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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742478/toxicological-and-analytical-assessment-of-e-cigarette-refill-components-on-airway-epithelia
#1
Jasjot Singh, Emilie Luquet, David P T Smith, Herman J Potgieter, Patricia Ragazzon
There are over 2.6 million users of e-cigarettes in the United Kingdom alone as they have been promoted as a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. The addition of flavours and aromas has also proven to be popular with younger generations. In this review, we survey the range of studies in the short timeframe since e-cigarettes reached the market to draw attention to the health associated risks and benefits of their introduction. We complement this review with a case study reporting on the composition of selected e-cigarette refills with particular emphasis on the toxicological activity of its components on lung cells...
December 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742414/neural-correlates-of-depressive-symptoms-in-smokers-a-systematic-review-of-imaging-studies
#2
Michele de Oliveira Gonzalez, Anna E Goudriaan, Cíntia de Azevedo-Marques Périco, Marcela Waisman Campos, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Dinesh Bhugra, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
This review aims to summarize neuroimaging studies in order to better understand the neural correlates of depressive symptoms in tobacco smokers. Using the keywords "depressive OR depression" AND "tobacco OR nicotine OR smok(*) OR cigarette" AND "neuroimage OR magnetic resonance OR smri OR structural magnetic resonance OR fmri OR functional magnetic resonance OR pet OR positron emission tomography", literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases. The first and the last author read the abstracts of all the studies found in the search (n = 179)...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741423/cognitive-control-in-young-adults-with-cannabis-use-disorder-an-event-related-brain-potential-study
#3
David Lr Maij, Ben Jm van de Wetering, Ingmar Ha Franken
Contemporary models of substance use disorders emphasize the role of cognitive control, which has been linked to difficulties in resisting the use of substances. In the present study, we measured two aspects of cognitive control, response inhibition (operationalized by a Go/NoGo Task) and performance monitoring (operationalized by an Eriksen Flanker Task), in a group of young cannabis-use disorder (CUD) patients and compared these functions with two control groups (i.e. a group of cigarette smokers and a group of non-smokers)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739101/examining-the-effects-of-illicit-drug-use-on-tobacco-cessation-outcomes-in-the-helping-hand-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Joanna M Streck, Susan Regan, Yuchiao Chang, Jennifer H K Kelley, Daniel E Singer, Nancy A Rigotti
BACKGROUND: Individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) smoke at higher rates and have higher tobacco-related mortality than the general population. Despite having an interest in smoking cessation, smokers with SUDs may have greater difficulty quitting. METHODS: Analysis of data from a RCT testing a post-discharge smoking cessation intervention for hospitalized cigarette smokers interested in quitting. Past 7day tobacco abstinence was self-reported at 1, 3, and 6 months and biochemically confirmed at 6 months post-discharge...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738572/sequential-determination-of-nickel-and-cadmium-in-tobacco-molasses-and-refill-solutions-for-e-cigarettes-samples-by-molecular-fluorescence
#5
María Carolina Talio, Magdalena Alesso, Mariano Acosta, Verónica S Wills, Liliana P Fernández
In this work, a new procedure was developed for separation and preconcentration of nickel(II) and cadmium(II) in several and varied tobacco samples. Tobacco samples were selected considering the main products consumed by segments of the population, in particular the age (youth) and lifestyle of the consumer. To guarantee representative samples, a randomized strategy of sampling was used. In the first step, a chemofiltration on nylon membrane is carried out employing eosin (Eo) and carbon nanotubes dispersed in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) solution (phosphate buffer pH 7)...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738266/adhd-symptoms-impact-smoking-outcomes-and-withdrawal-in-response-to-varenicline-treatment-for-smoking-cessation
#6
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Hollis C Karoly, Kent E Hutchison, Angela D Bryan
INTRODUCTION: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with nicotine dependence and difficulty quitting smoking. Few cessation trials specifically consider the impact of ADHD on treatment outcomes, including those testing established pharmacological therapies, such as varenicline. METHODS: The current study focused on the impact of pretreatment ADHD inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of varenicline [N=205, average age=34...
July 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737354/-do-electronic-cigarettes-increase-the-risk-of-smoking-among-adolescents-and-young-adults
#7
Sylvain Gautier, Shérazade Kinouani, Chantal Raherison
Introduction: Electronic cigarette use is significantly higher among 15-24-year-olds than in other age-groups. Electronic cigarettes, which may contain nicotine, could be a gateway to smoking initiation among young people. In this article, we reviewed the literature on smoking initiation or smoking enhancement by the use of e-cigarettes. Methods: We carried out a qualitative analysis in January 2016. We selected all longitudinal studies among adolescents or young adults using electronic cigarettes. Results: The analysis focused on 5 of the 544 articles identified, corresponding to five prospective observational studies...
July 10, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736174/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-extracts-on-cell-cycle-cell-migration-and-endocrine-activity-in-human-placental-cells
#8
Cho-Won Kim, Hae-Miru Lee, Kyuhong Lee, Bumseok Kim, Moo-Yeol Lee, Kyung-Chul Choi
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be related to adverse pregnancy results associated with trophoblast proliferation and cell cycle progression. Moreover, many previous studies have shown that cigarette smoke is correlated with human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCG-β) subunit produced from syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. Thus, we further investigated whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affects the cell proliferation, migration and endocrine hormone activity of JEG-3 human placental cancer cells...
July 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735725/susceptibility-to-cigarette-smoking-among-middle-and-high-school-e-cigarette-users-in-canada
#9
Sunday Azagba, Neill Bruce Baskerville, Kristie Foley
There is a growing concern that the historic reductions in tobacco consumption witnessed in the past decades may be undermined by the rapid increase in e-cigarette use. This study examined the association between e-cigarette use and future intention to smoke cigarettes among middle and high school students who had never smoked cigarettes. Data were drawn from the 2014-2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (n=25,637). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between e-cigarette use and susceptibility to cigarette smoking...
July 20, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735273/relationship-between-trying-an-electronic-cigarette-and-subsequent-cigarette-experimentation-in-scottish-adolescents-a-cohort-study
#10
Catherine Best, Farhana Haseen, Dorothy Currie, Gozde Ozakinci, Anne Marie MacKintosh, Martine Stead, Douglas Eadie, Andy MacGregor, Jamie Pearce, Amanda Amos, John Frank, Sally Haw
BACKGROUND: This study examines whether young never smokers in Scotland, UK, who have tried an e-cigarette are more likely than those who have not, to try a cigarette during the following year. METHODS: Prospective cohort survey conducted in four high schools in Scotland, UK during February/March 2015 (n=3807) with follow-up 1 year later. All pupils (age 11-18) were surveyed. Response rates were high in both years (87% in 2015) and 2680/3807 (70.4%) of the original cohort completed the follow-up survey...
July 22, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734255/use-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-public-and-private-settings-in-barcelona-spain
#11
Nuria Matilla-Santander, Marcela Fu, Montse Ballbè, Kailey Bunch, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez, Esteve Fernández, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of e-cigarette users who use them in selected indoor public and workplaces, and private venues in Barcelona (Spain) in 2015. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of e-cigarette users (≥ 18 years) from Barcelona (n = 600). We calculated the proportion of e-cigarette users who used the device in public and private settings (in the last 30 days). We fit multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex and age to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) of e-cigarette use by socio-demographic factors, dual use and nicotine-containing e-cigarettes...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734111/adult-interest-in-using-a-hypothetical-modified-risk-tobacco-product-findings-from-wave-1-of-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-study-2013-2014
#12
Jennifer L Pearson, Amanda L Johnson, Sarah E Johnson, Cassandra A Stanton, Andrea C Villanti, Raymond S Niaura, Allison M Glasser, Baoguang Wang, David B Abrams, K Michael Cummings, Andrew Hyland
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act provides a pathway for manufacturers to market a modified risk tobacco product (MRTP). This study examines sociodemographic and tobacco use correlates of interest in a hypothetical MRTP in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. DESIGN: Cross sectional Wave 1 data from the 2013-2014 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. SETTING: Household Audio-Computer Assisted Self-Interviews of U...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732318/the-experimental-tobacco-marketplace-ii-substitutability-and-sex-effects-in-dual-electronic-cigarette-and-conventional-cigarette-users
#13
Amanda J Quisenberry, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
AIM: The aim of the current study was to evaluate tobacco product purchasing in the Experimental: Tobacco Marketplace (ETM) among male and female smokers who also use e-cigarettes. We hypothesized a high substitution profile for e-cigarettes and that males would purchase more Snus than females. METHODS: The ETM is an online market used in clinical abuse liability research to mimic real-world purchasing patterns. Tobacco products, including each participant's usual choice of conventional and e-cigarettes, were presented along with a price and description of nicotine content...
July 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731984/the-association-of-cigarette-smoking-with-high-frequency-heart-rate-variability-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#14
Fernando Bodin, Kathleen M McIntyre, Joseph E Schwartz, Paula S McKinley, Caitlyn Cardetti, Peter A Shapiro, Ethan Gorenstein, Richard P Sloan
OBJECTIVE: Evidence from both laboratory and observational studies suggests that acute and chronic smoking leads to reduced high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), a measure of cardiac vagal regulation. We utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to study the effect of smoking on concurrent HF-HRV in a trial measuring the effects of hostility reduction, and compared 24-hour HF-HRV in smokers and non-smokers. METHOD: Ambulatory ECG data were collected pre-randomization from 149 healthy, individuals with high hostility levels (20-45 years, BMI ≤ 32 kg/m) and paired with concurrent EMA ratings of smoking, and physical position during waking hours...
July 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731384/current-use-of-e-cigarettes-and-conventional-cigarettes-among-us-high-school-students-in-urban-and-rural-locations-2014-national-youth-tobacco-survey
#15
Melody Noland, Mary Kay Rayens, Amanda T Wiggins, Luz Huntington-Moskos, Emily A Rayens, Tiffany Howard, Ellen J Hahn
PURPOSE: Adolescent tobacco use is higher in rural than in urban areas. While e-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among this age group, differences in prevalence between rural versus urban populations for this relatively novel product have not been explored. The purpose is to investigate whether location of school (rural-urban) is associated with e-cigarette use and dual use (defined as the use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes) among high school students. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey obtained using a stratified, 3-stage cluster sample design...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729198/e-cigarette-awareness-perceived-harmfulness-and-ever-use-among-u-s-adults
#16
Irene Pericot-Valverde, Diann E Gaalema, Jeffrey S Priest, Stephen T Higgins
The overarching aims of this study are to (a) estimate and update knowledge on rates and predictors of awareness, perceived harmfulness, and ever use of e-cigarettes among U.S. adults and (b) to utilize that information to identify risk-factor profiles associated with ever use. Data were collected from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (N=3738). Logistic regression was used to explore relationships between sociodemographics (gender, age, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, educational attainment, income, and census region), current use of other tobacco products (conventional cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco), ever use of alternative products (hookah, pipes, roll-your-own cigarettes, and snus) and e-cigarette awareness, perceived harm, and ever use...
July 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728277/-effects-of-pi3k%C3%AE-rhoa-pathway-on-phagocytosis-defect-of-alveolar-macrophages-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
S T Hu, Q Xia, X L Zeng, H R Bao, X J Liu
Objective: To investigate effects of Phosphoinositide3-Kinases (PI3Kδ)-Ras homolog gene family member A(RhoA) pathway on phagocytosis deficiency of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Twenty mice were exposed to cigarette smoking to establish the COPD model, with 20 mice as the control group. AMs were isolated from lung tissue by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation and then divided into a healthy control group, a COPD group, a healthy IC87114 group and a COPD IC87114 group...
July 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728276/-the-role-of-hur-in-mediating-snail-expression-in-human-small-airway-epithelium-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-extract
#18
X M Gu, X G Wang, J Sun, N Wang, S J Jiang
Objective: To investigate the abundance of human antigen R (HuR) in small airway epithelial cells stimulated by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) as well as the role of HuR in mediating snail which is recognized as a key transcription factor in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods: Human small airway epithelial cells (HSAEpiC) cultured in vitro were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to model COPD status. Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were used in detecting HuR protein and mRNA expression in cells with CSE which were divided into 5 groups: a control group, a 1%-24 h group, a 3%-24 h group, a 1%-48 h group and a 3%-48 h group...
July 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728133/zebrafish-have-an-ethanol-inducible-hepatic-4-nitrophenol-hydroxylase-that-is-not-cyp2e1-like
#19
Jessica H Hartman, Jordan S Kozal, Richard T Di Giulio, Joel N Meyer
Zebrafish are an attractive model organism for toxicology; however, an important consideration in translating between species is xenobiotic metabolism/bioactivation. CYP2E1 metabolizes small hydrophobic molecules, e.g. ethanol, cigarette smoke, and diesel exhaust components. CYP2E1 is thought to only be conserved in mammals, but recent reports identified homologous zebrafish cytochrome P450s. Herein, ex vivo biochemical measurements show that unlike mammals, zebrafish possess a low-affinity 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase (Km ∼0...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728115/smoked-marijuana-attenuates-performance-and-mood-disruptions-during-simulated-night-shift-work
#20
Diana R Keith, Erik W Gunderson, Margaret Haney, Richard W Foltin, Carl L Hart
Individuals who work nonstandard schedules, such as rotating or night shifts, are more susceptible to workplace injuries, performance decrements, and reduced productivity. This population is also almost twice as likely to use illicit drugs as individuals working a standard day shift. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoked marijuana on performance, mood, and sleep during simulated shift work. Ten experienced marijuana smokers completed this 23-day, within-participant residential study...
June 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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