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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923317/calcified-cartilage-or-bone-collagens-in-the-tessellated-endoskeletons-of-cartilaginous-fish-sharks-and-rays
#1
Ronald Seidel, Michael Blumer, Elisabeth-Judith Pechriggl, Kady Lyons, Brian K Hall, Peter Fratzl, James C Weaver, Mason N Dean
The primary skeletal tissue in elasmobranchs -sharks, rays and relatives- is cartilage, forming both embryonic and adult endoskeletons. Only the skeletal surface calcifies, exhibiting mineralized tiles (tesserae) sandwiched between a cartilage core and overlying fibrous perichondrium. These two tissues are based on different collagens (Coll II and I, respectively), fueling a long-standing debate as to whether tesserae are more like bone (Coll 1-based) or calcified cartilage in their matrix composition. We demonstrate that stingray (Urobatis halleri) tesserae are bipartite, having an upper Coll I-based "cap" that merges into a lower Coll II-based "body" zone, although tesserae are surrounded by cartilage...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918858/coronary-ct-angiography-features-of-ruptured-and-high-risk-atherosclerotic-plaques-correlation-with-intra-vascular-ultrasound
#2
Daniel R Obaid, Patrick A Calvert, Adam Brown, Deepa Gopalan, Nick E J West, James H F Rudd, Martin R Bennett
BACKGROUND: Features of ruptured and high-risk plaque have been described on coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA), but not systematically assessed against intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We examined the ability of coronary CTA to identify IVUS defined ruptured plaque and Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound (VH-IVUS) defined thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). METHODS: Sixty-three patients (32 with acute coronary syndrome and 31 with stable angina) underwent coronary CTA, IVUS and VH-IVUS...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917689/effect-of-early-pitavastatin-therapy-on-coronary-fibrous-cap-thickness-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-the-escort-study
#3
Tsuyoshi Nishiguchi, Takashi Kubo, Takashi Tanimoto, Yasushi Ino, Yoshiki Matsuo, Takashi Yamano, Kosei Terada, Hiroki Emori, Yosuke Katayama, Akira Taruya, Yuichi Ozaki, Yasutsugu Shiono, Kunihiro Shimamura, Takeyoshi Kameyama, Hironori Kitabata, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Atsushi Tanaka, Takeshi Hozumi, Takashi Akasaka
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of early statin therapy on fibrous-cap thickness in coronary plaques of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by using optical coherence tomography. BACKGROUND: Statins can contribute to the stabilization of coronary plaques. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, active-controlled, single-center study. Patients with ACS and untreated dyslipidemia were enrolled and randomly allocated (ratio 1:1) to either the early statin group (received pitavastatin 4 mg/day from baseline) or the late statin group (received pitavastatin 4 mg/day from 3 weeks after the baseline)...
September 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891324/relationship-between-monocyte-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-coronary-plaque-vulnerability-in-patients-with-stable-angina
#4
Zeyuan Fan, Hanhua Ji, Yang Li, Xinwen Jian, Li Li, Tao Liu
AIM: To investigate the relationship between monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and plaque vulnerability assessed by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in patients with stable angina. METHODS: 133 patients with stable angina were enrolled. RESULTS: MLR was found to be an independent risk factor of thin cap fibrous atheroma (OR: 2.61; p = 0.025). MLR could differentiate thin cap fibrous atheroma with a sensitivity of 73.7% and a specificity of 61...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873017/reactive-fibrous-hyperplasia-of-peri-implant-mucosa
#5
Fotios Bountaniotis, Fotios Tzerbos, Konstantinos Tosios, Ioannis Melakopoulos
Implant-related reactive lesions of oral mucosa are much more uncommon than the tooth-related ones. The majority of the cases reported, represent pyogenic granulomas (PG) and peripheral giant cell granulomas (PGCG) although other lesions have also rarely been reported. The aim of this paper is to report a rare case of reactive fibrous hyperplasia of oral mucosa around two healing caps in a 65-year-old female patient. The lesion was treated with excisional biopsy and four years later the patient remains free of recurrence...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835343/hemodynamic-characteristics-of-flow-around-a-deformable-stenosis
#6
Woorak Choi, Sung Ho Park, Hyung Kyu Huh, Sang Joon Lee
Clinical studies reported that some vulnerable stenoses deformed their shape in a blood vessel based on flow condition. However, the effects of shape variation on flow characteristics remain unclear. The flow characteristics are known to affect vulnerable stenosis rupture and fractional flow reserve (FFR) value which has been widely used as a diagnostic tool for stenosis. Vulnerable stenosis rupture occurs when the structural stress exerted on a fibrous cap exceeds its tolerable threshold. The stress magnitude is determined from the spatial distribution of static pressure around the stenosis...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818259/imaging-of-the-high-risk-carotid-plaque-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
REVIEW
William S Kerwin, Zach Miller, Chun Yuan
The emergence of the concept of high-risk atherosclerotic plaque has led to considerable interest in noninvasive imaging techniques to identify high-risk features before clinical sequelae. For plaques in the carotid arteries, magnetic resonance imaging has undergone considerable histologic validation to link imaging features to indicators of plaque instability, including plaque burden, intraplaque hemorrhage, fibrous cap disruption, lipid rich necrotic core, and calcification. Recently introduced imaging technologies, especially those focused on three-dimensional imaging sequences, are now poised for integration into the clinical workup of patients with suspected carotid atherosclerosis...
March 2017: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808190/cholesterol-crystal-embolization-following-plaque-rupture-a-systemic-disease-with-unusual-features
#8
Firas Ghanem, Deepthi Vodnala, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta, Sridevi Durga, Noah Thormeier, Prem Subramaniyam, Scott Abela, George S Abela
Cholesterol crystal embolic (CCE) syndrome is often a clinically challenging condition that has a poor prognostic implication. It is a result of plaque rupture with release of cholesterol crystals into the circulation that embolize into various tissue organs. Plaque rupture seems to be triggered by an expanding necrotic core during cholesterol crystallization forming sharp tipped crystals that perforate and tear the fibrous cap. Embolizing cholesterol crystals then initiate both local and systemic inflammation that eventually lead to vascular fibrosis and obstruction causing symptoms that can mimic other vasculitic conditions...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807411/timp3-is-regulated-by-pericytes-upon-shear-stress-detection-leading-to-a-modified-endothelial-cell-response
#9
C Schrimpf, T Koppen, J S Duffield, U Böer, S David, W Ziegler, A Haverich, O E Teebken, M Wilhelmi
OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is a hallmark of cardiovascular disease. Shear stress on endothelial cells has been linked to atherogenesis and to fibrous cap thinning and rupture. Pericytes reside in the sub-endothelial space of vessels and have vasoprotective effects. They are subjected to shear stress when endothelial cell integrity is disrupted. The aim was to investigate the susceptibility and response of pericytes to shear stress. METHODS: Endothelial cells and pericytes were seeded in two dimensional monocultures and co-cultures, and in a novel three dimensional co-culture system and were subjected to no, low and high shear stress (0, 10, 30 dyne/cm(2)) for 48 h...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768758/low-endothelial-shear-stress-predicts-evolution-to-high-risk-coronary-plaque-phenotype-in-the-future-a-serial-optical-coherence-tomography-and-computational-fluid-dynamics-study
#10
Erika Yamamoto, Gerasimos Siasos, Marina Zaromytidou, Ahmet U Coskun, Lei Xing, Krzysztof Bryniarski, Thomas Zanchin, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Hang Lee, Peter H Stone, Ik-Kyung Jang
BACKGROUND: Low endothelial shear stress (ESS) is associated with plaque progression and vulnerability. To date, changes in plaque phenotype over time in relation to ESS have not been studied in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether local ESS can predict subsequent changes to plaque phenotype using optical coherence tomography. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 25 coronary arteries from 20 patients who underwent baseline and 6-month follow-up optical coherence tomography were included...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765529/intracoronary-imaging-cholesterol-efflux-and-transcriptomics-after-intensive-statin-treatment-in-diabetes
#11
Surbhi Chamaria, Kipp W Johnson, Yuliya Vengrenyuk, Usman Baber, Khader Shameer, Aparna A Divaraniya, Benjamin S Glicksberg, Li Li, Samit Bhatheja, Pedro Moreno, Akiko Maehara, Roxana Mehran, Joel T Dudley, Jagat Narula, Samin K Sharma, Annapoorna S Kini
Residual atherothrombotic risk remains higher in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus (DM) despite statin therapy. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. This is a retrospective post-hoc analysis of the YELLOW II trial, comparing patients with and without DM (non-DM) who received rosuvastatin 40 mg for 8-12 weeks and underwent intracoronary multimodality imaging of an obstructive nonculprit lesion, before and after therapy. In addition, blood samples were drawn to assess cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and changes in gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757518/pathological-quantification-of-carotid-artery-plaque-instability-in-patients-undergoing-carotid-endarterectomy
#12
Takao Konishi, Naohiro Funayama, Tadashi Yamamoto, Tohru Morita, Daisuke Hotta, Ryota Nomura, Yusuke Nakagaki, Takeo Murahashi, Kenji Kamiyama, Tetsuyuki Yoshimoto, Takeshi Aoki, Hiroshi Nishihara, Shinya Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Unstable atherosclerotic carotid plaques cause cerebral thromboemboli and ischemic events. However, this instability has not been pathologically quantified, so we sought to quantify it in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA).Methods and Results:Carotid plaques were collected during CEA from 67 symptomatic and 15 asymptomatic patients between May 2015 and August 2016. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and elastica-Masson. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an endothelial-specific antibody to CD31, CD 34 and PDGFRβ...
July 29, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750824/syntax-score-and-pre-and-poststent-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-the-left-anterior-descending-coronary-artery-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Krzysztof L Bryniarski, Darren L Walters, Chong-Jin Kim, Tsunenari Soeda, Takumi Higuma, Erika Yamamoto, Lei Xing, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Thomas Zanchin, Leszek Bryniarski, Dariusz Dudek, Hang Lee, Ik-Kyung Jang
SYNTAX score (SS) has been reported to be an independent predictor of future cardiac events including target lesion revascularization. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between SS and plaque characteristics and poststent vascular response using optical coherence tomography in coronary artery tree and left anterior descending artery (LAD) in patients with stable angina. A total of 179 lesions among 165 patients, including 100 lesions in LAD, were analyzed. Patients were stratified into tertiles...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738484/-correlation-between-serum-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-and-fibrous-cap-thickness-of-fibrofatty-plaque-in-coronary-culprit-lesions
#14
Y Zhong, F Ye, W You, Z M Wu
Objective: To identify the correlation between serum inflammatory cytokine levels including high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipoprotein associated phospholipase (Lp-PLA2) and the fibrous cap thickness of fibrofatty plaque in coronary culprit lesions. Methods: Clinical data of 117 patients with selective coronary artery angiography diagnosed coronary artery disease admitted to our hospital from January 2015 to January 2016 were retrospective analyzed. According to type of coronary disease, patients were divided into 3 subgroups: SAP group (containing 47 stable angina patients), UAP group (containing 52 unstable angina patients), and NSTEMI group(containing 18 acute non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction patients)...
July 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714527/multimodality-imaging-of-intermediate-lesions-data-from-ffr-oct-nirs-ivus
#15
Dariusz Biały, Magdalena Wawrzyńska, Jacek Arkowski, Marcin Rogała, Klaudia Proniewska, Wojciech Wańha, Wojciech Wojakowski, Tomasz Roleder
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) assesses a functional impact of the atheroma on the myocardial ischemia, but it does not take into account the morphology of the lesion. Previous optical coherence tomography (OCT), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies presented their potential to detect vulnerable plaque, which is not possible by FFR assessment. With the following study, the intermediate lesions were assessed by FFR, OCT and combined NIRS-IVUS imaging to identify plaque vulnerability...
July 17, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711401/performance-of-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-ultrasound-imaging-for-carotid-plaque-characterization-with-histologic-validation
#16
Tomasz J Czernuszewicz, Jonathon W Homeister, Melissa C Caughey, Yue Wang, Hongtu Zhu, Benjamin Y Huang, Ellie R Lee, Carlos A Zamora, Mark A Farber, Joseph J Fulton, Peter F Ford, William A Marston, Raghuveer Vallabhaneni, Timothy C Nichols, Caterina M Gallippi
OBJECTIVE: Stroke is commonly caused by thromboembolic events originating from ruptured carotid plaque with vulnerable composition. This study assessed the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, a noninvasive ultrasound elasticity imaging method, for delineating the composition of human carotid plaque in vivo with histologic validation. METHODS: Carotid ARFI images were captured before surgery in 25 patients undergoing clinically indicated carotid endarterectomy...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697847/the-impact-of-serum-trans-fatty-acids-concentration-on-plaque-vulnerability-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-assessment-via-optical-coherence-tomography
#17
Yoshinori Nagasawa, Toshiro Shinke, Ryuji Toh, Tatsuro Ishida, Hiromasa Otake, Tomofumi Takaya, Daisuke Sugiyama, Takayosi Toba, Masaru Kuroda, Hachidai Takahashi, Daisuke Terashita, Natsuko Tahara, Yuto Shinkura, Kenzo Uzu, Daiji Kashiwagi, Koji Kuroda, Yuichiro Nagano, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Kenichi Yanaka, Yoshiro Tsukiyama, Ken-Ichi Hirata
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent epidemiological studies have showed that excessive intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) can be a residual risk for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) even under medical management, including statins. This study aimed at investigating the association between lipid profile, including serum TFA concentration, and plaque vulnerability using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: The level of serum elaidic acid, a major TFA component, was measured using gas chromatography in 161 consecutively enrolled patients with CAD under guideline-directed risk factor management...
June 28, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695757/association-between-snoring-and-high-risk-carotid-plaque-features
#18
Erin M Kirkham, Thomas S Hatsukami, Susan R Heckbert, Jie Sun, Gador Canton, Chun Yuan, Edward M Weaver
Objectives Previous studies have demonstrated an association between snoring and carotid disease independent of sleep apnea. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between self-reported snoring and high-risk carotid plaque features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that predict stroke. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Tertiary care university hospital and affiliated county hospital. Methods We surveyed 133 subjects with asymptomatic carotid artery disease that had been previously evaluated with high-resolution MRI...
August 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687781/p2x7-receptor-antagonism-modulates-il-1%C3%AE-and-mmp9-in-human-atherosclerotic-vessels
#19
Maria Lombardi, Maria Elena Mantione, Domenico Baccellieri, David Ferrara, Renata Castellano, Roberto Chiesa, Ottavio Alfieri, Chiara Foglieni
In atherosclerosis, matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs) contribute to plaque rupture through weakening of the fibrous cap. Pleiotropic P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7), expressed in the carotid plaque (PL), is involved in interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) release that may influence MMP9 generation, thus their possible modulation through acting on P2X7 was investigated. P2X7-related machinery was characterized and the effects of P2X7 antagonists (A740003, KN62) and MMPs inhibitors (Batimastat, Ro28-2653) were studied in ex-vivo tissue cultures of human PL's vs...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686117/predicting-ischemic-stroke-after-carotid-artery-stenting-based-on-proximal-calcification-and-the-jellyfish-sign
#20
Nobuhiko Ichinose, Seiji Hama, Toshio Tsuji, Zu Soh, Hideaki Hayashi, Yoshihiro Kiura, Shigeyuki Sakamoto, Takahito Okazaki, Daizo Ishii, Katsuhiro Shinagawa, Kaoru Kurisu
OBJECTIVE Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been considered to prevent ischemic strokes caused by stenosis of the cervical carotid artery. The most common complication of CAS is new cerebral infarction. The authors have previously reported that the jellyfish sign-the rise and fall of the mobile component of the carotid plaque surface detected by carotid ultrasonography-suggests thinning and rupture of the fibrous cap over the unstable plaque content, such as the lipid-rich necrotic core or internal plaque hemorrhage...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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