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Epigenetic Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528402/impact-of-brown-rice-specific-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-epigenetic-modulation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-brain-striatum-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#1
Chisayo Kozuka, Tadashi Kaname, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Masato Tsutsui, Masayuki Matsushita, Keiko Abe, Hiroaki Masuzaki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signalling in the striatum, a pivotal regulator of the brain reward system, resulting in hedonic overeating. We previously reported that the brown rice-specific bioactive constituent γ-oryzanol attenuated the preference for an HFD via hypothalamic control...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527696/essential-roles-of-g9a-in-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-tooth-development
#2
Taichi Kamiunten, Hisashi Ideno, Akemi Shimada, Yoshinori Arai, Tatsuo Terashima, Yasuhiro Tomooka, Yoshiki Nakamura, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Hiroshi Kimura, Yoichi Shinkai, Makoto Tachibana, Akira Nifuji
Teeth develop through interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues mediated by a signaling network comprised of growth factors and transcription factors However, little is known about how epigenetic modifiers affect signaling pathways and thereby regulate tooth formation. We previously reported that the histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase (MTase) G9a is specifically enriched in the tooth mesenchyme during mouse development. In this study, we investigated the functions of G9a in tooth development using G9a conditional knockout (KO) mice...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526930/micrornas-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Abhishek Singh, Dwaipayan Sen
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease commonly affecting the older population. Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of brain leads to impairment of motor activities as well as cognitive defects. There are many underlying causes to this disease, both genetic and epigenetic, which are yet to be fully explored. Non-coding RNAs are significant part of our genome and are involved in various cellular processes. MicroRNAs, which are small non-coding RNAs having 20-22 nucleotides, are involved in many underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's...
May 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526412/adaptor-proteins-gir1-and-gir2-ii-interaction-with-the-co-repressor-topless-and-promotion-of-histone-deacetylation-of-target-chromatin
#4
Renhong Wu, Vitaly Citovsky
Understanding how root hair development is controlled is important for understanding of many fundamental aspects of plant biology. Previously, we identified two plant-specific adaptor proteins GIR1 and GIR2 that interact with the major regulator of root hair development GL2 and suppress formation of root hair. Here, we show that GIR1 and GIR2 also interact with the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). This interaction required the GIR1 protein EAR motif, and was essential for the transcriptional repressor activity of GIR1...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526340/unfolding-the-pathogenesis-of-scleroderma-through-genomics-and-epigenomics
#5
REVIEW
Pei-Suen Tsou, Amr H Sawalha
With unknown etiology, scleroderma (SSc) is a multifaceted disease characterized by immune activation, vascular complications, and excessive fibrosis in internal organs. Genetic studies, including candidate gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and whole-exome sequencing have supported the notion that while genetic susceptibility to SSc appears to be modest, SSc patients are genetically predisposed to this disease. The strongest genetic association for SSc lies within the MHC region, with loci in HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DOA1 being the most replicated...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526334/regulatory-cis-and-trans-elements-of-mitochondrial-d-loop-driven-reporter-genes-in-budding-tunicates
#6
Kaz Kawamura, Yuhya Saitoh, Loriano Ballarin, Takeshi Sunanaga
To unveil the underlying mechanism of mitochondrial gene regulation associated with ageing and budding in the tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis, mitochondrial non-coding-region (NCR)-containing reporter genes were constructed. PmNCR2.3K/GFP was expressed spatiotemporally in a pattern quite similar to mitochondrial 16SrRNA. The reporter gene expression was sensitive to high dose of rifampicin similar to mitochondrial genes, suggesting that the transcription indeed occurs in mitochondria. However, the gene expression also occurred in vivo in the cell nucleus and in vitro in the nuclear extracts...
May 16, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526299/mir-200a-regulates-cdk4-6-inhibitor-effect-by-targeting-cdk6-in-metastatic-melanoma
#7
Matias A Bustos, Shigeshi Ono, Diego M Marzese, Takashi Oyama, Yuuki Iida, Garrett Cheung, Nellie Nelson, Sandy C Hsu, Qiang Yu, Dave S B Hoon
Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 pathway is frequently dysregulated in cutaneous melanoma. Recently, CDK4/6 inhibitors have shown promising clinical activity against several cancer types, including melanoma. Here, we demonstrate that miR-200a decreases CDK6 expression and thus reduces the response of CDK4/6 inhibitor in highly proliferative metastatic melanoma. Down-regulation of miR-200a expression in melanoma cells is associated with disease progression and a higher number of lymph node metastases. Furthermore, miR-200a expression is epigenetically modulated by both DNA methylation at the promoter region and chromatin accessibility of an upstream genomic region with enhancer activity...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525743/bromodomain-protein-brd4-is-a-transcriptional-repressor-of-autophagy-and-lysosomal-function
#8
Jun-Ichi Sakamaki, Simon Wilkinson, Marcel Hahn, Nilgun Tasdemir, Jim O'Prey, William Clark, Ann Hedley, Colin Nixon, Jaclyn S Long, Maria New, Tim Van Acker, Sharon A Tooze, Scott W Lowe, Ivan Dikic, Kevin M Ryan
Autophagy is a membrane-trafficking process that directs degradation of cytoplasmic material in lysosomes. The process promotes cellular fidelity, and while the core machinery of autophagy is known, the mechanisms that promote and sustain autophagy are less well defined. Here we report that the epigenetic reader BRD4 and the methyltransferase G9a repress a TFEB/TFE3/MITF-independent transcriptional program that promotes autophagy and lysosome biogenesis. We show that BRD4 knockdown induces autophagy in vitro and in vivo in response to some, but not all, situations...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524856/histone-variant-h3-3-orchestrates-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-in-the-developing-brain
#9
Wenlong Xia, Jianwei Jiao
During the brain development, the process of neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation is precisely regulated. The deficiency in the embryonic brain development will cause serious developmental disorders. Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in controlling proliferation and differentiation in different types of stem cells. Histone variants, as one of epigenetic regulators, have been reported to be associated with many bioprocesses. Among different variants, H3.3 is one of the important epigenetic regulators, but its role in embryonic NSCs remains unclear...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524836/effect-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-on-the-expression-of-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-2-in-a-human-placental-trophoblast-cell-line
#10
Hong-Yu Duan, Dan Ma, Kai-Yu Zhou, Tao Wang, Yi Zhang, Yi-Fei Li, Jin-Lin Wu, Yi-Min Hua, Chuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Placental multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), encoded by ABCC2 gene in human, plays a significant role in regulating drugs' transplacental transfer rates. Studies on placental MRP2 regulation could provide more therapeutic targets for individualized and safe pharmacotherapy during pregnancy. Currently, the roles of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating placental drug transporters are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibition on MRP2 expression in the placental trophoblast cell line and to explore whether HDAC1/2/3 are preliminarily involved in this process...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524180/aberrant-epigenetic-regulation-of-gabrp-associates-with-aggressive-phenotype-of-ovarian-cancer
#11
Hye Youn Sung, San-Duk Yang, Woong Ju, Jung-Hyuck Ahn
Metastasis is a major cause of therapeutic failure in ovarian cancer. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer metastasis, we previously established a metastatic xenograft mouse model using human ovarian carcinoma SK-OV-3 cells. Using gene expression profiling, we found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor π subunit (GABRP) expression was upregulated (>4-fold) in metastatic tissues from our xenograft mice compared with SK-OV-3 cells. Importantly, GABRP knockdown diminished the migration and invasion of SK-OV-3 cells, and reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation while overexpression of GABRP exhibited significantly increased cell migration, invasion and ERK activation...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524065/microrna-in-skin-diseases
#12
Tatiana G Ruksha, Anna V Komina, Nadezhda V Palkina
MicroRNAs are essential regulators of various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and the immune response, acting as factors for translational repression and/or degradation of target messenger RNA. Currently, microRNAs are considered as promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets for different pathological conditions. Skin may serve as a convenient model for microRNA modulation studies due to the comparatively easy access to targets cells. Cutaneous diseases are characterized by multiple intercellular communication pathways, triggered by diverse stimuli and mediated by heterogenous regulators, including microRNAs...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524020/altered-gene-expression-of-epigenetic-modifying-enzymes-in-response-to-dietary-supplementation-with-linseed-oil
#13
Ran Li, Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu
Recently we showed that 5% linseed oil (LSO) and 5% safflower oil (SFO) supplementation of cow's diets reduced milk fat yield by 30·38 and 32·42% respectively, accompanied by differential expression of genes and regulation by microRNAs (miRNA). This research communication addresses the hypothesis that epigenetic regulation could be involved in the observed milk fat reduction. Thus, this study investigated the gene expression pattern of major epigenetic modifying enzymes in response to dietary supplementation with LSO or SFO...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523562/bioinformatics-tools-for-genome-wide-epigenetic-research
#14
Vladimir Espinosa Angarica, Antonio Del Sol
Epigenetics play a central role in the regulation of many important cellular processes, and dysregulations at the epigenetic level could be the source of serious pathologies, such as neurological disorders affecting brain development, neurodegeneration, and intellectual disability. Despite significant technological advances for epigenetic profiling, there is still a need for a systematic understanding of how epigenetics shapes cellular circuitry, and disease pathogenesis. The development of accurate computational approaches for analyzing complex epigenetic profiles is essential for disentangling the mechanisms underlying cellular development, and the intricate interaction networks determining and sensing chromatin modifications and DNA methylation to control gene expression...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523561/technologies-for-deciphering-epigenomic-dna-patterns
#15
Sebastian Moran
DNA methylation, consisting on the covalent addition of a methyl group in cytosines, plays a vital role for the development and correct functioning of cells. It constitutes a mechanism by which cell genome is regulated, allowing from a common genome of an individual to obtain all the different cell types that constitute the individual. Nowadays, we understand how the epigenetic machinery works; however, this critical mechanism might promote the appearance of certain diseases if dysregulated, thus the importance of studying the epigenetic patterns on both normal and disease tissues...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523556/epigenetics-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Maria Angeliki S Pavlou, Tiago Fleming Outeiro
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a highly complex neurodegenerative disorder with a multifactorial origin. Although several cellular mechanisms and genes have been implicated in the onset and progression of the disease, the precise molecular underpinnings of the disease remain unclear. In this context, epigenetic modulation of gene expression by environmental factors is emerging as an important mechanism in PD and in other neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and altered microRNA expression, have been under intense investigation due to their possible involvement in PD...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523551/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-gene-regulation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Alba Jimenez-Pacheco, Jaime M Franco, Soledad Lopez, Juan Miguel Gomez-Zumaquero, Maria Magdalena Leal-Lasarte, Diana E Caballero-Hernandez, Marta Cejudo-Guillén, David Pozo
Despite being clinically described 150 years ago, the mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis have not yet been fully understood. Studies in both animal models of ALS and human patients reveal a plethora of alterations such as increased glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, redox stress, increased apoptosis, defective axonal transport, protein-misfolding events, mitochondrial impairment and sustained unregulated immune responses. Regardless of being sporadic or familiar ALS, the final outcome at the cellular level is the death of upper and lower motor neurons, and once diagnosed, ALS is typically lethal within the next 5 years...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523547/dna-methylation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Ehsan Pishva, Bart P F Rutten, Daniel van den Hove
Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression, influencing protein levels and ultimately shaping phenotypes during life. However, both stochastic epigenetic variations and environmental reprogramming of the epigenome might influence neurodevelopment and ageing, and this may contribute to the origins of mental ill-health. Studying the role of epigenetic mechanisms is challenging, as genotype-, tissue- and cell type-dependent epigenetic changes have to be taken into account, while the nature of mental disorders also poses significant challenges for linking them with biological profiles...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523541/epigenetics-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Michelle T Siu, Rosanna Weksberg
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is diagnosed in 1 of every 68 children. ASD is incredibly heterogeneous both clinically and aetiologically. The etiopathogenesis of ASD is known to be complex, including genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors. Normal epigenetic marks modifiable by both genetics and environmental exposures can result in epigenetic alterations that disrupt the regulation of gene expression, negatively impacting biological pathways important for brain development...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523538/mecp2-a-modulator-of-neuronal-chromatin-organization-involved-in-rett-syndrome
#20
Alexia Martínez de Paz, Juan Ausió
From an epigenetic perspective, the genomic chromatin organization of neurons exhibits unique features when compared to somatic cells. Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), through its ability to bind to methylated DNA, seems to be a major player in regulating such unusual organization. An important contribution to this uniqueness stems from the intrinsically disordered nature of this highly abundant chromosomal protein in neurons. Upon its binding to methylated/hydroxymethylated DNA, MeCP2 is able to recruit a plethora of interacting protein and RNA partners...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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