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Cancer vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813655/making-it-personal-neoantigen-vaccines-in-metastatic-melanoma
#1
Matthew D Hellmann, Alexandra Snyder
Somatic mutations in cancer can be translated into peptides, termed neoantigens, which can be recognized by the immune system as "foreign" epitopes. Two recent studies in Nature (Sahin et al., 2017; Ott et al., 2017) examine the effects of neoantigen vaccines on patients with stage III or IV melanoma and demonstrate immunogenicity and intriguing clinical safety and efficacy data in phase I studies.
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812721/predicting-evolution
#2
Michael Lässig, Ville Mustonen, Aleksandra M Walczak
The face of evolutionary biology is changing: from reconstructing and analysing the past to predicting future evolutionary processes. Recent developments include prediction of reproducible patterns in parallel evolution experiments, forecasting the future of individual populations using data from their past, and controlled manipulation of evolutionary dynamics. Here we undertake a synthesis of central concepts for evolutionary predictions, based on examples of microbial and viral systems, cancer cell populations, and immune receptor repertoires...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811970/trial-watch-dendritic-cell-based-anticancer-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Abhishek D Garg, Monica Vara Perez, Marco Schaaf, Patrizia Agostinis, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines against cancer have been extensively developed over the past two decades. Typically DC-based cancer immunotherapy entails loading patient-derived DCs with an appropriate source of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and efficient DC stimulation through a so-called "maturation cocktail" (typically a combination of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor agonists), followed by DC reintroduction into patients. DC vaccines have been documented to (re)activate tumor-specific T cells in both preclinical and clinical settings...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811347/tifa-signaling-in-gastric-epithelial-cells-initiates-the-cag-type-4-secretion-system-dependent-innate-immune-response-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#4
Alevtina Gall, Ryan G Gaudet, Scott D Gray-Owen, Nina R Salama
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing inflammation which, in some cases, leads to gastric ulcers and cancer. The clinical outcome of infection depends on a complex interplay of bacterial, host genetic, and environmental factors. Although H. pylori is recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems, this rarely results in bacterial clearance. Gastric epithelial cells are the first line of defense against H. pylori and alert the immune system to bacterial presence...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810829/blocking-il-10-signalling-at-the-time-of-immunization-does-not-increase-unwanted-side-effects-in-mice
#5
Guoying Ni, Zaowen Liao, Shu Chen, Tianfang Wang, Jianwei Yuan, Xuan Pan, Kate Mounsey, Shelley Cavezza, Xiaosong Liu, Ming Q Wei
BACKGROUND: Cancer therapeutic vaccine induced cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses are pivotal for the killing of tumour cells. Blocking interleukin 10 (IL-10) signalling at the time of immunization increases vaccine induced CTL responses and improves prevention of tumour growth in animal models compared to immunization without an IL-10 signalling blockade. Therefore, this immunization strategy may have potential to curtail cancer in a clinical setting. However, IL-10 deficiency leads to autoimmune disease in the gut...
August 15, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808906/racial-disparities-in-hpv-related-knowledge-attitudes-and-beliefs-among-african-american-and-white-women-in-the-usa
#6
Ashley Ojeaga, Ernest Alema-Mensah, Desiree Rivers, Ijeoma Azonobi, Brian Rivers
The objective of this study was to assess the differences in HPV-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among African American and non-Hispanic white women and to determine their communication preferences for cancer-related information. Data was obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) 2014 Health Interview National Trends Survey (HINTS), a cross-sectional survey of US adults 18 years of age or older. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify differences in awareness and knowledge...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#7
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807605/adjuvant-hpv-vaccination-for-anal-cancer-prevention-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-time-is-now
#8
Ashish A Deshmukh, Scott B Cantor, Elisabeth Fenwick, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Alan G Nyitray, Elizabeth A Stier, Stephen E Goldstone, Timothy Wilkin, Jagpreet Chhatwal
IMPORTANCE: Outcomes of treating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), a precursor to anal cancer, remain uncertain. Emerging evidence shows that post HSIL treatment adjuvant quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccination improves the effectiveness of treatment. However, no recommendations exist regarding the use of qHPV vaccine as an adjuvant form of therapy. Our objective was to determine whether post-treatment adjuvant vaccination should be adopted in HIV-infected MSM (individuals at highest risk for anal cancer) on the basis of cost-effectiveness determined using existing evidence or whether future research is needed...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806741/risk-of-cancer-in-patients-with-genital-warts-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#9
Ching-Yi Cho, Yu-Cheng Lo, Miao-Chiu Hung, Chou-Cheng Lai, Chun-Jen Chen, Keh-Gong Wu
BACKGROUND: Condyloma acuminata currently affects around 1% of sexually active adults, and its incidence is increasing. The coexistence of genital warts (GW) and certain cancers and an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and various malignancies have been reported. Therefore, we conducted this large national study to analyze the risk of malignancies among men and women with GW in Taiwan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between January 2000 and December 2013, approximately 3 million patients were reported to the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806603/cancer-vaccines-in-the-era-of-checkpoint-blockade-the-magic-is-in-the-adjuvant
#10
REVIEW
Willem W Overwijk
While T cell checkpoint blockade therapy of various cancers yields impressive clinical benefits, most patients are not cured. This is thought to result from insufficient spontaneous tumor-specific T cell responses, a situation that could be remedied with cancer-specific vaccination. Much work is underway to identify cancer-specific antigens, leaving open the question of how to formulate these antigens in a manner that provokes potent cancer-specific T cell responses. In this review I discuss paradigms guiding adjuvant development, and consider what may constitutes a clinically relevant T cell response...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803862/recombinant-lcmv-vectors-induce-protective-immunity-following-homologous-and-heterologous-vaccinations
#11
Jessica Wingerath, Dmitrij Ostroumov, Norman Woller, Michael P Manns, Daniel D Pinschewer, Klaus Orlinger, Ursula Berka, Florian Kühnel, Thomas C Wirth
Successful vaccination against cancer and infectious diseases relies on the induction of adaptive immune responses that induce high-titer antibodies or potent cytoxic T cell responses. In contrast to humoral vaccines, the amplification of cellular immune responses is often hampered by anti-vector immunity that either pre-exists or develops after repeated homologous vaccination. Replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) vectors represent a novel generation of vaccination vectors that induce potent immune responses while escaping recognition by neutralizing antibodies...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803259/opportunities-and-challenges-in-the-immunological-therapy-of-pediatric-malignancy-a-concise-snapshot
#12
REVIEW
Francesco Ceppi, Maja Beck-Popovic, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Raffaele Renella
Over the last 50 years, collaborative clinical trials have reduced the number of children dying from pediatric cancer significantly. Unfortunately, certain tumor types have remained resistant to conventional surgical, radiotherapy and chemotherapy combinations, and relapsing and/or refractory disease remains associated with dismal outcomes. Recently, renewed attention has been given to the role for immunotherapies in pediatric oncology. In fact, these combine several attractive features, including (but possibly not limited to) the specificity for cancer cells, potentially in vivo persistence and longevity, and potency against refractory disease...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801947/how-will-transitioning-from-cytology-to-hpv-testing-change-the-balance-between-the-benefits-and-harms-of-cervical-cancer-screening-estimates-of-the-impact-on-cervical-cancer-treatment-rates-and-adverse-obstetric-outcomes-in-australia-a-high-vaccination-coverage
#13
Louiza S Velentzis, Michael Caruana, Kate T Simms, Jie-Bin Lew, Ju-Fang Shi, Marion Saville, Megan A Smith, Sarah J Lord, Jeffrey Tan, Deborah Bateson, Michael Quinn, Karen Canfell
Primary HPV screening enables earlier diagnosis of cervical lesions compared to cytology, however, its effect on the risk of treatment has not been investigated. We estimated the cumulative lifetime risk (CLR) of cervical cancer and excisional treatment; and change in adverse obstetric outcomes in HPV unvaccinated women and cohorts offered vaccination (>70% coverage in 12-13 years) for the Australian cervical screening program. 2-yearly cytology screening (ages 18-69 years) was compared to 5-yearly primary HPV screening with partial genotyping for HPV16/18 (ages 25-74 years)...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801303/health-care-providers-knowledge-of-hpv-vaccination-barriers-and-strategies-in-a-state-with-low-hpv-vaccine-receipt-mixed-methods-study
#14
Echo L Warner, Qian Ding, Lisa Pappas, Julia Bodson, Brynn Fowler, Ryan Mooney, Anne C Kirchhoff, Deanna Kepka
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is below national goals in the United States. Health care providers are at the forefront of improving vaccination in the United States, given their close interactions with patients and parents. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the associations between demographic and practice characteristics of the health care providers with the knowledge of HPV vaccination and HPV vaccine guidelines. Furthermore, our aim was to contextualize the providers' perceptions of barriers to HPV vaccination and strategies for improving vaccination in a state with low HPV vaccine receipt...
August 11, 2017: JMIR Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801154/progress-in-prophylactic-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccination-in-2016-a-literature-review
#15
Polona J Maver, Mario Poljak
Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine represents a revolutionary step forward in preventing HPV-related cancers, especially cervical carcinoma. Alongside appropriate screening, it has the potential to dramatically reduce cervical cancer incidence and even eradicate it. Following extensive evaluations in clinical trials, the first decade of routine HPV vaccine use provides overwhelming evidence of the vaccines' safety and their real-life effectiveness. In 2016, further clinical trials showed high vaccine efficacy in adult women, especially those that were HPV DNA-negative at baseline, and indicated possible protection from HPV-related diseases after treatment of precancerous cervical lesions...
August 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800469/immunotherapy-in-ovarian-endometrial-and-cervical-cancer-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Jole Ventriglia, Immacolata Paciolla, Carmela Pisano, Sabrina Chiara Cecere, Marilena Di Napoli, Rosa Tambaro, Daniela Califano, Simona Losito, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Sergio Venanzio Setola, Laura Arenare, Sandro Pignata, Chiara Della Pepa
The tumors of the female genital tract represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Substantial progresses have been made in ovarian cancer, with the increasing knowledge about BRCA mutated tumors and the recent development of PARP inhibitors, and in cervical cancer, thanks to extensive screening and widespread of vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus. Nevertheless many needs remain unmet, advanced stage diseases are still incurable and cervical and endometrial carcinoma, as well as platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma, can certainly be classifiable among the cancers with poor sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800364/expression-optimization-of-a-cell-membrane-penetrating-human-papillomavirus-type-16-therapeutic-vaccine-candidate-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#17
Romana J R Yanez, Renate Lamprecht, Milaid Granadillo, Brandon Weber, Isis Torrens, Edward P Rybicki, Inga I Hitzeroth
High-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPVs) cause cervical cancer, the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. A HPV-16 candidate therapeutic vaccine, LALF32-51-E7, was developed by fusing a modified E7 protein to a bacterial cell-penetrating peptide (LALF): this elicited both tumour protection and regression in pre-clinical immunization studies. In the current study, we investigated the potential for producing LALF32-51-E7 in a plant expression system by evaluating the effect of subcellular localization and usage of different expression vectors and gene silencing suppressors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800028/current-status-and-future-direction-in-the-management-of-malignant-melanoma
#18
Patrick Gladfelter, Noureldien H E Darwish, Shaker A Mousa
The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly on a global scale. Although some types of melanoma, for example primary cutaneous melanoma, can be managed by surgery, metastatic melanoma cannot and it has a high mortality rate. Both oncogene and immune-targeted strategies have shown marked efficacy in some patients, but their effect on overall survival is still variable. Therefore, newer therapeutic approaches are needed. Fortunately, new advances in molecular medicine have led to an understanding of an individual patient's cancer at the genomic level...
August 10, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798322/luciferase-expression-allows-bioluminescence-imaging-but-imposes-limitations-on-the-orthotopic-mouse-4t1-model-of-breast-cancer
#19
V P Baklaushev, A Kilpeläinen, S Petkov, M A Abakumov, N F Grinenko, G M Yusubalieva, A A Latanova, I L Gubskiy, F G Zabozlaev, E S Starodubova, T O Abakumova, M G Isaguliants, V P Chekhonin
Implantation of reporter-labeled tumor cells in an immunocompetent host involves a risk of their immune elimination. We have studied this effect in a mouse model of breast cancer after the orthotopic implantation of mammary gland adenocarcinoma 4T1 cells genetically labelled with luciferase (Luc). Mice were implanted with 4T1 cells and two derivative Luc-expressing clones 4T1luc2 and 4T1luc2D6 exhibiting equal in vitro growth rates. In vivo, the daughter 4T1luc2 clone exhibited nearly the same, and 4T1luc2D6, a lower growth rate than the parental cells...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797844/pd-1-pd-l1-blockade-enhances-the-efficacy-of-sa-gm-csf-surface-modified-tumor-vaccine-in-prostate-cancer
#20
Xiaojun Shi, Xinji Zhang, Jinlong Li, Hongfan Zhao, Lijun Mo, Xianghua Shi, Zhiming Hu, Jimin Gao, Wanlong Tan
Program death receptor-1 (PD-1)/program death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling plays an important role in tumor adaptive immune resistance. The streptavidin-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (SA-GM-CSF) surface-modified tumor cells vaccine developed through our novel protein-anchor technology could significantly promote the activation of dendritic cells. Although GM-CSF vaccine could significantly increase the number of tumor-specific CD8(+)T-cells, the majority of these CD8(+)T-cells expressed PD-1...
August 8, 2017: Cancer Letters
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