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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231546/blood-cadmium-by-race-hispanic-origin-the-role-of-smoking
#1
Yutaka Aoki, Jennifer Yee, Mary E Mortensen
BACKGROUND: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. OBJECTIVE: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228696/combining-spinal-manipulation-with-standard-counseling-for-tobacco-cessation-results-of-a-feasibility-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Kevin A Rose, Anupama Kizhakkeveettil, Gena E Kadar, Mark Losack
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of combining spinal manipulation (SM) with standard tobacco cessation counseling. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted. Participants in the intervention group received 2 months of counseling plus SM delivered by doctors of chiropractic, whereas control group participants received counseling alone. Primary outcome measures were smoking decreases and 7-day smoking abstinence as measured by a tobacco diary and urinary cotinine...
March 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225349/temporal-trends-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-mortality-in-mexico-1999-2014
#3
E Hernández-Garduño, H L Ocaña-Servín
SETTING: Country of Mexico. OBJECTIVE: To determine mortality trends due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Mexico between 1999 and 2014. DESIGN: COPD mortality data for persons aged ≥40 years from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the official website of the Mexican Ministry of Health. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated, and joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify trends over time. The annual per cent change (APC) was determined for each trend...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224877/-helping-people-to-give-up-smoking-efficacy-and-safety-of-smoking-cessation-interventions
#4
R C van de Graaf, O C P van Schayck
- This review evaluates the safety and efficacy of, smoking cessation interventions.- Behavioural counselling is the cornerstone of smoking cessation programmes.- This counselling can be supplemented with written self-help materials, telephone counselling and e-health tailored to individual patient preferences.- Behavioural counselling may be combined with pharmacotherapy for increased effectiveness. First choice is a combination of a nicotine patch and a nicotine lozenge or chewing gum, mainly because of the favourable side-effect profile...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224832/e-cigarettes-are-less-toxic-and-safer-than-smoking
#5
(no author information available yet)
E-cigarettes are safer to use than conventional cigarettes, the results of a new study suggest.
February 22, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223681/effect-of-smoking-on-cognitive-functioning-in-young-saudi-adults
#6
Shahid Bashir, Faisal Alghamd, Ahmed Alhussien, Meshal Alohali, Abdullah Alatawi, Tariq Almusned, Syed Shahid Habib
BACKGROUND Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18-29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
February 22, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223060/reduced-carginogens-found-in-e-cigarette-users
#7
Talha Khan Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218695/electronic-cigarette-use-and-smoking-abstinence-in-japan-a-cross-sectional-study-of-quitting-methods
#8
Tomoyasu Hirano, Takahiro Tabuchi, Rika Nakahara, Naoki Kunugita, Yumiko Mochizuki-Kobayashi
The benefit of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in smoking cessation remains controversial. Recently, e-cigarettes have been gaining popularity in Japan, without evidence of efficacy on quitting cigarettes. We conducted an online survey to collect information on tobacco use, difficulties in smoking cessation, socio-demographic factors, and health-related factors in Japan. Among the total participants (n = 9055), 798 eligible persons aged 20-69 years who smoked within the previous five years were analyzed to assess the relationship between the outcome of smoking cessation and quitting methods used, including e-cigarettes, smoking cessation therapy, and unassisted...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217691/%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-a-misfolded-secretory-protein-variant-with-unique-effects-on-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#9
David H Perlmutter
In the classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) a point mutation leads to accumulation of a misfolded secretory glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells and so ATD has come to be considered a prototypical ER storage disease. It is associated with two major types of clinical disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by loss-of-function mechanisms and hepatic cirrhosis and carcinogenesis by gain-of-function mechanisms. The lung disease predominantly results from proteolytic damage to the pulmonary connective tissue matrix because of reduced levels of protease inhibitor activity of α1-anitrypsin (AT) in the circulating blood and body fluids...
September 2016: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216962/electronic-cigarette-experimentation-in-the-malaysian-city-of-kuantan-was-there-an-association-with-the-smoking-status
#10
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Jacques Le Houezec
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216282/smoking-cessation-improves-cardiometabolic-risk-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-treated-with-varenicline-and-dietary-counseling
#11
E Heggen, M Svendsen, S Tonstad
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Weight gain after stopping smoking potentially counteracts improvements in cardiometabolic risks. We investigated changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and homeostasis assessment model insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in smokers given dietary counseling during their quit attempt. METHODS AND RESULTS: Smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with BMI 25-40 kg/m(2) were randomized to a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet and treated with a standard course of varenicline for 12 weeks...
January 4, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214741/identifying-social-smoking-u-s-young-adults-using-an-empirically-driven-approach
#12
Andrea C Villanti, Amanda L Johnson, Jessica M Rath, Valerie Williams, Donna M Vallone, David B Abrams, Donald Hedeker, Robin J Mermelstein
The phenomenon of "social smoking" emerged in the past decade as an important area of research, largely due to its high prevalence in young adults. The purpose of this study was to identify classes of young adult ever smokers based on measures of social and contextual influences on tobacco use. Latent class models were developed using social smoking measures, and not the frequency or quantity of tobacco use. Data come from a national sample of young adult ever smokers aged 18-24 (Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, N=1564)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212302/the-importance-of-conditioned-stimuli-in-cigarette-and-e-cigarette-craving-reduction-by-e-cigarettes
#13
Martijn Van Heel, Dinska Van Gucht, Koen Vanbrabant, Frank Baeyens
This study examined the impact of four variables pertaining to the use of e-cigarettes (e-cigs) on cravings for tobacco cigarettes and for e-cigs after an overnight abstinence period. The four variables were the nicotine level, the sensorimotor component, the visual aspect, and the aroma of the e-cig. In an experimental study, 81 participants without prior vaping experience first got acquainted with using e-cigs in a one-week tryout period, after which they participated in a lab session assessing the effect of five minutes of vaping following an abstinence period of 12 h...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210778/threshold-dose-for-behavioral-discrimination-of-cigarette-nicotine-content-in-menthol-vs-non-menthol-smokers
#14
Kenneth A Perkins, Nicole Kunkle, Joshua L Karelitz
RATIONALE: The lowest threshold content (or "dose") of nicotine discriminated in cigarettes may differ due to menthol preference. OBJECTIVES: Menthol and non-menthol Spectrum research cigarettes differing in nicotine content were used to determine discrimination thresholds. METHODS: Dependent smokers preferring menthol (n = 40) or non-menthol (n = 21) brands were tested on ability to discriminate cigarettes (matched for their menthol preference) with nicotine contents of 16-17, 11-12, 5, 2, and 1 mg/g, one per session, from an "ultra-low" cigarette with 0...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208905/n-acetylcysteine-combined-with-home-based-physical-activity-effect-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-stable-copd-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Vijay Tukaram Salve, Jitesh S Atram
INTRODUCTION: Quality of life is adversely affected in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), due to irreversible, progressive nature of the disease and limitations of current treatment options available. One of the important aim of treatment of COPD is to improve Quality of Life (QoL). Cigarette smoke contains numerous free radicals and other oxidants. Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathogenesis, progression of disease and exacerbation in COPD. Pulmonary tuberculosis, outdoor and indoor air pollution and many others are aetiologies of COPD in non-smokers...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206778/personal-and-cultural-identity-development-in-recently-immigrated-hispanic-adolescents-links-with-psychosocial-functioning
#16
Alan Meca, Raha F Sabet, Colleen M Farrelly, Cynthia G Benitez, Seth J Schwartz, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Jennifer B Unger, Byron L Zamboanga, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Simona Picariello, Sabrina E Des Rosiers, Daniel W Soto, Monica Pattarroyo, Juan A Villamar, Karina M Lizzi
OBJECTIVES: This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. METHOD: The sample consisted of 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Hispanic adolescents (53% boys; Mage = 14.51 years at baseline; SD = .88 years) from Miami and Los Angeles who participated in a longitudinal study...
February 16, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202930/harm-reduction-and-e-cigarettes-distorting-the-approach
#17
Michael Moore, Martin McKee, Mike Daube
Some supporters of electronic cigarettes have argued that they should be considered a form of harm reduction, analogous to that which has been successful with narcotics. In this viewpoint, we contend that this argument is based on highly selective use of the evidence, coupled with a fundamental misunderstanding of a comprehensive harm minimisation strategy. This includes not only harm reduction but also reduction in demand and supply-two elements that are explicitly rejected by many advocates of electronic cigarettes...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202929/prohibition-of-e-cigarettes-in-the-us-are-prohibitions-where-alcohol-is-consumed-related-to-lower-alcohol-consumption
#18
Alexandra R Hershberger, Kenny A Karyadi, Melissa A Cyders
Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202080/mentholation-affects-the-cigarette-microbiota-by-selecting-for-bacteria-resistant-to-harsh-environmental-conditions-and-selecting-against-potential-bacterial-pathogens
#19
Jessica Chopyk, Suhana Chattopadhyay, Prachi Kulkarni, Emma Claye, Kelsey R Babik, Molly C Reid, Eoghan M Smyth, Lauren E Hittle, Joseph N Paulson, Raul Cruz-Cano, Mihai Pop, Stephanie S Buehler, Pamela I Clark, Amy R Sapkota, Emmanuel F Mongodin
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding the microbial constituents of tobacco products and their impacts on public health. Moreover, there has been no comparative characterization performed on the bacterial microbiota associated with the addition of menthol, an additive that has been used by tobacco manufacturers for nearly a century. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted bacterial community profiling on tobacco from user- and custom-mentholated/non-mentholated cigarette pairs, as well as a commercially-mentholated product...
February 15, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199715/the-relationships-of-expectancies-with-e-cigarette-use-among-hospitalized-smokers-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#20
Peter S Hendricks, Christopher B Thorne, Sara N Lappan, Noah W Sweat, JeeWon Cheong, Rekha Ramachandran, Connie L Kohler, William C Bailey, Kathleen F Harrington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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