 1650089 (2016)IJBEE40218-127410.1142/S0218127416500899] recently showed that the time-averaged rates of entropy production and phase-space volume contraction are equal for several different molecular dynamics methods used to simulate nonequilibrium steady states in Hamiltonian systems with thermostated temperature gradients. This equality is a plausible statistical analog of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we show that those two rates are identically equal in a wide class of methods in which the thermostat variables z are determined by ordinary differential equations of motion (i...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347768/zealotry-effects-on-opinion-dynamics-in-the-adaptive-voter-model
#8
Pascal P Klamser, Marc Wiedermann, Jonathan F Donges, Reik V Donner
The adaptive voter model has been widely studied as a conceptual model for opinion formation processes on time-evolving social networks. Past studies on the effect of zealots, i.e., nodes aiming to spread their fixed opinion throughout the system, only considered the voter model on a static network. Here we extend the study of zealotry to the case of an adaptive network topology co-evolving with the state of the nodes and investigate opinion spreading induced by zealots depending on their initial density and connectedness...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347698/field-dynamics-inference-via-spectral-density-estimation
#9
Philipp Frank, Theo Steininger, Torsten A Enßlin
Stochastic differential equations are of utmost importance in various scientific and industrial areas. They are the natural description of dynamical processes whose precise equations of motion are either not known or too expensive to solve, e.g., when modeling Brownian motion. In some cases, the equations governing the dynamics of a physical system on macroscopic scales occur to be unknown since they typically cannot be deduced from general principles. In this work, we describe how the underlying laws of a stochastic process can be approximated by the spectral density of the corresponding process...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347687/corrected-simulations-for-one-dimensional-diffusion-processes-with-naturally-occurring-boundaries
#10
Hassan Shafiey, Xinjun Gan, David Waxman
To simulate a diffusion process, a usual approach is to discretize the time in the associated stochastic differential equation. This is the approach used in the Euler method. In the present work we consider a one-dimensional diffusion process where the terms occurring, within the stochastic differential equation, prevent the process entering a region. The outcome is a naturally occurring boundary (which may be absorbing or reflecting). A complication occurs in a simulation of this situation. The term involving a random variable, within the discretized stochastic differential equation, may take a trajectory across the boundary into a "forbidden region...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347646/marangoni-effect-on-small-amplitude-capillary-waves-in-viscous-fluids
#11
Li Shen, Fabian Denner, Neal Morgan, Berend van Wachem, Daniele Dini
We derive a general integro-differential equation for the transient behavior of small-amplitude capillary waves on the planar surface of a viscous fluid in the presence of the Marangoni effect. The equation is solved for an insoluble surfactant solution in concentration below the critical micelle concentration undergoing convective-diffusive surface transport. The special case of a diffusion-driven surfactant is considered near the the critical damping wavelength. The Marangoni effect is shown to contribute to the overall damping mechanism, and a first-order term correction to the critical wavelength with respect to the surfactant concentration difference and the Schmidt number is proposed...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347634/strong-diffusion-formulation-of-markov-chain-ensembles-and-its-optimal-weaker-reductions
#12
Marifi Güler
Two self-contained diffusion formulations, in the form of coupled stochastic differential equations, are developed for the temporal evolution of state densities over an ensemble of Markov chains evolving independently under a common transition rate matrix. Our first formulation derives from Kurtz's strong approximation theorem of density-dependent Markov jump processes [Stoch. PROCESS: Their Appl. 6, 223 (1978)STOPB70304-414910.1016/0304-4149(78)90020-0] and, therefore, strongly converges with an error bound of the order of lnN/N for ensemble size N...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347589/synchronization-scenarios-in-the-winfree-model-of-coupled-oscillators
#13
Rafael Gallego, Ernest Montbrió, Diego Pazó
Fifty years ago Arthur Winfree proposed a deeply influential mean-field model for the collective synchronization of large populations of phase oscillators. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the model for some special, analytically tractable cases. Adopting the thermodynamic limit, we derive an ordinary differential equation that exactly describes the temporal evolution of the macroscopic variables in the Ott-Antonsen invariant manifold. The low-dimensional model is then thoroughly investigated for a variety of pulse types and sinusoidal phase response curves (PRCs)...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347566/macroscopic-phase-resetting-curves-for-spiking-neural-networks
#14
Grégory Dumont, G Bard Ermentrout, Boris Gutkin
The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347542/breather-solutions-of-a-fourth-order-nonlinear-schr%C3%A3-dinger-equation-in-the-degenerate-soliton-and-rogue-wave-limits
#15
Amdad Chowdury, Wieslaw Krolikowski, N Akhmediev
We present one- and two-breather solutions of the fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. With several parameters to play with, the solution may take a variety of forms. We consider most of these cases including the general form and limiting cases when the modulation frequencies are 0 or coincide. The zero-frequency limit produces a combination of breather-soliton structures on a constant background. The case of equal modulation frequencies produces a degenerate solution that requires a special technique for deriving...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347540/compliant-contact-versus-rigid-contact-a-comparison-in-the-context-of-granular-dynamics
#16
Arman Pazouki, Michał Kwarta, Kyle Williams, William Likos, Radu Serban, Paramsothy Jayakumar, Dan Negrut
We summarize and numerically compare two approaches for modeling and simulating the dynamics of dry granular matter. The first one, the discrete-element method via penalty (DEM-P), is commonly used in the soft matter physics and geomechanics communities; it can be traced back to the work of Cundall and Strack [P. Cundall, Proc. Symp. ISRM, Nancy, France 1, 129 (1971); P. Cundall and O. Strack, Geotechnique 29, 47 (1979)GTNQA80016-850510.1680/geot.1979.29.1.47]. The second approach, the discrete-element method via complementarity (DEM-C), considers the grains perfectly rigid and enforces nonpenetration via complementarity conditions; it is commonly used in robotics and computer graphics applications and had two strong promoters in Moreau and Jean [J...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347504/ion-beam-plasma-interaction-effects-on-electrostatic-solitary-wave-propagation-in-ultradense-relativistic-quantum-plasmas
#17
I S Elkamash, I Kourakis, F Haas
Understanding the transport properties of charged particle beams is important not only from a fundamental point of view but also due to its relevance in a variety of applications. A theoretical model is established in this article, to model the interaction of a tenuous positively charged ion beam with an ultradense quantum electron-ion plasma, by employing a rigorous relativistic quantum-hydrodynamic (fluid plasma) electrostatic model proposed in McKerr et al. [M. McKerr, F. Haas, and I. Kourakis, Phys. Rev...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347498/plain-and-oscillatory-solitons-of-the-cubic-complex-ginzburg-landau-equation-with-nonlinear-gradient-terms
#18
M Facão, M I Carvalho
In this work, we present parameter regions for the existence of stable plain solitons of the cubic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE) with higher-order terms associated with a fourth-order expansion. Using a perturbation approach around the nonlinear Schrödinger equation soliton and a full numerical analysis that solves an ordinary differential equation for the soliton profiles and using the Evans method in the search for unstable eigenvalues, we have found that the minimum equation allowing these stable solitons is the cubic CGLE plus a term known in optics as Raman-delayed response, which is responsible for the redshift of the spectrum...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347494/forward-backward-and-weighted-stochastic-bridges
#19
Peter D Drummond
We define stochastic bridges as conditional distributions of stochastic paths that leave a specified point in phase-space in the past and arrive at another one in the future. These can be defined relative to either forward or backward stochastic differential equations and with the inclusion of arbitrary path-dependent weights. The underlying stochastic equations are not the same except in linear cases. Accordingly, we generalize the theory of stochastic bridges to include time-reversed and weighted stochastic processes...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347372/lattice-boltzmann-heat-transfer-model-for-permeable-voxels
#20
Gerald G Pereira, Bisheng Wu, Shakil Ahmed
We develop a gray-scale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model to study fluid flow combined with heat transfer for flow through porous media where voxels may be partially solid (or void). Heat transfer in rocks may lead to deformation, which in turn can modulate the fluid flow and so has significant contribution to rock permeability. The LB temperature field is compared to a finite difference solution of the continuum partial differential equations for fluid flow in a channel. Excellent quantitative agreement is found for both Poiseuille channel flow and Brinkman flow...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
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