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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245182/an-efficient-parallel-simulation-of-unsteady-blood-flows-in-patient-specific-pulmonary-artery
#1
Fande Kong, Vitaly Kheyfets, Ender Finol, Xiao-Chuan Cai
Simulation of blood flows in the pulmonary artery provides some insight into certain diseases by examining the relationship between some continuum metrics, e.g. the wall shear stress acting on the vascular endothelium, which responds to flow-induced mechanical forces by releasing vasodilators/constrictors. In [?kheyfets2015patient], V. Kheyfets studies numerically a patient-specific pulmonary circulation to show that decreasing wall shear stress is correlated with increasing pulmonary vascular impedance. In this paper, we develop a scalable parallel algorithm based on domain decomposition methods to investigate an unsteady model with patient specific pulsatile waveforms as the inlet boundary condition...
December 15, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245157/dynamic-cellular-complexity-of-anoxygenic-phototrophic-sulfur-bacteria-in-the-chemocline-of-meromictic-lake-cadagno
#2
Francesco Danza, Nicola Storelli, Samuele Roman, Samuel Lüdin, Mauro Tonolla
The meromictic Lake Cadagno is characterized by a compact chemocline with high concentrations of anoxygenic phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and green sulfur bacteria (GSB). The co-occurrence of phylogenetically distant bacterial groups such as PSB and GSB in the same ecological niche, makes the chemocline of Lake Cadagno an ideal system for studying the conditions and consequences of coexistence of photosynthetic bacteria populations. In this study, we applied flow cytometry (FCM) as a fast tool to identify metabolic changes due to the production and consumption of inclusion bodies such as sulfur globules (SGBs), and follow population dynamics of closely related anoxygenic photosynthetic sulfur bacteria in their natural environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245139/scapular-focused-exercise-treatment-protocol-for-shoulder-impingement-symptoms-three-dimensional-scapular-kinematics-analysis
#3
Gisele Harumi Hotta, Adriane Lopes Santos, Kevin James McQuade, Anamaria Siriani de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to describe the effects of a periscapular strengthening and neuromuscular training protocol in three-dimensional scapular kinematics and resting positioning in participants with shoulder impingement symptoms. Self-reported function was also evaluated. METHOD: The study group comprised 50 subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome (control group, n=25; treatment group, n=25). The treatment group underwent 8weeks of neuromuscular training and periscapular strengthening...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245135/acidogenic-fermentation-of-iron-enhanced-primary-sedimentation-sludge-under-different-ph-conditions-for-production-of-volatile-fatty-acids
#4
Lin Lin, Xiao-Yan Li
Iron-based chemically enhanced primary sedimentation (CEPS) is increasingly adopted for wastewater treatment in mega cities, producing a large amount of sludge (Fe-sludge) with a high content of organics for potential organic resource recovery. In this experimental study, acidogenic fermentation was applied treat FeCl3-based CEPS sludge for production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at different pHs. Batch fermentation tests on the Fe-sludge with an organic content of 10 g-COD/L showed that the maximum VFAs production reached 2782...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245108/learning-and-transfer-of-working-memory-gating-policies
#5
Apoorva Bhandari, David Badre
knowledge about the tasks we encounter enables us to rapidly and flexibly adapt to novel task contexts. Previous research has focused primarily on abstract rules that leverage shared structure in stimulus-response (S-R) mappings as the basis of such task knowledge. Here we provide evidence that working memory (WM) gating policies - a type of control policy required for internal control of WM during a task - constitute a form of abstract task knowledge that can be transferred across contexts. In two experiments, we report specific evidence for the transfer of selective WM gating policies across changes of task context...
December 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245069/aqueous-extract-of-triphala-inhibits-cancer-cell-proliferation-through-perturbation-of-microtubule-assembly-dynamics
#6
Sanith Cheriyamundath, Tejashree Mahaddalkar, Shreyada N Save, Sinjan Choudhary, Ramakrishna V Hosur, Manu Lopus
Triphala (Trl) is an ayurvedic formulation used for treating disorders of the digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. Its anticancer properties have also been documented. We studied effects of Trl on tubulin, a target protein for several anticancer drugs, and systematically elucidated a possible antiproliferative mechanism of action of Trl. Trl inhibited proliferation of HeLa (cervical adenocarcinoma), PANC-1 (pancreatic adenocarcinoma), and MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative breast carcinoma) cells in microgram quantities and strongly suppressed the clonogenicity of HeLa cells...
December 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245060/activation-of-human-eosinophils-with-palladium-nanoparticles-pd-nps-importance-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-pd-nps-induced-cellular-adhesion
#7
P Chhay, M Murphy-Marion, Y Samson, D Girard
Palladium (Pd) is known to be released into the environment in the fine and ultrafine (at the nanoscale) airborne particle fractions mainly from automobile catalytic converters leading to an increase human exposure to this noble metal. It was reported that Pd can induce allergic reactions in individuals exposed to it via different ways. Some studies reported an increased number of eosinophils into airways following NP exposure in vivo in rodent models of allergies and inflammation. Knowing the importance of eosinophils in allergies, asthma and other lung diseases, it is surprising to observe that the direct effect of Pd at the nanoscale in eosinophils has been poorly documented...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245046/physiological-and-self-report-responses-of-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-to-children-crying
#8
Yagmur Ozturk, Andrea Bizzego, Gianluca Esposito, Cesare Furlanello, Paola Venuti
Little is known about the physiological response of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to crying of children who have already received the diagnosis of ASD. This study aimed to compare cardiac dynamics via Inter-Beat Interval (IBI) and self-reported emotional states of parents of children with ASD and of parents with typically developing (TD) children while listening to crying of children with ASD (ASD cry) and of typically developing children (TD cry). Analyses revealed higher IBI in parents of children with ASD than IBI in parents of TD children while listening to both cry groups; however no differences on self-reported emotional states were observed...
December 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245035/multiple-long-term-trends-and-trend-reversals-dominate-environmental-conditions-in-a-man-made-freshwater-reservoir
#9
Petr Znachor, Jiří Nedoma, Josef Hejzlar, Jaromír Seďa, Jiří Kopáček, David Boukal, Tomáš Mrkvička
Man-made reservoirs are common across the world and provide a wide range of ecological services. Environmental conditions in riverine reservoirs are affected by the changing climate, catchment-wide processes and manipulations with the water level, and water abstraction from the reservoir. Long-term trends of environmental conditions in reservoirs thus reflect a wider range of drivers in comparison to lakes, which makes the understanding of reservoir dynamics more challenging. We analysed a 32-year time series of 36 environmental variables characterising weather, land use in the catchment, reservoir hydrochemistry, hydrology and light availability in the small, canyon-shaped Římov Reservoir in the Czech Republic to detect underlying trends, trend reversals and regime shifts...
December 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245029/nursing-students-learning-dynamics-and-influencing-factors-in-clinical-contexts
#10
Jung Jae Lee, Charlotte L Clarke, Maggie N Carson
Clinical placements are essential for students to develop clinical skills to qualify as nurses. However, various difficulties encountered by nursing students during their clinical education detract from developing clinical competencies. This constructivist grounded theory study aims to explore nursing students' experiences in clinical nursing education, and to identify the factors that influence the clinical education students receive. Twenty-one individual and six group semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen fourth year nursing students and four registered nurses...
December 7, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245021/google-and-suicides-what-can-we-learn-about-the-use-of-internet-to-prevent-suicides
#11
V Chandler
OBJECTIVES: This article studies the statistical relationship between the search propensity of suicide-related terms on Google and the number of suicides. STUDY DESIGN: Suicide mortality data from all American states from January 2006 to November 2014 (n = 5372) and data on Google search intensity for the same period was collected. METHODS: Regression analysis with dynamic components was performed to determine the relationship between search intensity and the number of suicides...
December 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244951/interfacial-adsorption-of-neutral-and-ionic-solutes-in-a-water-droplet
#12
Patrick K Wise, Dor Ben-Amotz
Direct (solute-water) and indirect (water-water) contributions to adsorption at an air-water interface are identified using the Widom potential distribution theorem and quantified using molecular dynamics simulations of a liquid water droplet containing either neopentane or iodide-like solutes with charges of 0 or ±1. The results are used to quantitatively compare direct and indirect, energetic and entropic, contributions to adsorption, as well as to critically test surface capillary wave, linear response (LR), and mean field (MF) predictions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244949/growth-kinetics-and-size-distribution-dynamics-of-viscous-secondary-organic-aerosol
#13
Rahul A Zaveri, John E Shilling, Alla Zelenyuk, Jiumeng Liu, David M Bell, Emma L D'Ambro, Cassandra J Gaston, Joel A Thornton, Alexander Laskin, Peng Lin, Jacqueline M Wilson, Richard C Easter, Jian Wang, Allan K Bertram, Scot T Martin, John H Seinfeld, Douglas R Worsnop
Low bulk diffusivity inside viscous semisolid atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can prolong equilibration timescale, but its broader impacts on aerosol growth and size distribution dynamics are poorly understood. Here we present quantitative insights into the effects of bulk diffusivity on the growth and evaporation kinetics of SOA formed under dry conditions from photooxidation of isoprene in the presence of a bimodal aerosol consisting of Aitken (ammonium sulfate) and accumulation (isoprene or -pinene SOA) mode particles...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244946/in-situ-synthetic-functionalization-of-a-transmembrane-protein-nanopore
#14
Stefan Borsley, Scott L Cockroft
Monitoring current flow through a single nanopore has proved to be a powerful technique for the in situ detection of molecular structure, binding and reactivity. Transmembrane proteins, such as α-hemolysin, provide particularly attractive platforms for nanopore sensing applications due to their atomically precise structures. However, many nanopore applications require the introduction of functional groups to tune selectivity. To date, such modifications have required genetic modification of the protein prior to functionalization...
December 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244907/pleading-for-a-dual-molecular-orbital-valence-bond-culture
#15
Philippe Charles Hiberty
The history of the two main theories of chemical bonding, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital theories, with their respective localized and delocalized visions of the electron pairs, is briefly recalled with an emphasis on their equivalence at comparable computational levels. The delocalized/localized alternative also exists in the very framework of MO theory, since localized MOs can be obtained through unitary transformations which leave Slater determinants invariant. In particular, the use of hybrid orbitals in chemical interpretations is thus perfectly justified...
December 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244882/%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-in-t-cells-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-cell-cell-contact-leading-to-immunological-synapse-formation
#16
Justyna M Meissner, Aleksander F Sikorski, Tomasz Nawara, Jakub Grzesiak, Krzysztof Marycz, Dżamila M Bogusławska, Izabela Michalczyk, Marie-Christine Lecomte, Beata Machnicka
T-lymphocyte activation after antigen presentation to the T-Cell Receptor (TCR) is a critical step in the development of proper immune responses to infection and inflammation. This dynamic process involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and signaling molecules at the cell membrane, leading to the formation of the Immunological Synapse (IS). The mechanisms regulating the formation of the IS are not completely understood. Nonerythroid spectrin is a membrane skeletal protein involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell adhesion, signaling and actin cytoskeleton remodeling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244875/effect-of-age-and-stereopsis-on-a-multiple-object-tracking-task
#17
Marjolaine Plourde, Marie-Eve Corbeil, Jocelyn Faubert
3D vision develops during childhood and tends to diminish after 65 years of age. It is still relatively unknown how stereopsis is used in more complex/ecological contexts such as when walking about in crowds where objects are in motion and occlusions occur. One task that shares characteristics with the requirements for processing dynamic crowds is the multiple object-tracking task (MOT). In the present study we evaluated the impact of stereopsis on a MOT task as a function of age. A total of 60 observers consisting of three groups of 20 subjects (7-12 years old, 18-40 years old and 65 years and older) completed the task in both conditions (with and without stereoscopic effects)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244866/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-dna-binding-domain-suggest-a-role-of-the-lever-arm-mobility-in-transcriptional-output
#18
Lautaro Damián Álvarez, Diego Martín Presman, Adalí Pecci
One of the first and essential steps in gene expression regulation involves the recruitment of transcription factors (TFs) to specific response elements located at enhancers and/or promoters of targeted genes. These DNA elements have a certain variability in both sequence and length, which may affect the final transcriptional output. The molecular mechanisms in which TFs integrate the subtle differences within specific recognition sequences to offer different transcriptional responses is still largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244862/application-of-system-dynamics-and-participatory-spatial-group-model-building-in-animal-health-a-case-study-of-east-coast-fever-interventions-in-lundazi-and-monze-districts-of-zambia
#19
Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Magda Rich, Karl M Rich
East Coast Fever (ECF) is the most economically important production disease among traditional beef cattle farmers in Zambia. Despite the disease control efforts by the government, donors, and farmers, ECF cases are increasing. Why does ECF oscillate over time? Can alternative approaches such as systems thinking contribute solutions to the complex ECF problem, avoid unintended consequences, and achieve sustainable results? To answer these research questions and inform the design and implementation of ECF interventions, we qualitatively investigated the influence of dynamic socio-economic, cultural, and ecological factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244845/diet-and-stable-isotope-analyses-reveal-the-feeding-ecology-of-the-orangeback-squid-sthenoteuthis-pteropus-steenstrup-1855-mollusca-ommastrephidae-in-the-eastern-tropical-atlantic
#20
Véronique Merten, Bernd Christiansen, Jamileh Javidpour, Uwe Piatkowski, Oscar Puebla, Rebeca Gasca, Henk-Jan T Hoving
In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging...
2017: PloS One
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