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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441463/rapidsnps-a-new-computational-pipeline-for-rapidly-identifying-key-genetic-variants-reveals-previously-unidentified-snps-that-are-significantly-associated-with-individual-platelet-responses
#1
Bajuna Rashid Salehe, Chris Ian Jones, Giuseppe Di Fatta, Liam James McGuffin
Advances in omics technologies have led to the discovery of genetic markers, or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that are associated with particular diseases or complex traits. Although there have been significant improvements in the approaches used to analyse associations of SNPs with disease, further optimised and rapid techniques are needed to keep up with the rate of SNP discovery, which has exacerbated the 'missing heritability' problem. Here, we have devised a novel, integrated, heuristic-based, hybrid analytical computational pipeline, for rapidly detecting novel or key genetic variants that are associated with diseases or complex traits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439978/simulation-of-commercial-vs-theoretically-optimised-contact-lenses-for-presbyopia
#2
Richard Legras, David Rio
PURPOSE: To compare theoretically optimised bifocal contact lens optical designs to commercially available optical designs for presbyopia. METHODS: Retinal images were simulated, using a numerical eye model, from -6 (i.e., near vision) to +2 D for each 0.25 D. Ten optical profiles were simulated. Four of them corresponded to commercial contact lenses (i.e., Acuvue Oasys for Presbyopia®, Air Optix Aqua Multifocal®, Purevision Multifocal® and Distance Biofinity Multifocal®)...
May 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438082/radioimmunoconjugates-for-treating-cancer-recent-advances-and-current-opportunities
#3
Mickaël Bourgeois, Clément Bailly, Mathieu Frindel, François Guerard, Michel Chérel, Alain Faivre-Chauvet, Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré, Caroline Bodet-Milin
Radioimmunoconjugates have been used for 30 years to diagnose and treat cancer. For many years, the use of these therapeutic tools has been limited to haematological disorders, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, given that they have only had a moderate effect on solid tumours. Areas covered: Recently, several strategies have revived the potential therapeutic application for radioimmunoconjugates. In this review, the authors review the advances in immunological engineering to develop new tools like monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives...
April 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437757/abnormal-loading-and-functional-deficits-are-present-in-both-limbs-before-and-after-unilateral-knee-arthroplasty
#4
A J Metcalfe, C J Stewart, N J Postans, P R Biggs, G M Whatling, C A Holt, A P Roberts
Unilateral knee replacement is often followed by a contralateral replacement in time and the biomechanics of the other knee before and after knee replacement remains poorly understood. The aim of this paper is to distinguish the features of arthritic gait in the affected and unaffected legs relative to a normal population and to assess the objective recovery of gait function post-operatively, with the aim of defining patients at risk of poor post-operative function. Twenty patients with severe knee OA but no pain or deformity in any other lower limb joint were compared to twenty healthy subjects of the same age...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437573/using-internal-and-external-reviewers-can-help-to-optimise-neonatal-mortality-and-morbidity-conferences
#5
Michael-Andrew Assaad, Annie Janvier, Anie Lapointe
AIM: This study determined if there was a difference in the conclusions reached by paediatricians in morbidity and mortality conferences based on their level of involvement in a case. METHODS: All neonatal deaths occurring between August 2014 and September 2015 at Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, were reviewed by internal physicians involved in the case and external physicians who were not. The reviewers were asked to identify positive and negative clinical practice items and provide written recommendations...
April 24, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436888/neuromorphic-hardware-architecture-using-the-neural-engineering-framework-for-pattern-recognition
#6
Runchun Wang, Chetan Singh Thakur, Gregory Cohen, Tara Julia Hamilton, Jonathan Tapson, Andre van Schaik
We present a hardware architecture that uses the neural engineering framework (NEF) to implement large-scale neural networks on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for performing massively parallel real-time pattern recognition. NEF is a framework that is capable of synthesising large-scale cognitive systems from subnetworks and we have previously presented an FPGA implementation of the NEF that successfully performs nonlinear mathematical computations. That work was developed based on a compact digital neural core, which consists of 64 neurons that are instantiated by a single physical neuron using a time-multiplexing approach...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435908/development-of-a-japanese-encephalitis-virus-like-particle-vaccine-in-silkworms-using-codon-optimised-prm-and-envelope-genes
#7
Sayaka Matsuda, Reiko Nerome, Kenichi Maegawa, Akira Kotaki, Shigeo Sugita, Kazunori Kawasaki, Kazumichi Kuroda, Ryoji Yamaguchi, Tomohiko Takasaki, Kuniaki Nerome
We have successfully prepared a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) - Nakayama virus like particle (NVLP) vaccine using synthetic codon-optimized prM and E genes. The expression of the recombinant JEV Nakayama-BmNPV (JEV-NNPV) virus was determined in infected silkworm Bm-N cells by fluorescence and Western blot analysis. The recombinant was inoculated into silkworm pupae and the yield of Nakayama VLP (NVLP) reached a peak in the homogenates after 3 days. Additionally, in the peptide analysis of infected pupae homogenate, it appeared approximately 300-500 μg E protein/pupa were produced...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435782/thoracic-ultrasound-what-non-radiologists-need-to-know
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan P Williamson, Chris Grainge, Ahilan Parameswaran, Scott H Twaddell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide the theoretical and practical knowledge essential for non-radiologists to develop the skills necessary to apply thoracic ultrasound as an extension of clinical assessment and intervention. RECENT FINDINGS: Issues relating to training and competence are discussed and a library of thoracic ultrasound videos is provided to illustrate artefacts, pleural, parenchymal and pneumothorax pathology as well as important pitfalls to consider...
2017: Current Pulmonology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435677/control-of-immune-cell-entry-through-the-tumour-vasculature-a-missing-link-in-optimising-melanoma-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Lih Yin Tan, Carmela Martini, Zvi G Fridlender, Claudine S Bonder, Michael P Brown, Lisa M Ebert
Metastatic melanoma remains a fatal disease to many worldwide, even after the breakthrough introduction of targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade therapies such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors. With advances in our understanding of this disease, as well as the increasing data gathered from patient studies, the significance of the host immune response to cancer progression and response to treatment is becoming clear. More specifically, the presence of intratumoral CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cells correlates with better prognosis whereas the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils in the tumour is often associated with worse prognosis...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434783/electron-ptychographic-phase-imaging-of-light-elements-in-crystalline-materials-using-wigner-distribution-deconvolution
#10
Hao Yang, Ian MacLaren, Lewys Jones, Gerardo T Martinez, Martin Simson, Martin Huth, Henning Ryll, Heike Soltau, Ryusuke Sagawa, Yukihito Kondo, Colin Ophus, Peter Ercius, Lei Jin, András Kovács, Peter D Nellist
Recent development in fast pixelated detector technology has allowed a two dimensional diffraction pattern to be recorded at every probe position of a two dimensional raster scan in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), forming an information-rich four dimensional (4D) dataset. Electron ptychography has been shown to enable efficient coherent phase imaging of weakly scattering objects from a 4D dataset recorded using a focused electron probe, which is optimised for simultaneous incoherent Z-contrast imaging and spectroscopy in STEM...
April 1, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434482/how-to-implement-clinical-guidelines-to-optimise-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-diagnosis-and-treatment
#11
Michel Farnier, Fernando Civeira, Olivier Descamps
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic disorder associated with significantly elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Optimal management of FH relies on early identification and treatment with statins alone or in combination with other lipid-lowering therapies. A lack of awareness of FH and its manifestations among primary care physicians and specialists has led to many individuals being misdiagnosed in the early stages of the disease, further increasing the risk of CHD and requiring much more intensive lipid-lowering strategies...
April 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432904/optimising-multi-frame-adf-stem-for-high-precision-atomic-resolution-strain-mapping
#12
Lewys Jones, Sigurd Wenner, Magnus Nord, Per Harald Ninive, Ole Martin Løvvik, Randi Holmestad, Peter D Nellist
Annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy is a powerful tool to study crystal defects at the atomic scale but historically single slow-scanned frames have been plagued by low-frequency scanning-distortions prohibiting accurate strain mapping at atomic resolution. Recently, multi-frame acquisition approaches combined with post-processing have demonstrated significant improvements in strain precision, but the optimum number of frames to record has not been explored. Here we use a non-rigid image registration procedure before applying established strain mapping methods...
April 15, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432674/partial-volume-correction-of-brain-pet-studies-using-iterative-deconvolution-in-combination-with-hypr-denoising
#13
Sandeep S V Golla, Mark Lubberink, Bart N M van Berckel, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Ronald Boellaard
BACKGROUND: Accurate quantification of PET studies depends on the spatial resolution of the PET data. The commonly limited PET resolution results in partial volume effects (PVE). Iterative deconvolution methods (IDM) have been proposed as a means to correct for PVE. IDM improves spatial resolution of PET studies without the need for structural information (e.g. MR scans). On the other hand, deconvolution also increases noise, which results in lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The aim of this study was to implement IDM in combination with HighlY constrained back-PRojection (HYPR) denoising to mitigate poor SNR properties of conventional IDM...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432504/3t-mri-of-the-knee-with-optimised-isotropic-3d-sequences-accurate-delineation-of-intra-articular-pathology-without-prolonged-acquisition-times
#14
Osamah M Abdulaal, Louise Rainford, Peter MacMahon, Eoin Kavanagh, Marie Galligan, James Cashman, Allison McGee
OBJECTIVES: To investigate optimised isotropic 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE)-based pulse sequences for visualisation of articular cartilage lesions within the knee joint. METHODS: Optimisation of experimental imaging sequences was completed using healthy volunteers (n=16) with a 3-Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Imaging of patients with knee cartilage abnormalities (n=57) was then performed. Acquired sequences included 3D proton density-weighted (PDW) TSE (SPACE) with and without fat-suppression (FS), and T2*W GRE (TrueFISP) sequences, with acquisition times of 6:51, 6:32 and 5:35 min, respectively...
April 21, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432326/a-novel-mechanism-linking-memory-stem-cells-with-innate-immunity-in-protection-against-hiv-1-infection
#15
Yufei Wang, Trevor Whittall, Stuart Neil, Gary Britton, Mukesh Mistry, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Xuesong Yu, Alicia Sato, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Jerome H Kim, Thomas Lehner
HIV infection affects 37 million people and about 1.7 million are infected annually. Among the phase III clinical trials only the RV144 vaccine trial elicited significant protection against HIV-1 acquisition, but the efficacy and immune memory were inadequate. To boost these vaccine functions we studied T stem cell memory (TSCM) and innate immunity. TSCM cells were identified by phenotypic markers of CD4(+) T cells and they were further characterised into 4 subsets. These expressed the common IL-2/IL-15 receptors and another subset of APOBEC3G anti-viral restriction factors, both of which were upregulated...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432018/on-the-role-of-api-in-determining-porosity-pore-structure-and-bulk-modulus-of-the-skeletal-material-in-pharmaceutical-tablets-formed-with-mcc-excipient
#16
Cathy Ridgway, Prince Bawuah, Daniel Markl, J Axel Zeitler, Jarkko Ketolainen, Kai-Erik Peiponen, Patrick Gane
The physical properties and mechanical integrity of pharmaceutical tablets are of major importance when loading with active pharmaceutical ingredient(s) (API) in order to ensure ease of processing, control of dosage and stability during transportation and handling prior to patient consumption. The interaction between API and excipient, acting as functional extender and binder, however, is little understood in this context. The API indomethacin is combined in this study with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at increasing loading levels...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431667/the-potential-and-pitfalls-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-for-renal-protection-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Merlin C Thomas
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) offer substantial benefits for the management of glucose levels in type 2 diabetes. In addition, recent data from clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) are also able to reduce new onset macroalbuminuria. These benefits may be consistent with the known effects of GLP-1 RA on traditional risk factors for progressive kidney disease including glucose lowering, blood pressure lowering, reduced insulin levels and weight reduction...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431554/a-need-to-accelerate-health-research-productivity-in-an-african-university-the-case-of-makerere-university-college-of-health-sciences
#18
Damalie Nakanjako, Dickens Akena, Dan K Kaye, James Tumwine, Elialilia Okello, Annettee Nakimuli, Andrew Kambugu, Hazel McCullough, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Moses R Kamya, Nelson K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) has taken strides in research and training to improve healthcare through collaborative training and research programs. However, there is limited data on the trends of MakCHS faculty contributions to research and on faculty growth to take leading roles in health research. This paper reviews MakCHS faculty research publications over 15.5 years and outlines possible strategies to enhance faculty research outputs...
April 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431545/optimising-spatial-accessibility-to-inform-rationalisation-of-specialist-health-services
#19
Catherine M Smith, Hannah Fry, Charlotte Anderson, Helen Maguire, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: In an era of budget constraints for healthcare services, strategies for provision of services that improve quality whilst saving costs are highly valued. A proposed means to achieve this is consolidation of services into fewer specialist centres, but this may lead to reduced spatial accessibility. We describe a methodology which includes implementing a combinatorial optimisation algorithm to derive combinations of services which optimise spatial accessibility in the context of service rationalisation, and demonstrate its use through the exemplar of tuberculosis clinics in London...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431338/the-design-and-fabrication-of-beta-sensor-system-for-in-situ-diffusion-tests-in-mudstone-in-france
#20
Zhenhua Lin, Olivier Tillement, Marie-Genevieve Blanchin, Vivek Jindal, Agnès Vinsot, Romain V H Dagnelie, Virginie Blin, Yanick Lettry, Benoit Hautefeuille
Long term in situ diffusion experiments in the Callovian-Oxfordian mudstone (France) are designed in the context of nuclear waste management. β-emitters HTO and (36)Cl radiotracers are representative of neutral and anionic species in these experiments. Studies have been carried out to design an in situ beta monitoring system in order to quantify tracer migration in the rock pore water over time. The development, design and calibration of β-emitter radiation sensors were performed. An optimised geometry was calculated for the detection chamber of (36)Cl in solution (Ø×L=30×2mm(2)) via Monte-Carlo N-Particle transport simulation tools...
April 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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