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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793131/tlr2-4-ligand-amplified-liver-inflammation-promotes-initiation-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-due-to-sustained-il-6-il-12-il-4-il-25-expression
#1
Gang Chi, Xin-Xia Feng, Ying-Xia Ru, Ting Xiong, Yuan Gao, Han Wang, Zhen-Long Luo, Ran Mo, Fang Guo, Yong-Pei He, Gui-Mei Zhang, De-An Tian, Zuo-Hua Feng
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a serious autoimmune liver disease, can be a lifelong illness, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). So far the mechanisms for disease initiation are largely unknown. Here we report that the amplified non-AIH liver inflammation could promote the initiation of AIH due to the sustained increase of IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-25 in the liver. The liver injury resulting from virus (adenovirus) or chemicals (CCl4 ) could induce an amplified (stronger/long-lasting) hepatic inflammation by releasing the ligands for TLR2/TLR4...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792946/investigation-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-drug-metabolism-by-comparative-global-toxicoproteomics
#2
Ann-Yae Na, Jung Jae Jo, Ok Kwang Kwon, Riya Shrestha, Piljoung Cho, Kyu Min Kim, Sung Hwan Ki, Tae Hee Lee, Tae Won Jeon, Tae Cheon Jeong, Sangkyu Lee
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes conditions such as steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the pathology of NAFLD is well-established, NAFLD-induced drug metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver has remained largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated NAFLD-induced drug metabolism mediated by CYP by quantitative toxicoproteomics analysis. After administration of a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet to induce development of NAFLD, tandem mass tags-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was conducted to investigate the dynamics of hepatic proteins...
May 21, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792889/ros-triggered-degradable-iron-chelating-nanogels-safely-improving-iron-elimination-in-vivo
#3
Zhi Liu, Jing Qiao, Tamas Nagy, May P Xiong
Iron-mediated generation of highly toxic Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) plays a major role in the process leading to iron overload-related diseases. The long-term subcutaneous administration of Deferoxamine (DFO) is currently clinically-approved to improve patient symptoms and survival. However, non-specific toxicity and short circulation times of the drug in humans often leads to poor patient compliance. Herein, thioketal-based ROS-responsive polymeric nanogels containing DFO moieties (rNG-DFO) were designed to chelate iron and to degrade under oxidative stimuli into fragments <10 nm to enhance excretion of iron-bound chelates...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792748/portal-vein-thrombosis-imaging-the-spectrum-of-disease-with-an-emphasis-on-mri-features
#4
Reena C Jha, Satinderpal Singh Khera, Amit Dinesh Kalaria
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the classic and uncommon imaging findings of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) (acute, chronic, congenital, and septic thrombus) as visualized on multiple modalities, with an emphasis on MRI findings. Additional aims are to understand the imaging of obliterative portal venopathy and its clinical significance, appreciate morphologic changes of the biliary system that may accompany PVT, and recognize changes in liver enhancement patterns seen with PVT related to the hepatic arterial buffer response...
May 24, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792719/-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-induced-by-monocrotaline-in-a-large-animal-experiment-a-pilot-study
#5
R Pálek, V Liška, V Třeška, J Rosendorf, M Emingr, V Tégl, A Králíčková, K Bajcurová, M Jiřík, Z Tonar
INTRODUCTION: Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a disease which is caused by toxic injury to hepatic sinusoids. This syndrome is most frequently caused by myeloablative radiochemotherapy in patients before hematopoietic stem cells transplantation and also by oxaliplatin mainly in patients with colorectal liver metastases. The aim of this study was to establish a large animal model of SOS, which would enable further study of this disease and facilitate translation of experimental outcomes into human medicine...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792708/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-is-associated-with-decreased-cyp3a4-protein-expression-and-activity-in-human-liver
#6
Rohitash Jamwal, Suzanne M de la Monte, Ken Ogasawara, Sravani Adusumalli, Benjamin B Barlock, Fatemeh Akhlaghi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease in Western population. We investigated the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus on CYP3A4 activity in human liver tissue from brain dead donors (N=74). Histopathologically graded livers were grouped into normal (n=24), nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, n=26) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n=24) categories. The rate of conversion of midazolam to its 1-hydroxy metabolite was used to assess in vitro CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLM)...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792584/neonatal-intake-of-oleanolic-acid-attenuates-the-subsequent-development-of-high-fructose-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#7
T T Nyakudya, E Mukwevho, P Nkomozepi, K H Erlwanger
Dietary manipulations during the early postnatal period are associated with the development of metabolic disorders including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or long-term protection against metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the potential hepatoprotective effects of neonatal administration of oleanolic acid (OA), a phytochemical, on the subsequent development in adulthood, of dietary fructose-induced NAFLD. Male and female suckling rats (n=112) were gavaged with; distilled water (DW), OA (60 mg/kg), high fructose solution (HF; 20% w/v) and OA+HF (OAHF) for 7 days...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792572/galnac-sirna-conjugates-leading-the-way-for-delivery-of-rnai-therapeutics
#8
Aaron D Springer, Steven F Dowdy
Short-interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced RNAi responses have great potential to treat a wide variety of human diseases from cancer to pandemic viral outbreaks to Parkinson's Disease. However, before siRNAs can become drugs, they must overcome a billion years of evolutionary defenses designed to keep invading RNAs on the outside cells from getting to the inside of cells. Not surprisingly, significant effort has been placed in developing a wide array of delivery technologies. Foremost of these has been the development of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) siRNA conjugates for delivery to liver...
May 24, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792195/histamine-activates-inflammatory-response-and-depresses-casein-synthesis-in-mammary-gland-of-dairy-cows-during-sara
#9
Guangjun Chang, Lailai Wang, Nana Ma, Wenwen Zhang, Huanmin Zhang, Hongyu Dai, Xiangzhen Shen
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidences observed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) induced by high concentration (HC) diet increases the translocation of histamine from digestive tract into circulation causing a diverse of diseases in dairy cows. However, it is largely unknown how it does affect the function of mammary gland and milk quality. Hence, this study aims to observe the effects of histamine derived from the digestive tract on the inflammatory response and casein synthesis in the mammary glands during SARA...
May 23, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791424/-primary-biliary-cholangitis-part-2-state-of-the-art-diagnosis-associated-diseases-treatment-and-prognosis
#10
Diego Andrés Rodríguez Lugo, Jorge Julián Coronado Tovar, Giovana Alejandra Solano Villamarin, Wiliam Otero Regino
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholangiopathy characterized by a selective destruction of biliary epithelial cells of small and medium caliber hepatic ducts, which mainly affects women. The main symptoms are fatigue and pruritus, however, a large proportion of patients may be asymptomatic. The diagnosis is based on AMA titers >1:40, alkaline phosphatase >1.5 times the upper limit for more than 24 weeks and compatible liver histology. It is associated with multiple autoimmune diseases mainly extrahepatic, thyroid diseases, bone diseases, among others...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791421/-autoimmune-hepatitis-recurrence-after-liver-transplantation-15-years-experience-in-peru
#11
Bertha Cárdenas Ramírez, P Martin Padilla-Machaca, Omar Mantilla Cruzatti, José Rivera Romaní, Carlos Rondón Leyva, Julia Sumire Umeres, José-Carlos Chaman Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The recurrence of autoimmune hepatitis (HAI) following liver transplantation occurs between 8-68%. In our experience, autoimmune liver diseases are a major indication of liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the recurrence of autoimmune hepatitis in 15 years of experience and to evaluate the risk factors associated with the recurrence of HAI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive and cross-sectional study...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791248/ddy-mice-fed-10-fat-diet-exhibit-high-p27kip-expression-and-delayed-hepatocyte-dna-synthesis-during-liver-regeneration
#12
Yohei Saito, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Yumi Yamamoto, Masatoshi Suzuki, Manabu Fukumoto, Fumihiko Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Excessive intake of a high-calorie diet has been implicated in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several studies have investigated the effect of NAFLD on liver regeneration, but the effects of simple steatosis have been found to be inconsistent. We aimed to assess whether the initial phase of diet-induced lipid accumulation, induced by a diet containing moderate levels of fat, impairs liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) of mice. METHODS: Male ddY mice are prone to obesity, even when fed a relatively low-fat diet (FD)...
May 23, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791202/different-mr-features-for-differentiation-of-intrahepatic-mass-forming-cholangiocarcinoma-from-hepatocellular-carcinoma-according-to-tumor-size
#13
Ting Ni, Xiao-Sha Shang, Wen-Tao Wang, Xin-Xing Hu, Meng-Su Zeng, Sheng-Xiang Rao
OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable magnetic resonance (MR) features for distinguishing IMCC from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on tumor size. METHODS: This retrospective study included 395 patients with pathologically confirmed IMCCs (n = 180) and HCCs (n = 215) who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced MR imaging including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). MR features were evaluated and clinical data were also recorded. All the characteristics were compared in small (≤3 cm) and large tumor (>3 cm) groups by univariate analysis and subsequently calculated by multivariable logistic regression analysis...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791184/expert-exchange-workgroup-on-children-aged-5-and-younger-with-severe-obesity-a-narrative-review-of-medical-and-genetic-risk-factors
#14
Nazrat Mirza, Thao-Ly Phan, June Tester, Angela Fals, Cristina Fernandez, George Datto, Elizabeth Estrada, Ihuoma Eneli
Severe obesity defined as an age- and gender-specific body mass index ≥120% of the 95th percentile in children younger than 5 years is well recognized as a significant challenge for prevention and treatment. This article provides an overview of the prevalence, classification of obesity severity, patterns of weight gain trajectory, medical and genetic risk factors, and comorbid disorders among young children with an emphasis on severe obesity. Studies suggest rapid weight gain trajectory in infancy, maternal smoking, maternal gestational diabetes, and genetic conditions are associated with an increased risk for severe obesity in early childhood...
May 23, 2018: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791174/-drug-and-herbal-hepatotoxicity-an-overview-of-clinical-classifications
#15
Mária Szántová, Jozef Sedlačko, Martina Jakabovičová
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is often underdiagnosed disease with increasing incidence. In developed countries it belongs to the leading causes of acute liver failure. Risk groups are women and persons older than 60 years. The work summarizes the up to date information on diagnosis and mostly used classifications on DILI. It is quite often and serious complication of medicament therapy. DILI belongs to the most often cause of acute hepatic failure in the old age in developed countries. Diagnostic procedure includes medical history (time correlation with drug intake), clinical symptoms and blood tests...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790688/loganic-acid-and-anthocyanins-from-cornelian-cherry-cornus-mas-l-fruits-modulate-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-and-redox-status-in-rabbits
#16
Tomasz Sozański, Alicja Z Kucharska, Stanisław Dzimira, Jan Magdalan, Dorota Szumny, Agnieszka Matuszewska, Beata Nowak, Narcyz Piórecki, Adam Szeląg, Małgorzata Trocha
BACKGROUND: Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is a plant growing in southeast Europe, in the past used in folk medicine. There are many previous publications showing the preventive effects of (poly)phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, on cardiovascular diseases, but there is a lack of studies comparing the effects of (poly)phenolics and other constituents of fruits. OBJECTIVES: We have attempted to determine if iridoids and anthocyanins from cornelian cherry fruits may affect the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta as well as lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the livers of cholesterol-fed rabbits...
April 25, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790582/acetyl-coa-carboxylase-inhibition-reverses-nafld-and-hepatic-insulin-resistance-but-promotes-hypertriglyceridemia-in-rodents
#17
Leigh Goedeke, Jamie Bates, Daniel F Vatner, Rachel J Perry, Ting Wang, Ricardo Ramirez, Li Li, Matthew W Ellis, Dongyan Zhang, Kari E Wong, Carine Beysen, Gary W Cline, Adrian S Ray, Gerald I Shulman
Pharmacologic inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) enzymes, ACC1 and ACC2, offers an attractive therapeutic strategy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) via simultaneous inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation. However, the effects of ACC inhibition on hepatic mitochondrial oxidation, anaplerosis, and ketogenesis in vivo are unknown. Here, we evaluated the impact of a novel liver-directed allosteric inhibitor of ACC1 and ACC2 (Compound 1) on these parameters, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism, in control and diet-induced rodent models of NAFLD...
May 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790458/relation-of-preoperative-and-postoperative-echocardiographic-parameters-with-rejection-and-mortality-in-liver-transplant-patients
#18
Kerem Can Yilmaz, Orcun Ciftci, Arzu Neslihan Akgun, Haldun Muderrisoglu, Sedat Boyacioglu, Asuman Nihan Haberal, Gokhan Moray, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Survival in liver transplant after end-stage liver disease is associated with major cardiac functions. In a significant number of patients with end-stage liver disease, cardiac dysfunctions may be observed, which can include high-output heart failure, cardiac valve disease, and pulmonary venous and arterial hypertension. All of these affect perioperative survival. The aim of our study was to determine whether preoperative and postoperative echocardiographic parameters, specifically right heart-related tricuspid regurgitation, estimated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, are associated with rejection and mortality in liver transplant patients...
May 23, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790449/pathology-of-coccidioidomycosis-in-llamas-and-alpacas
#19
Julian A Fernandez, Mireia N Hidalgo, Emir Hodzic, Santiago S Diab, Francisco A Uzal
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease caused by either Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Anecdotal evidence suggests that camelids are particularly susceptible to this disease and that a relatively large percentage of pneumonias in these animals are caused by Coccidioides spp. In a search of 21 y (1992-2013) of records from the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, we found 79 cases of coccidioidomycosis diagnosed in camelids; 66 (84%) had pneumonia and 13 (16%) had lesions only in organs other than the lungs...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790196/rituximab-is-ineffective-for-treatment-of-fatigue-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-a-phase-2-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Amardeep Khanna, Laura Jopson, Denise Howel, Andrew Bryant, Andrew Blamire, Julia L Newton, David E Jones
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease. Half of patients experience debilitating fatigue which is currently untreatable. Previous studies have shown muscle bioenergetic abnormalities in PBC, including increased muscle acidosis with exercise linked to the anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) diagnostic of the disease, and reduced anaerobic threshold. In this study we addressed the hypothesis that fatigue in PBC is driven by muscle bioenergetic abnormality related to AMA, and that AMA reduction with B-cell depletion therapy will improve fatigue...
May 23, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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