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Epigenetic Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938471/low-vitamin-b12-in-pregnancy-is-associated-with-adipose-derived-circulating-mirs-targeting-ppar%C3%AE-and-insulin-resistance
#1
Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Manu Vatish, Mohammad Tauqeer Alam, Sascha Ott, Sudhesh Kumar, Ponnusamy Saravanan
Context: Low vitamin B12 (B12) during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal obesity, insulin resistance(IR) and gestational diabetes(GDM). B12 is a key co-factor in 1-carbon metabolism. Objective: We hypothesize that B12 plays a role in epigenetic regulation by altering circulating miRNAs(miRs) during adipocyte differentiation and results in an adverse metabolic phenotype. Design, settings and main-outcome measure: Human pre-adipocyte cell-line(Chub-S7) were differentiated in various B12 concentrations: Control(500nM), LowB12(0...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938445/mini-review-discovery-of-gnih-and-its-role-in-hypothyroidism-induced-delayed-puberty
#2
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, You Lee Son, Mika Kiyohara, Ichiro Miyata
It is known that hypothyroidism delays puberty in mammals. Interaction between the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes may be important processes in delayed puberty. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a newly discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release in quail. It now apperas that GnIH is conserved across various mammals and primates including humans and inhibits reproduction. We have further demonstrated that GnIH is involved in pubertal delay induced by thyroid dysfunction in female mice...
September 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938437/progressive-fibrosis-a-progesterone-and-klf11-mediated-sexually-dimorphic-female-response
#3
Chandra C Shenoy, Zaraq Khan, Ye Zheng, Tiffanny L Jones, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Gaurang S Daftary
Progressive scarring is ubiquitous post-operatively and in an array of chronic systemic diseases. Recent studies indicate that such scarring has high female propensity; females are also almost exclusively affected by endometriosis, a common sex steroid dependent fibrotic disease. Endometriosis related fibrosis is regulated epigenetically through transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 11(KLF11). In response to surgical induction of endometriosis, Klf11-/- female mice develop significant fibrosis in contrast to wild-type mice...
August 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938182/the-genetic-epidemiology-of-substance-use-disorder-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Jane Ebejer, Danielle M Dick, M Scott Bowers
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) remains a significant public health issue. A greater understanding of how genes and environment interact to regulate phenotypes comprising SUD will facilitate directed treatments and prevention. METHODS: The literature studying the neurobiological correlates of SUD with a focus on the genetic and environmental influences underlying these mechanisms was reviewed. Results from twin/family, human genetic association, gene-environment interaction, epigenetic literature, phenome-wide association studies are summarized for alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938158/directional-migration-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-escc-is-epigenetically-regulated-by-set-nuclear-oncogene-a-member-of-the-inhibitor-of-histone-acetyltransferase-complex
#5
Xiang Yuan, Xinshuai Wang, Bianli Gu, Yingjian Ma, Yiwen Liu, Man Sun, Jinyu Kong, Wei Sun, Huizhi Wang, Fuyou Zhou, Shegan Gao
Directional cell migration is of fundamental importance to a variety of biological events, including metastasis of malignant cells. Herein, we specifically investigated SET oncoprotein, a subunit of the recently identified inhibitor of acetyltransferases (INHAT) complex and identified its role in the establishment of front-rear cell polarity and directional migration in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC). We further define the molecular circuits that govern these processes by showing that SET modulated DOCK7/RAC1 and cofilin signaling events...
September 19, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938122/genome-regulation-by-polycomb-and-trithorax-70-years-and-counting
#6
REVIEW
Bernd Schuettengruber, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Luciano Di Croce, Giacomo Cavalli
Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax (TrxG) group proteins are evolutionarily conserved chromatin-modifying factors originally identified as part of an epigenetic cellular memory system that maintains repressed or active gene expression states. Recently, they have been shown to globally control a plethora of cellular processes. This functional diversity is achieved by their ability to regulate chromatin at multiple levels, ranging from modifying local chromatin structure to orchestrating the three-dimensional organization of the genome...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937961/regulation-of-chromatin-assembly-and-cell-transformation-by-formaldehyde-exposure-in-human-cells
#7
Danqi Chen, Lei Fang, Shenglin Mei, Hongjie Li, Xia Xu, Thomas L Des Marais, Kun Lu, X Shirley Liu, Chunyuan Jin
BACKGROUND: Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational chemical carcinogen. Recent studies have shown that exogenous FA causes only a modest increase in DNA adduct formation compared with the amount of adducts formed by endogenous FA, raising the possibility that epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to FA-mediated carcinogenicity. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of FA exposure on histone modifications and chromatin assembly. We also examined the role of defective chromatin assembly in FA-mediated transcription and cell transformation...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937658/extracellular-vesicle-associated-rna-as-a-carrier-of-epigenetic-information
#8
REVIEW
Carlo Maria Di Liegro, Gabriella Schiera, Italia Di Liegro
Post-transcriptional regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) metabolism and subcellular localization is of the utmost importance both during development and in cell differentiation. Besides carrying genetic information, mRNAs contain cis-acting signals (zip codes), usually present in their 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). By binding to these signals, trans-acting factors, such as RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), and/or non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), control mRNA localization, translation and stability. RBPs can also form complexes with non-coding RNAs of different sizes...
September 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937318/the-crosstalk-between-p38-and-akt-signaling-pathways-orchestrates-emt-by-regulating-satb2-expression-in-nsclc-cells
#9
Hakan Kucuksayan, Hakan Akca
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a crucial event for metastasis and could be mediated by several pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as many epigenetic regulators. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 is an epigenetic regulator involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and osteoblastic differentiation. It has been reported that the crosstalk between several pathways is responsible for the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells...
September 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936481/controlling-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-acetylation-of-histone-h2bk5
#10
Robert J Mobley, Amy N Abell
Large-scale epigenetic changes take place when epithelial cells with cell-cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity transition into invasive, individual, mesenchymal cells through a process known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, cancers with stem cell properties disseminate and form distant metastases by reactivating the developmental EMT program. Recent studies have demonstrated that the epigenetic histone modification, H2BK5 acetylation (H2BK5Ac), is important in the regulation of EMT...
September 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935858/modular-fluorescence-complementation-sensors-for-live-cell-detection-of-epigenetic-signals-at-endogenous-genomic-sites
#11
Cristiana Lungu, Sabine Pinter, Julian Broche, Philipp Rathert, Albert Jeltsch
Investigation of the fundamental role of epigenetic processes requires methods for the locus-specific detection of epigenetic modifications in living cells. Here, we address this urgent demand by developing four modular fluorescence complementation-based epigenetic biosensors for live-cell microscopy applications. These tools combine engineered DNA-binding proteins with domains recognizing defined epigenetic marks, both fused to non-fluorescent fragments of a fluorescent protein. The presence of the epigenetic mark at the target DNA sequence leads to the reconstitution of a functional fluorophore...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935371/a-sir2-family-protein-rv1151c-deacetylates-hu-to-alter-its-dna-binding-mode-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Chinmay Anand, Rajni Garg, Soumitra Ghosh, Valakunja Nagaraja
Till recently, knowledge about epigenetic regulation in bacterial world confined largely to DNA methylation. Lysine acetylation/deacetylation of histones is a major contributor for chromatin dynamics in eukaryotes. However, little is known about such epigenetic changes brought about by post-translational modifications in bacteria. Here, we describe an example of such mechanism occurring in a histone like protein, HU from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Previously, we demonstrated the interaction and acetylation of Mtb HU (MtHU) by one of the acetyl transferases, Eis...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935149/molecular-aspects-of-cancer-chemopreventive-and-therapeutic-efficacies-of-tea-and-tea-polyphenols
#13
REVIEW
Subhayan Sur, Chinmay Kumar Panda
The natural dietary product tea (Camellia sinensis) and its bioactive polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and theaflavin (TF) demonstrated potential anticancer effects in different preclinical and clinical studies. The aim of the present review was to understand the molecular mechanisms of the tea and tea polyphenol-mediated cancer prevention and therapy. In the setting of in vivo cancer prevention studies, administration of the tea and tea polyphenols at preinitiation stages only showed partial prevention, whereas continuous administration showed potential effect in restriction of carcinogenesis in the body's multiple organs at early premalignant stages throughout the experiment...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934858/metabolism-nutrition-and-redox-signaling-of-hydroxyproline
#14
Zhenlong Wu, Yongqing Hou, Zhaolai Dai, Chien-An Hu, Guoyao Wu
SIGNIFICANCE: Hydroxyproline is a structurally and physiologically important imino acid in animals. It is provided from diets and endogenous synthesis, and its conversion into glycine is enhances the production of glutathione, DNA, heme, and protein. Furthermore, oxidation of hydroxyproline by hydroxyproline oxidase plays an important role in cell antioxidative reactions, survival, and homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms whereby hydroxyproline participates in metabolism and cell signaling can improve the nutrition and health of animals and humans...
September 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934561/epigenetic-mechanisms-regulating-adaptive-responses-to-targeted-kinase-inhibitors-in-cancer
#15
Steven P Angus, Jon S Zawistowski, Gary L Johnson
Although targeted inhibition of oncogenic kinase drivers has achieved remarkable patient responses in many cancers, the development of resistance has remained a significant challenge. Numerous mechanisms have been identified, including the acquisition of gatekeeper mutations, activating pathway mutations, and copy number loss or gain of the driver or alternate nodes. These changes have prompted the development of kinase inhibitors with increased selectivity, use of second-line therapeutics to overcome primary resistance, and combination treatment to forestall resistance...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934481/automatic-identification-of-informative-regions-with-epigenomic-changes-associated-to-hematopoiesis
#16
Enrique Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, David Juan, Vera Pancaldi, Felipe Were, Ignacio Martin-Subero, Daniel Rico, Alfonso Valencia
Hematopoiesis is one of the best characterized biological systems but the connection between chromatin changes and lineage differentiation is not yet well understood. We have developed a bioinformatic workflow to generate a chromatin space that allows to classify 42 human healthy blood epigenomes from the BLUEPRINT, NIH ROADMAP and ENCODE consortia by their cell type. This approach let us to distinguish different cells types based on their epigenomic profiles, thus recapitulating important aspects of human hematopoiesis...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933854/epigenetic-dna-modification-n6-methyladenine-causes-site-specific-rna-polymerase-ii-transcriptional-pausing
#17
Wei Wang, Liang Xu, Lulu Hu, Jenny Chong, Chuan He, Dong Wang
N6-methyladenine (N6-mA or 6mA) is an epigenetic DNA modification in eukaryotic genomes. In contrast to the well-established roles of 5-methylcytosine for epigenetic regulation of gene expression, the functional roles of N6-mA remain elusive. In particular, the impact of N6-mA modification at DNA template on RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription elongation is not known. In this work, using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pol II transcriptional elongation system as a model, we investigated the molecular mechanism of pol II recognition and processing of N6-mA sites via both biochemical and structural approaches...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933600/a-novel-acetyltransferase-p300-inhibitor-ameliorates-hypertension-associated-cardio-renal-fibrosis
#18
Rahul Rai, Suresh K Verma, David Kim, Veronica Ramirez, Elizabeth Lux, Chengjin Li, Susmita Sahoo, Lisa D Wilsbacher, Douglas E Vaughan, Susan E Quaggin, Asish K Ghosh
Hypertension-associated end-organ damage commonly leads to cardiac and renal fibrosis. As no effective anti-fibrotic therapy currently exists, the unchecked progression of fibrogenesis manifests as cardio-renal failure and early death. We have previously shown that FATp300-p300 with intrinsic factor acetyltransferase activity-is an essential epigenetic regulator of fibrogenesis, and is elevated in several fibrotic tissues. In this report, we investigate the therapeutic efficacy of a novel FATp300 inhibitor, L002, in a murine model of hypertensive cardio-renal fibrosis...
September 21, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933484/long-non-coding-rna-snhg17-is-an-unfavourable-prognostic-factor-and-promotes-cell-proliferation-by-epigenetically-silencing-p57-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Zhonghua Ma, Shengying Gu, Min Song, Changsheng Yan, Bingqing Hui, Hao Ji, Jirong Wang, Jianping Zhang, Keming Wang, Qinghong Zhao
Recently, substantial evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in multiple cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Utilizing publicly available lncRNA-expression-profiling data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset GSE21510, we screened SNHG17 as a new candidate lncRNA associated with CRC development and progression. We further demonstrated that SNHG17 was upregulated in CRC tissues, and that its overexpression was significantly correlated with tumor size, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis in CRC patients...
September 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933369/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-tamoxifen-resistance-in-luminal-breast-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Hany A Abdel-Hafiz
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cancer is the most frequent subtype representing more than 70% of breast cancers. These tumors respond to endocrine therapy targeting the ER pathway including selective ER modulators (SERMs), selective ER downregulators (SERDs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). However, resistance to endocrine therapy associated with disease progression remains a significant therapeutic challenge...
July 6, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
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