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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351390/vagally-mediated-gastric-effects-of-brainstem-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-activation-in-stressed-rats
#1
Yanyan Jiang, Kirsteen N Browning, Luca Toti, R Alberto Travagli
Chronic stress exerts vagally-dependent effects to disrupt gastric motility; previous studies have shown that, among other nuclei, A2 neurons are involved in mediating these effects. Several studies have also shown robust in vitro and in vivo effects of α2 adrenoceptor agonists on vagal motoneurons. We have demonstrated previously that brainstem vagal neurocircuits undergo remodeling following acute stress, however, the effects following brief periods of chronic stress have not been investigated. Our aim, therefore, was to test the hypothesis that different types of chronic stress influence gastric tone and motility by inducing plasticity in the response of vagal neurocircuits to α2 adrenoreceptor agonists...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350262/vagal-nerve-stimulation-for-medically-refractory-epilepsy-in-angelman-syndrome-a-series-of-three-cases
#2
REVIEW
Krystal L Tomei, Christine Y Mau, Michael Ghali, Jayoung Pak, Ira M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: We describe three children with Angelman syndrome and medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS: Case series of three pediatric patients with Angelman syndrome and medically refractory epilepsy. All three patients failed medical treatment and were recommended for vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation. RESULTS: Following VNS implantation, all three patients experienced reduction in seizure frequency greater than that afforded by medication alone...
January 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336393/cardiac-surgery-in-a-patient-with-implanted-vagal-nerve-stimulator
#3
Aashish Jain, Dheeraj Arora, Yatin Mehta
The prevalence of epilepsy worldwide is around 0.5%-2% of the population. Antiepileptic medications are the first line of treatment in most of the cases but approximately 25%-30% epilepsy patients are refractory to the single or combination therapy. The surgical option for temporal lobe epilepsy is temporal lobectomy, which has its inherent risk of neurological deficits after the surgery. Patients who are either refractory to combination therapy or do not want surgical temporal lobectomy are the candidates for electrical stimulation therapy...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335317/reduced-n-type-ca2-channels-in-atrioventricular-ganglion-neurons-are-involved-in-ventricular-arrhythmogenesis
#4
Dongze Zhang, Huiyin Tu, Liang Cao, Hong Zheng, Robert L Muelleman, Michael C Wadman, Yu-Long Li
BACKGROUND: Attenuated cardiac vagal activity is associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis and related mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Our recent study has shown that expression of N-type Ca2+ channel α-subunits (Cav2.2-α) and N-type Ca2+ currents are reduced in intracardiac ganglion neurons from rats with chronic heart failure. Rat intracardiac ganglia are divided into the atrioventricular ganglion (AVG) and sinoatrial ganglion. Ventricular myocardium receives projection of neuronal terminals only from the AVG...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330080/use-of-a-pulsed-radiofrequency-energy-device-peak-plasmablade%C3%A2-in-neuromodulation-implant-revisions
#5
I Ughratdar, K A Kawsar, R Mitchell, R Selway, K Ashkan
BACKGROUND: Battery replacement or revision surgery for neuromodulation implants is conventionally performed using sharp dissection. Meticulous dissection within thick scar tissue is vital to avoid damage to surrounding lead(s) which could result in more extensive revision surgery. Traditional electrosurgery devices are contraindicated as the emitted energy can be transferred to the hardware resulting in implant or tissue damage with severe consequent complications. OBJECTIVE: We report our experience and potential applications of a novel, pulsed monopolar radiofrequency energy device (PEAK PlasmaBlade™, Medtronic plc) which facilitates dissection around implants without the risk of damaging or transmitting energy through the system...
January 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327400/a-vitamin-b12-conjugate-of-exendin-4-improves-glucose-tolerance-without-associated-nausea-or-hypophagia-in-rodents
#6
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Claudia G Liberini, Jayme L Workinger, Ron L Bonaccorso, Tito Borner, David J Reiner, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Rinzin Lhamo, Lauren M Stein, Bart C De Jonghe, George G Holz, Christian L Roth, Robert P Doyle, Matthew R Hayes
AIMS: While pharmacological glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, a major side effect is nausea/malaise. We recently developed a conjugate of vitamin B12 bound to the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), which displays enhanced proteolytic stability and retention of GLP-1R agonism. Here, we evaluate whether the conjugate (B12-Ex4) can improve glucose tolerance without producing anorexia and malaise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of systemic B12-Ex4 and unconjugated Ex4 on food intake and body weight change, oral glucose tolerance, and nausea/malaise in male rats, and on intraperitoneal glucose tolerance in mice...
January 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327312/examining-the-prospective-relationship-between-pre-disaster-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-and-post-disaster-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-children
#7
Amy J Mikolajewski, Michael S Scheeringa
Previous studies have examined the concurrent relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a range of psychophysiological variables, including respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). However, there is a lack of research examining the prospective development of trauma symptomatology, and the directionality of the association between RSA level and PTSD has yet to be determined. The current study is the first prospective study to examine whether RSA level and RSA reactivity are risk factors for PTSD symptoms in children...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326171/abdominal-vagal-afferents-modulate-the-brain-transcriptome-and-behaviors-relevant-to-schizophrenia
#8
Melanie Klarer, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Juliet Richetto, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Lydia Günther, Christine Winter, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Reduced activity of vagal efferents has long been implicated in schizophrenia and appears to be responsible for diminished parasympathetic activity and associated peripheral symptoms such as low heart rate variability and cardiovascular complications in affected individuals. In contrast, only little attention has been paid to the possibility that impaired afferent vagal signaling may be relevant for the disorder's pathophysiology as well. The present study explored this hypothesis using a model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) in male rats...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323403/-ultrasound-study-of-the-vagal-nerve-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-guillain-barre-syndrome
#9
L Rojas-Bartolome, J M Pardal-Fernandez, J Garcia-Garcia, O Ayo-Martin, M Fernandez-Valiente, C M Romero-Sanchez, T Segura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319940/medical-devices-neurological-devices-classification-of-the-external-vagal-nerve-stimulator-for-headache-final-order
#10
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the external vagal nerve stimulator for headache into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the external vagal nerve stimulator for headache's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device...
December 27, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317623/glp-1-release-and-vagal-afferent-activation-mediate-the-beneficial-metabolic-and-chronotherapeutic-effects-of-d-allulose
#11
Yusaku Iwasaki, Mio Sendo, Katsuya Dezaki, Tohru Hira, Takehiro Sato, Masanori Nakata, Chayon Goswami, Ryohei Aoki, Takeshi Arai, Parmila Kumari, Masaki Hayakawa, Chiaki Masuda, Takashi Okada, Hiroshi Hara, Daniel J Drucker, Yuichiro Yamada, Masaaki Tokuda, Toshihiko Yada
Overeating and arrhythmic feeding promote obesity and diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are effective anti-obesity drugs but their use is limited by side effects. Here we show that oral administration of the non-calorie sweetener, rare sugar D-allulose (D-psicose), induces GLP-1 release, activates vagal afferent signaling, reduces food intake and promotes glucose tolerance in healthy and obese-diabetic animal models. Subchronic D-allulose administered at the light period (LP) onset ameliorates LP-specific hyperphagia, visceral obesity, and glucose intolerance...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315657/dysautonomy-in-different-death-risk-groups-rassi-score-in-patients-with-chagas-heart-disease
#12
Catherine Masiel Merejo Peña, Michel Silva Reis, Basílio de Bragança Pereira, Emília Matos do Nascimento, Roberto Coury Pedrosa
BACKGROUND: It has been difficult to prove that the "catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy" contributes to the mechanism of sudden cardiac death in Chagas heart disease. Also, it is almost impossible to rule out the possibility that is not involved in the process. More importantly, the vagal-cholinergic pathway in the ventricle plays a direct role in the prevention of the initiation of complex ventricular arrhythmias, including non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation responsible for sudden death...
January 5, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315578/hcn4-pacemaker-channels-attenuate-the-parasympathetic-response-and-stabilize-the-spontaneous-firing-of-sinoatrial-node
#13
Yuko Kozasa, Noriyuki Nakashima, Masayuki Ito, Taisuke Ishikawa, Hiroki Kimoto, Kazuo Ushijima, Naomasa Makita, Makoto Takano
The heart rate is dynamically controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems that regulate the sinoatrial node (SAN). HCN4 pacemaker channels are well-known causative molecule of congenital sick sinus syndrome. Although HCN4 channels are activated by cAMP, the sympathetic response of SAN was preserved in the patients carrying loss-of-function mutations of HCN4 gene. In order to clarify the contribution of HCN4 channels in the autonomic regulation of SAN, we developed novel gain-of-function mutant mice in which expression level of HCN4 channels could be reversibly changed from zero to ∼3 times of that in wild type mice, using tetracycline trans-activator and tetracycline responsive element...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312704/the-absence-of-effect-of-ganglionated-plexi-ablation-on-heart-rate-variability-parameters-in-patients-after-thoracoscopic-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation
#14
Jana Zdarska, Pavel Osmancik, Petr Budera, Dalibor Herman, Radka Prochazkova, David Talavera, Zbynek Straka
Background: Hybrid ablation [thoracoscopic ablation (TA) of atrial fibrillation (AF) followed by catheter ablation (CA)] is an increasingly common method of the treatment for patients with AF. The aim of this study was to assess the response to ganglionated plexi (GP) ablation in patients with a previous TA (i.e., to assess whether TA had resulted in damage to the GP. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as a marker of the autonomic response. Methods: Twenty AF patients underwent pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) plus GP ablation (GP group) and 18 AF patients underwent CA including GP ablation as a part of hybrid ablation (i...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306061/structure-of-vagal-afferent-nerve-terminal-fibers-in-the-mouse-trachea
#15
Michal Hennel, Jana Harsanyiova, Fei Ru, Tomas Zatko, Mariana Brozmanova, Alzbeta Trancikova, Milos Tatar, Marian Kollarik
The structure of primary afferent nerve terminals profoundly influences their function. While the complex vagal airway nerve terminals (stretch receptors, cough receptors and neuroepithelial bodies) were thoroughly characterized, much less is known about the structure of airway nerves that do not form distinct complex terminals (often termed free nerve fibers). We selectively induced expression of GFP in vagal afferent nerves in the mouse by transfection with AAV-GFP virus vector and visualized nerve terminals in the trachea by whole organ confocal imaging...
January 3, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303602/melatonin-attenuates-chronic-cough-mediated-by-oxidative-stress-via-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-2-in-guinea-pigs-exposed-to-particulate-matter-2-5
#16
Zhenjun Ji, Zhen Wang, Zhe Chen, Hao Jin, Chen Chen, Senlin Chai, Haining Lv, Ling Yang, Yakun Hu, Rong Dong, Kefang Lai
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on oxidative stress, the expression of transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) in guinea pig brains, and the influence of melatonin on oxidative stress in lungs and airway inflammation induced by particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5). A particle suspension (0.1 g/ml) was nasally administered to the guinea pigs to prepare a PM2.5 exposure model. Cough frequency and cough incubation period were determined through RM6240B biological signal collection and disposal system...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303373/cardiac-autonomic-function-and-reactivity-tests-in-physically-active-subjects-with-moderately-severe-copd
#17
Jibril Mohammed, Eric Derom, Tine De Backer, Inge De Wandele, Patrick Calders
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show impairments in the autonomic nervous systems (ANS) function, which is responsible for cardiac autonomic regulation. This study assessed the autonomic function and cardio-vagal reactivity in conveniently sampled subjects with COPD participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program. Twenty-six subjects with COPD and 22 age and gender matched control subjects were evaluated. R-R intervals were collected at rest in supine position. Thereafter, resting autonomic function parameters comprising linear and nonlinear analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) were calculated...
January 5, 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303111/chronic-implantation-of-cuff-electrodes-on-the-pelvic-nerve-in-rats-is-well-tolerated-and-does-not-compromise-afferent-or-efferent-fibre-functionality
#18
Jonathan J Crook, Charly Brouillard, Pedro Irazoqui, Thelma Lovick
Objective Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299012/tremor-ataxia-syndrome-and-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-in-an-fmr1-premutation-carrier
#19
Wilmar Saldarriaga-Gil, Tatiana Rodriguez-Guerrero, Andres Fandiño-Losada, Julian Ramirez-Cheyne
Introduction: The FMR1 gene has four allelic variants according to the number of repeats of the CGG triplet. Premutation carriers with between 55 and 200 repeats are susceptible to developing pathologies such as tremor and ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) syndrome. Case description: The patient was a 53-year-old female farmer with severe tremor in the upper limbs at rest that worsens with movement, tremor in the jaw and tongue, and generalized cerebral atrophy...
September 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298819/reduction-of-motion-sickness-through-targeting-histamine-n-methyltransferase-in-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-of-the-brain
#20
Miao-Miao Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Li Chang, Peng Yin, Zheng-Lin Jiang
To investigate the role of histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) activity in the development of motion sickness (MS) in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) to inform the development of new drugs for MS, Beagle dogs and Sprague-Dawley rats were rotated to simulate MS. HNMT expression in the brain stem and DVC was measured. The effects of systemic application of tacrine, a HNMT inhibitor, on the development of MS were observed. Moreover, we microinjected a histamine receptor H1 inhibitor, promethazine, into the DVC to verify the involvement of histaminergic neurotransmission in MS...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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