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fibrous cap

Sarifuddin, Prashanta Kumar Mandal
Angioplasty with drug-coated balloons (DCBs) using excipients as drug carriers is emerging as a potentially viable strategy demonstrating clinical efficacy and proposing additional compliance for the treatment of obstructive vascular diseases. An attempt is made to develop an improved computational model where attention has been paid to the effect of interstitial flow, that is, plasma convection and internalization of bound drug. The present model is capable of capturing the phenomena of the transport of free drug and its retention, and also the internalization of drug in the process of endocytosis to atherosclerotic vessel of heterogeneous tissue composition comprising of healthy tissue, as well as regions of fibrous cap, fibro-fatty, calcified and necrotic core lesions...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Hong Jin, Daniel Y Li, Ekaterina Chernogubova, Changyan Sun, Albert Busch, Suzanne M Eken, Peter Saliba-Gustafsson, Hanna Winter, Greg Winski, Uwe Raaz, Isabel N Schellinger, Nancy Simon, Renate Hegenloh, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Maja Jagodic, Ewa Ehrenborg, Jaroslav Pelisek, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Ulf Hedin, Alexandra Backlund, Lars Maegdefessel
miRNAs are potential regulators of carotid artery stenosis and concordant vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Hence, we analyzed miRNA expression in laser captured micro-dissected fibrous caps of either ruptured or stable plaques (n = 10 each), discovering that miR-21 was significantly downregulated in unstable lesions. To functionally evaluate miR-21 in plaque vulnerability, miR-21 and miR-21/apolipoprotein-E double-deficient mice (Apoe-/- miR-21-/- ) were assessed. miR-21-/- mice lacked sufficient smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to carotid ligation injury...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Sarie Yamada, Takafumi Senokuchi, Takeshi Matsumura, Yutarou Morita, Norio Ishii, Kazuki Fukuda, Saiko Murakami, Shuhei Nishida, Shuji Kawasaki, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Noboru Furukawa, Yoshihiro Komohara, Yukio Fujiwara, Tomoaki Koga, Kazuya Yamagata, Motohiro Takeya, Eiichi Araki
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages play a central role in various stages of atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression. The local macrophages reportedly proliferate during atherosclerosis, but the pathophysiological significance of macrophage proliferation in this context remains unclear. Here, we investigated the involvement of local macrophage proliferation during atherosclerosis formation and progression using transgenic mice, in which macrophage proliferation was specifically suppressed...
March 1, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
R Bologna-Molina, T Mikami, V Pereira-Prado, G Tapia-Repetto, F R Pires, R Carlos, A Mosqueda-Taylor
Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) is composed of variably cellular myxoid connective tissue, surrounded by cuboidal to columnar odontogenic epithelium resembling the inner epithelium of the enamel organ, which often invaginates into the underlying connective tissue. The tumor is delimited at least partially by a thin fibrous capsule. It derives from the early stages of tooth development. Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that has a physiological role in several cellular functions, including maintenance of the epithelial architecture, cell-to-cell adhesion and interaction of cells with extracellular matrix, and with diverse growth factors, stimulating cell proliferation...
March 2018: Oral Diseases
Waleed Brinjikji, J Kevin DeMarco, Robert Shih, Giuseppe Lanzino, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Christopher A Hilditch, Patrick J Nicholson, John Huston
BACKGROUND: Carotid plaque imaging with MRI is becoming more commonplace, but practical challenges exist in performing plaque imaging with surface coils. PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of a carotid plaque MRI protocol using a standard neurovascular coil (Neurovascular Coil Protocol) to a higher-resolution carotid plaque MRI using carotid surface coils (Surface Coil Protocol) in characterizing carotid plaque. STUDY TYPE: Prospective study comparing two MR techniques in plaque characterization...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Naofumi Yoshida, Toshiro Shinke, Hiromasa Otake, Masaru Kuroda, Kazuhiko Sakaguchi, Yushi Hirota, Takayoshi Toba, Hachidai Takahashi, Daisuke Terashita, Kenzo Uzu, Natsuko Tahara, Yuto Shinkura, Kouji Kuroda, Yoshinori Nagasawa, Yuichiro Nagano, Yoshiro Tsukiyama, Ken-Ichi Yanaka, Takuo Emoto, Naoto Sasaki, Tomoya Yamashita, Wataru Ogawa, Ken-Ichi Hirata
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study examined the impact of CD14++CD16+ monocytes on coronary plaque vulnerability, as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and investigated their association with daily glucose fluctuation. Although increased CD14++CD16+ monocyte levels have been reported to increase cardiovascular events, their impact on coronary plaque vulnerability in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unclear. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 50 consecutive patients with CAD, receiving lipid-lowering therapy and undergoing coronary angiography and OCT...
January 17, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Rena Watanabe, Yuki Sato, Nana Ozawa, Yui Takahashi, Shinji Koba, Takuya Watanabe
Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) is a 35-kDa glycoprotein that has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models of arthritis, acute myocardial infarction, and acute cerebral infarction. Several lines of evidence have shed light on the pathophysiological roles of TSG-6 in atherosclerosis. TSG-6 suppresses inflammatory responses of endothelial cells, neutrophils, and macrophages as well as macrophage foam cell formation and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sima Allahverdian, Chiraz Chaabane, Kamel Boukais, Gordon A Francis, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat
Current knowledge suggests that intimal smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in native atherosclerotic plaque derive mainly from the medial arterial layer. During this process, SMCs undergo complex structural and functional changes giving rise to a broad spectrum of phenotypes. Classically, intimal SMCs are described as dedifferentiated/synthetic SMCs, a phenotype characterized by reduced expression of contractile proteins. Intimal SMCs are considered to have a beneficial role by contributing to the fibrous cap and thereby stabilizing atherosclerotic plaque...
January 27, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Mingming Lu, Peng Peng, Yuanyuan Cui, Huiyu Qiao, Dongye Li, Jianming Cai, Xihai Zhao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between carotid plaque progression and subsequent recurrent events using magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Sixty-three symptomatic patients with ipsilateral carotid atherosclerotic stenosis (30%-69% stenosis) determined by ultrasound underwent first and second carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging for carotid artery at baseline and ≥6 months after the first scan, respectively. All the patients had clinical follow-up after the second magnetic resonance scan for ≤5 years until the onset of recurrent transient ischemic attack or stroke...
March 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Madhusudhan Budatha, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhen W Zhuang, Sanguk Yun, James E Dahlman, Daniel G Anderson, Martin A Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Fibronectin in endothelial basement membranes promotes endothelial inflammatory activation and atherosclerosis but also promotes plaque stability and vascular remodeling. The fibronectin receptor α5 subunit is proinflammatory through binding to and activating phosphodiesterase 4D5, which inhibits anti-inflammatory cyclic adenosine monophosphate and protein kinase A. Replacing the α5 cytoplasmic domain with that of α2 resulted in smaller atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we further assessed plaque phenotype and compensatory vascular remodeling in this model...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Z J Liu, B Shi, C C Deng, G X Xu, R Z Zhao, C Y Shen, Z L Wang, H L Liu
Objective: To explore the imaging characteristics and related influencing factors of in-stent neoatherosclerosis (ISNA) in patients with restenosis after drug-eluting stent(DES) implantation with optical coherence tomography(OCT). Methods: A total of 25 cases of coronary heart disease patients(DES placement time ≥8 months) with coronary artery angiography showing DES in-stent restenosis (ISR) in Zunyi medical college affiliated hospital from July 2013 to December 2015 were included in this study and patient's data were retrospectively analyzed...
January 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
Amy C Burke, Murray W Huff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regression, or reversal, of atherosclerosis has become an important clinical objective. The development of consistent models of murine atherosclerosis regression has accelerated this field of research. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent mouse studies that reveal molecular mechanisms as well as therapeutics targeted for regression. RECENT FINDINGS: Atherosclerosis regression does not involve the same mechanisms as progression in reverse order...
January 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Nikunj Shah, Lisiane Meira, Clara Forrer-Charlier, Michael Mahmoudi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Mandy O J Grootaert, Manon Moulis, Lynn Roth, Wim Martinet, Cécile Vindis, Martin R Bennett, Guido R Y De Meyer
In the present review, we describe the causes and consequences of loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) or their function in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, and discuss possible mechanisms such as cell death or senescence, and induction of autophagy to promote cell survival. We also highlight the potential use of pharmacological modulators of these processes to limit plaque progression and/or improve plaque stability. VSMCs play a pivotal role in atherogenesis. Loss of VSMCs via initiation of cell death leads to fibrous cap thinning and promotes necrotic core formation and calcification...
January 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Abigail Afolabi, Irina Mustafina, Linlin Zhao, Lulu Li, Rong Sun, Sining Hu, Shaosong Zhang, Haibo Jia, Guagliumi Guilio, Bo Yu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if spotty calcification decreases the response of plaque progression to statin therapy. BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that the presence of spotty calcification is a marker of vulnerable plaque. However, the relationship between spotty calcification and plaque progression is not clear. METHODS: Ninety-six nonculprit lipid-rich plaques in 69 patients who received serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging were included...
January 23, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Simona Mastrangeli, Enrico Romagnoli, Mariangela Peruzzi, Giacomo Frati, Leonardo Roever, Arturo Giordano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atherosclerosis has major morbidity and mortality implications globally. While it has often been considered an irreversible degenerative process, recent evidence provides compelling proof that atherosclerosis can be reversed. Plaque regression is however difficult to appraise and quantify, with competing diagnostic methods available. Given the potential of evidence synthesis to provide clinical guidance, we aimed to review recent meta-analyses on diagnostic methods for atherosclerotic plaque regression...
January 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Ze-Mou Yu, Xiao-Tao Deng, Ruo-Mei Qi, Lu-Yan Xiao, Chong-Qing Yang, Tao Gong
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress contributes to increased risks of atherosclerotic diseases including heart disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. However, its underline mechanisms are poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism via which chronic stress exerts its effect on atherosclerosis (AS). METHODS: Fifty male New Zealand white rabbits were used. Aortic balloon-injury model was applied. Both social stress and physical stress methods were adopted to establish chronic stress models...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Haibo Jia, Takashi Kubo, Takashi Akasaka, Bo Yu
For several decades, most physicians have believed that acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is caused by coronary thrombosis resulting from rupture of vulnerable plaque characterized by a thin fibrous cap overlying a large necrotic core and massive inflammatory cell infiltration. However, nearly one-third of ACS cases are caused by plaque erosion characterized by intact fibrous cap, less or absent necrotic core, less inflammation, and large lumen. Because of the limitations of current imaging modalities, including angiography and intravascular ultrasound, the importance of plaque erosion as a cause of acute coronary events is less well known...
January 13, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Prakash Doddapattar, Manish Jain, Nirav Dhanesha, Steven R Lentz, Anil K Chauhan
OBJECTIVE: Fibronectin containing extra domain A (Fn-EDA) is an endogenous ligand of TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) and is abundant in the extracellular matrix of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in human and mice. Irrespective of sex, deletion of Fn-EDA reduces early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. However, the contribution of Fn-EDA in advanced atherosclerosis remains poorly characterized. We determined the contribution of Fn-EDA in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of aged (1-year-old) Apoe-/- mice...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Haixiang Yu, Adam Fellows, Kirsty Foote, Zhaoqing Yang, Nichola Figg, Trevor Littlewood, Martin Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis accelerates atherosclerosis and promotes breakdown of the extracellular matrix, but the mechanistic links between these 2 processes are unknown. The forkhead protein FOXO3a (forkhead transcription factor O subfamily member 3a) is activated in human atherosclerosis and induces a range of proapoptotic and other transcriptional targets. We, therefore, determined the mechanisms and consequences of FOXO3a activation in atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling after injury...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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