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Erin Guty, Peter Arnett
OBJECTIVES: Research indicates that symptoms following a concussion are related to cognitive dysfunction; however, less is known about how different types of symptoms may be related to cognitive outcomes or how specific domains of cognition are affected. The present study explored the relationship between specific types of symptoms and these various cognitive outcomes following a concussion. METHODS: One-hundred twenty-two student-athletes with sports-related concussion were tested with a battery that included a symptom report measure and various cognitive tests...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Calvin Kuo, Lyndia Wu, Jesus Loza, Daniel Senif, Scott C Anderson, David B Camarillo
Previous research has sought to quantify head impact exposure using wearable kinematic sensors. However, many sensors suffer from poor accuracy in estimating impact kinematics and count, motivating the need for additional independent impact exposure quantification for comparison. Here, we equipped seven collegiate American football players with instrumented mouthguards, and video recorded practices and games to compare video-based and sensor-based exposure rates and impact location distributions. Over 50 player-hours, we identified 271 helmet contact periods in video, while the instrumented mouthguard sensor recorded 2,032 discrete head impacts...
2018: PloS One
Buffie Longmire-Avital, Chelsea McQueen
Four out of five Black women in the US, over the age of 20 years meet criteria for obesity. A critical determinant of pervasive health disparities, such as obesity, may be the Black woman's sociocultural experience. One part of this experience is the stress that results from daily encounters with microaggressions. Research has been limited on the association of race-related stress with maladaptive health behaviors among Black women and at what age this association is visible. The aim of this exploratory cross-sectional study was to investigate whether perceived race-related stress was associated with an obesity risk behavior, emotional eating...
June 19, 2018: Women & Health
Kevin J Zuo, Helene Retrouvey, Kyle R Wanzel
OBJECTIVE: Securing a residency training position in plastic surgery is highly competitive each year with a limited quota of positions and numerous qualified applicants. Although previous studies have highlighted the importance of residency programs and applicants seeking a "good fit," it remains poorly understood what influences a medical student's impression and desire to train at a certain program over others. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify which specific potentially modifiable factors during elective rotations and program interviews were most important to Canadian medical students when ranking plastic surgery programs...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Christine Gulla, Elisabeth Flo, Reidun Ls Kjome, Bettina S Husebo
Background: It is debatable whether treating multimorbid nursing home patients with antihypertensive drugs produces beneficial effects. Most cardiovascular guidelines promote treatment; few have advice on how to deprescribe when treatment may no longer be necessary. We investigated the effect of medication review on antihypertensive drug use and the association between cognition, blood pressure, and prescribing. Methods: From August 2014 to December 2015, 765 patients from 72 units (clusters) in 32 Norwegian nursing homes were included in a 4-month, multicentre, cluster-randomized, controlled trial, with 9-month follow-up...
April 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Piotr Wranicz, Bente Brokstad Herlofson, Jan F Evensen, Ulf E Kongsgaard
Introduction Trismus, or limited mouth opening, is a well-known complication of head and neck cancer and its treatment. It may be caused by tumour infiltration into the masticatory muscles or by treatment like surgery and radiotherapy. A limited mouth opening may have a negative effect on nutrition, phonation, dental hygiene and treatment, and quality of life. The severity of this complication depends on the location of the tumour, the type of reconstruction, the total radiation dose, fractionation, and treatment techniques...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Erick D Richman, Brian M Tyo, Clayton R Nicks
Richman, ED, Tyo, BM, and Nicks, CR. Combined effects of self-myofascial release and dynamic stretching on range of motion, jump, sprint, and agility performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Massage has been used as both a pre- and post-exercise modality with purported benefits to flexibility and athletic performance. This study was designed to determine the effect of a 6-minute protocol of self massage known as self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam rolling device in conjunction with a general warm-up and sport-specific dynamic stretching (DS) session on flexibility and explosive athletic performance in a sample of 14 female collegiate athletes...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Adam Copp, Monica R Lininger, Meghan Warren
Research has shown that exposure to a concussion definition (CD) increases self-reported concussion history (SRCH) immediately, however, no research has been performed that examines the effects of exposure to a CD on SRCH over time. Collegiate recreational student-athletes (RSAs) have limited access to monitoring and supervision by medical staff. As such, recognition of concussion symptoms and need for medical management oftentimes falls upon the RSA. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a novel questionnaire on the SRCH of RSAs...
December 17, 2017: Sports
Lindsey T Funch, Erik Lind, Larissa True, Deborah Van Langen, John T Foley, James F Hokanson
The purpose of the study was to examine the changes in peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙O2peak ) and running economy (RE) following four-weeks of high intensity training and concurrent strength and conditioning during the off-season in collegiate female field hockey players. Fourteen female student-athletes (age 19.29 ± 0.91 years) were divided into two training groups, matched from baseline V ˙O2peak : High Intensity Training (HITrun ; n = 8) and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT; n = 6). Participants completed 12 training sessions...
November 28, 2017: Sports
Lara A Thompson, Mehdi Badache, Steven Cale, Lonika Behera, Nian Zhang
Static balance has a relevant influence on athletic performance as well as on reducing the risk of injury. The main goal of this study was to assess soccer athlete versus non-athlete balance performance via displacement and velocity parameters extracted from the center-of-pressure (COP) position time series. In order to accomplish our goal, we investigated standing balance in two male groups with unimpaired balance: non-athletes ( n = 12) and collegiate varsity soccer athletes ( n = 12). In order to make the standing balancing task more or less difficult, we altered participant base-of-support, as well as vision, yielding static (quiet stance) test conditions increasing in difficulty...
November 8, 2017: Sports
John J McMahon, Paul A Jones, Thomas Dos'Santos, Paul Comfort
The dynamic strength index (DSI), often calculated as the ratio of countermovement jump (CMJ) propulsion peak force to isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) peak force, is said to inform whether ballistic or maximal strength training is warranted for a given athlete. CMJ propulsion peak force is highly influenced by jump strategy, however, which is not highlighted by the DSI alone. This study aimed to quantitatively compare CMJ force-, power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves between athletes who achieved high versus low DSI scores...
September 23, 2017: Sports
Robert G Lockie, J Jay Dawes, Margaret T Jones
This study investigated relationships that linear speed and lower-body power have on change-of-direction (COD) speed in collegiate women soccer players. Data from two Division I ( n = 39) and one Division II ( n = 18) schools were analyzed. Subjects were assessed in: power (vertical jump (VJ); jump height, peak anaerobic power measured in watts (PAPw), power-to-body mass ratio (P:BM); linear speed (10-m sprint); and COD speed (modified T-test (MTT), 505, COD deficit). Independent samples T-tests derived significant between-group differences, with effect sizes ( d ) calculated...
April 4, 2018: Sports
Jeremy A Gentles, Christine L Coniglio, Matthew M Besemer, Joshua M Morgan, Michael T Mahnken
The purpose of this study was to use GPS, accelerometers, and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) to examine the demands of a Division II women's soccer team. Data was collected on 25 collegiate Division II women's soccer players over an entire regular season (17 matches and 24 practices). ZephyrTM BioHarnesses (BHs) were used to collect tri-axial acceleration information and GPS derived variables for all matches and practices. Acceleration data was used to calculate Impulse Load, a measure of mechanical load that includes only locomotor related accelerations...
February 23, 2018: Sports
Eric D Magrum, John P Wagle, Brad H DeWeese, Kimitake Sato, Michael H Stone
The purpose of this study was to compare ground contact time between an optical measurement system and a force platform. Participants in this study included six collegiate level athletes who performed drop jumps and sprint strike steps for a total of 15 repetitions each. Ground contact data was simultaneously collected from an optical measurement system and a force platform, at a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz. Data was then analyzed with Pearson's correlation and paired sample t -tests. The measures from the optical measurement system were found to be significantly higher ( p < 0...
February 17, 2018: Sports
Muntaha Elayyan, Janet Rankin, M W Chaarani
Background: Healthcare professionals' empathic behaviour is an important component of quality health care. Patients' reports suggest that empathy is often lacking. Specific factors that may facilitate or inhibit empathetic behaviour have not been extensively examined. In Qatar, empathy may be affected by a completely multicultural, multilinguistic setting where healthcare professionals and patients interact. Aim: The purpose of this integrative literature review is to provide the latest evidence on factors that influence the demonstration of empathetic behaviour of nurses and physicians toward patients and to draw general conclusions that increase understanding...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Lauren Suchman, Elizabeth Hart, Dominic Montagu
Social health insurance (SHI), one mechanism for achieving universal health coverage, has become increasingly important in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as they work to achieve this goal. Although small private providers supply a significant proportion of healthcare in LMICs, integrating these providers into SHI systems is often challenging. Public-private partnerships in health are one way to address these challenges, but we know little about how these collaborations work, how effectively, and why...
June 13, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Reena Pattani, Shiphra Ginsburg, Alekhya Mascarenhas Johnson, Julia E Moore, Sabrina Jassemi, Sharon E Straus
PURPOSE: A rise in incivility has been documented in medicine, with implications for patient care, organizational effectiveness, and costs. This study explored organizational factors that may contribute to incivility at one academic medical center and potential systems-level solutions to combat it. METHOD: The authors completed semi-structured individual interviews with full-time faculty members of the department of medicine (DOM) at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Canada, with clinical appointments at six affiliated hospitals, between June and September 2016...
June 12, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Kate Morgan, Dianne P Reidlinger, Sally Sargeant, Linda Crane, Katrina L Campbell
AIM: Dietetics educators represent a small but influential workforce group that has experienced significant change in recent years. The workforce development challenges faced by this group have been largely unexplored. The present study aimed to explore the experiences of, and challenges faced by, academic dietetics educators in preparing dietitians for the workforce. METHODS: The approach taken in the present study was informed by qualitative description. Fifteen dietetics educators employed by 13 universities across Australia were purposively sampled...
June 13, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Sophia Samuel, Heather Thompson
The problem of medical practitioner burnout and loss of morale remains an ongoing challenge in the Australian health workforce. Collegiate recommendations are individualistic or personalised, or worse, punitive. Critical reflection in supervision is a long-accepted and key aspect of social work theory and practice. The use of critical reflection within a general practitioner support group is examined and key learnings from our findings over 3years are discussed. All participants reported the group enhanced individual and team workplace satisfaction, and wellbeing...
June 14, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Jennifer A Hogg, Randy J Schmitz, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Sandra J Shultz
CONTEXT:   Greater passive hip range of motion (ROM) has been associated with greater dynamic knee valgus and thus the potential for increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Normative data for passive hip ROM by sex are lacking. OBJECTIVE:   To establish and compare passive hip ROM values by sex and sport and to quantify side-to-side differences in internal-rotation ROM (ROMIR ), external-rotation ROM (ROMER ), and total ROM (ROMTOT ). DESIGN:   Cross-sectional study...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
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