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Liver disease

Daniel A Patten, Garrick K Wilson, Dalan Bailey, Robert K Shaw, Sirpa Jalkanen, Marko Salmi, Antal Rot, Christopher J Weston, David H Adams, Shishir Shetty
: The recruitment of lymphocytes via the hepatic sinusoidal channels and positioning within liver tissue is a critical event in the development and persistence of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. The hepatic sinusoid is a unique vascular bed lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC), a functionally and phenotypically distinct sub-population of endothelial cells. Using flow based adhesion assays to study the migration of lymphocytes across primary human HSEC, we found that lymphocytes enter into HSEC, confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating clear intracellular localization of lymphocytes in vitro and by studies in human liver tissues...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Anika Wranke, Beatriz Calle Serrano, Benjamin Heidrich, Janina Kirschner, Birgit Bremer, Patrick Lehmann, Svenja Hardtke, Katja Deterding, Kerstin Port, Max Westphal, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis delta is the most severe form of viral hepatitis. Pegylated interferon alfa (PEG- IFNα) is effective in only 25-30% of patients and is associated with frequent side effects. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical long-term outcome of hepatitis delta in relation to different antiviral treatment strategies. METHODS: We studied 136 anti-HDV-positive patients who were followed for at least 6 months in a retrospective single-center cohort (mean time of follow up 5...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
G Kamkamidze, M Butsashvili, K Gendzekhadze
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains one of the most important blood-borne diseases worldwide with about 130-170 million people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, and more than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases each year. Infection with HCV becomes chronic in approximately 80% of cases, while in up to 20% of cases hepatitis C virus is cleared from the human organism. Chronic infections of hepatitis C often leads to the end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
E Vashakidze, I Mikadze, E Pachkoria
Hepatitis C virus is responsible for the majority of persistent viral infections of the liver, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and/ or hepatocellular carcinoma. Two strategies are important to curtailing the rising prevalence of disease: efficient diagnosis of acute hepatitis and identification of the likely mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and epidemiological hallmarks of acute hepatitis C. During 2013-2015, 31 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute C hepatitis...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Mathias Kranz, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Stephan Wilke, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Cornelius K Donat, Steffen Fischer, Marianne Patt, Andreas Schildan, Jörg Patt, René Smits, Alexander Hoepping, Jörg Steinbach, Osama Sabri, Peter Brust
BACKGROUND: Both enantiomers of [(18)F]flubatine are new radioligands for neuroimaging of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with positron emission tomography (PET) exhibiting promising pharmacokinetics which makes them attractive for different clinical questions. In a previous preclinical study, the main advantage of (+)-[(18)F]flubatine compared to (-)-[(18)F]flubatine was its higher binding affinity suggesting that (+)-[(18)F]flubatine might be able to detect also slight reductions of α4β2 nAChRs and could be more sensitive than (-)-[(18)F]flubatine in early stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: EJNMMI Physics
Yung-Kuan Tsou, Chia-Yuan Liu, Kuang-I Fu, Cheng-Hui Lin, Mu-Shien Lee, Ming-Yao Su, Ken Ohata, Cheng-Tang Chiu
BACKGROUND: Esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has rarely been reported for the treatment of cirrhotic patients. AIM: To report the results of ESD treatment of superficial esophageal neoplasms (SENs) for cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Forty patients with 50 consecutive SENs undergoing 46 sessions of ESD were retrospectively reviewed. The cirrhotic group included eight patients (11 SENs) with liver cirrhosis consisting of six patients classified as Child-Pugh class A liver cirrhosis and two patients classified as class B liver cirrhosis...
October 21, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Haruyoshi Tanaka, Mitsuro Kanda, Dai Shimizu, Chie Tanaka, Daisuke Kobayashi, Masamichi Hayashi, Naoki Iwata, Suguru Yamada, Tsutomu Fujii, Goro Nakayama, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Michitaka Fujiwara, Yukiko Niwa, Yasuhiro Kodera
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) relapse can occur even if curative resection is achieved. Biomarkers predicting recurrence are needed to provide appropriate postoperative surveillance and perioperative therapeutic strategy. METHODS: A global expression profiling was performed using tissues from GC patients with synchronous liver-confined metastasis. Family with sequence similarity 46, member C (FAM46C), was identified as a candidate biomarker. mRNA expression analysis, direct nucleotide sequencing, bisulfite sequencing and copy number assays for FAM46C were performed with eleven GC cell lines...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Richard Bell, Sanjay Pandanaboyana, Saira Nisar, Vivek Upasani, Giles Toogood, J Peter Lodge, K Raj Prasad
INTRODUCTION: This study analysed the effect of age on survival in patients undergoing major hepatectomy (MH) for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) with age was also assessed. METHOD: Patients undergoing MH for CRLM between 1996 and 2011 were reviewed. Patients aged <75 or ≥75 were compared for disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) as well as impact of AC on survival. RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty-seven patients underwent MH of which 105 (14 %) were aged ≥75...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Zhuqing Leslie Li, Yonghui Shi, Yinyi Ding, Yumei Ran, Guowei Le
Oxidized tyrosine (O-Tyr) products have been detected in commercial food and have been demonstrated to induce liver injury in our previous study, but the precise mechanisms of the impact induced by dietary O-Tyr are still unclear. Kidney plays an important role in the metabolism of protein. Accumulation of O-Tyr products, especially the dityrosine (Dityr) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), in vivo was shown to be associated with many kidney diseases. Therefore, this study determined whether chronic exposure to dietary O-Tyr impaired renal function in rats...
October 21, 2016: Amino Acids
Xiaodan Luo, Lihua Xu, Yangqiu Li, Huo Tan
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induced by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and donor-derived T cells remains the major limitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell-cell communication that is important in T cell development. Recently, Notch signaling pathway is reported to be involved in regulating GVHD. To investigate the role of Notch inhibition in modulating GVHD, we established MHC-mismatched murine allo-BMT model. We found that inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by γ-secretase inhibitor in vivo could reduce aGVHD, which was shown by the onset time of aGVHD, body weight, clinical aGVHD scores, pathology aGVHD scores, and survival...
October 21, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Manuel Guerrero-Hernandez, Carlos A Hinojosa, Javier E Anaya-Ayala, Erika Elenes, Aldo Torre
Portal vein (PV) thrombosis (PVT) in the absence of liver disease or thrombophilia is rare. We report a 57-year-old male with a history of stage 3 chronic kidney disease who presented at the emergency department 18 months after abdominal surgery with progressive abdominal pain and distention. Computed tomography revealed PVT with multiple collaterals and moderate ascites. He had undergone partial gastrectomy and gastrojejunal anastomosis at an outside facility for gastrointestinal stromal tumors that caused an iatrogenic stenotic lesion in the PV...
October 20, 2016: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Margaret L Ong, Isabell B Purdy, Orly L Levit, Daniel T Robinson, Tristan Grogan, Martiniano Flores, Kara L Calkins
BACKGROUND: In some studies, the dose of intravenous soybean oil (SO) has been associated with a decreased incidence of intestinal failure-associated liver disease. The effect of lipid sparing on neurodevelopment (ND) and growth remains unknown. This study investigated the impact of SO dose on ND and growth over the first 2 years of age in preterm neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-site prospective follow-up study. Neonates with a gestational age ≤29 weeks were randomized to low-dose (LOW) or standard-dose (CON) SO...
October 21, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Clement Chung
PURPOSE: Current strategies for managing neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in adult patients are reviewed, with a focus on medication safety concerns. SUMMARY: NETs usually originate in the gastrointestinal or bronchopulmonary tract. Symptoms due to hormonal hypersecretion often occur in patients with foregut or midgut NETs or liver metastases. Surgical resection is recommended for most localized NETs, while systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy is typically used for high-grade and pancreatic tumors...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Arpa Surapaitoon, Sutas Suttiprapa, Narong Khuntikeo, Chawalit Pairojkul
The carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini causes chronic inflammation in the bile duct and resulting in unremitting tissue damage that lead to hepatobiliary diseases, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Despite inflammatory cytokine expression having been studied in the animal model, so far no studies have been carried out on cytokines in human CCA cases. Here we report the profile of cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from O. viverrini-associated human CCA and uninfected normal controls after stimulation with O...
October 18, 2016: Parasitology International
Susana Martín-Garre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Nourridine Siewe, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu, Abhay R Satoskar, Avner Friedman
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the Leishmania parasites. The two common forms of leishmaniasis are cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL is the more severe of the two and, if untreated, may become fatal. The hallmark of VL is the formation of granuloma in the liver or the spleen. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model of the evolution of granuloma in the liver. The model is represented by a system of partial differential equations and it includes migration of cells from the adaptive immune system into the granuloma; the rate of the influx is determined by the strength of the immune response of the infected individual...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Kazunari Sasaki, Georgios A Margonis, Nikolaos Andreatos, Ana Wilson, Faiz Gani, Neda Amini, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: The impact of prehepatectomy carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in the era of modern chemotherapy and expanded surgical indications for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) remains not well defined. METHODS: 484 patients were identified and divided into two groups by surgical time period (group 1: 2000-2007 vs. group 2: 2008-2015). The prognostic significance of pre-hepatectomy CEA was determined by assessing the HRs associated with various cut-off levels ranging from 5 to 200 ng/mL...
October 18, 2016: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Seshasailam Venkateswaran, Maria Angélica Luque-González, Mavys Tabraue-Chávez, Mario Antonio Fara, Barbara López-Longarela, Victoria Cano-Cortes, Francisco Javier López-Delgado, Rosario María Sánchez-Martín, Hugh Ilyine, Mark Bradley, Salvatore Pernagallo, Juan José Díaz-Mochón
Over the last decade, circulating microRNAs have received attention as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In particular, microRNA122 has been demonstrated to be an early and more sensitive indicator of drug-induced liver injury than the widely used biomarkers such as alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Recently, microRNA122 has been used in vitro to assess the cellular toxicity of new drugs and as a biomarker for the development of a rapid test for drug overdose/liver damage. In this proof-of-concept study, we report a PCR-free and label-free detection method that has a limit of detection (3 standard deviations) of 15 fmoles of microRNA122, by integrating a dynamic chemical approach for "Single Nucleobase Labelling" with a bead-based platform (Luminex(®)) thereby, in principle, demonstrating the exciting prospect of rapid and accurate profiling of any microRNAs related to diseases and toxicology...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Tshifhiwa Magoro, George Gachara, Lufuno Mavhandu, Emmaculate Lum, Helen K Kimbi, Roland N Ndip, Pascal Bessong
BACKGROUND: HBV and HIV share similar transmission routes. Concurrent infection with the two viruses usually results in more severe and progressive liver disease, and a higher incidence of cirrhosis, liver cancer and mortality. Further, this co-infection may lead to cross-resistance between HIV and HBV drugs and increased liver injury, either due to direct hepatotoxicity or drug-related immune-reconstitution hepatitis. These challenges necessitate continuous surveillance for HBV among HIV infected individuals to guide patient management...
October 21, 2016: Virology Journal
Lamiaa Mobarak, Dalia Omran, Mohammed M Nabeel, Zeinab Zakaria
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: It is well known that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops as a consequence of hepatic fibrosis progression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inflammatory and fibrosis markers as predictors for HCC development among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) related chronic liver disease to help in early diagnosis and management of HCC. METHODS: A total of 280 patients with chronic liver disease were included in this retrospective study, out of them 140 had liver cirrhosis with HCC and 140 had cirrhosis without HCC...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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