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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920946/insights-in-public-health-substance-use-in-pregnant-women-in-hawai-i-extending-our-capacity-and-compassion
#1
Rebecca Delafield, Tricia E Wright
Substance use can have serious consequences for the health and well-being of individuals. The problem is of particular concern when it involves pregnant women due to health risks for the mother and the fetus. In utero exposure to either legal (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and certain prescription drugs) or illicit (eg, amphetamines, cocaine, and opioids) substances can result in potentially serious and long-lasting health problems for infants. Available data from Hawai'i indicate that substance use among pregnant women is higher than national targets, which reflect the fact that there is essentially no acceptable rate of use of these substances...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915033/survivin-controls-biogenesis-of-microrna-in-smokers-a-link-to-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Karin M E Andersson, Minna Turkkila, Malin C Erlandsson, Apostolos Bossios, Sofia Töyrä Silfverswärd, Dan Hu, Linda Ekerljung, Carina Malmhäll, Howard L Weiner, Bo Lundbäck, Maria I Bokarewa
MicroRNAs (miRs) represent a part of epigenetic control of autoimmunity gaining increasing attention in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since cigarette smoking plays important role in RA pathogenesis and reprograms transcriptional profile of miRNAs, we ask if the onco-protein survivin, a novel biomarker of RA, may provide a link between smoking and miRNA. Studying survivin expression in leukocytes of 144 female RA patients we observed that smoking patients had higher survivin transcription and a remarkable spreading of survivin isoforms...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914771/overview-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Allison M Glasser, Lauren Collins, Jennifer L Pearson, Haneen Abudayyeh, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams, Andrea C Villanti
CONTEXT: Rapid developments in e-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), and the evolution of the overall tobacco product marketplace warrant frequent evaluation of the published literature. The purpose of this article is to report updated findings from a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature on ENDS. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The authors conducted a systematic review of published empirical research literature on ENDS through May 31, 2016, using a detailed search strategy in the PubMed electronic database, expert review, and additional targeted searches...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914516/leukotriene-b4-induces-emt-and-vimentin-expression-in-panc-1-pancreatic-cancer-cells-involvement-of-blt2-via-erk2-activation
#4
You Ri Kim, Mi Kyung Park, Gyeong Jin Kang, Hyun Ji Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Hyun Jung Byun, Moo-Yeol Lee, Chang Hoon Lee
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a leukocyte chemoattractant and plays a major role controlling inflammatory responses including pancreatitis. LTB4 is known to be correlated with cancer progression. LTB4 induces keratin phosphorylation and reorganization by activating extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines. However, the role of LTB4 in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and vimentin expression in pancreatic cancer cells is unknown. We examined whether LTB4 induces EMT and vimentin expression by Western blot, si-RNA, and RT-PCR...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908385/the-mutagenic-assessment-of-an-electronic-cigarette-and-reference-cigarette-smoke-using-the-ames-assay-in-strains-ta98-and-ta100
#5
D Thorne, I Crooks, M Hollings, A Seymour, C Meredith, M Gaca
Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used to assess the mutagenic potential of the aerosol from a commercially available, rechargeable, closed system electronic-cigarette. Results obtained were compared to those for the mainstream smoke from a Kentucky reference (3R4F) cigarette. Two different test matrices were assessed. Aerosol generated from the e-cigarette was trapped on a Cambridge filter pad, eluted in DMSO and compared to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), which was generated in the same manner for mutagenicity assessment in the Salmonella assay...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906858/electronic-cigarettes-as-smoking-cessation-tool-are-we-there
#6
Sohini Ghosh, M Bradley Drummond
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing, with many users reporting trying e-cigarettes as a method to quit combustible cigarettes. This review highlights recently published studies assessing the use of e-cigarettes as a tool for cessation of combustible cigarettes. RECENT FINDINGS: When evaluating data from four randomized controlled trials and multiple cohort studies, differential association between e-cigarette use and cessation rates was seen...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905026/native-matrix-based-human-lung-alveolar-tissue-model-in-vitro-studies-of-the-reparatory-actions-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Ieva Bruzauskaite, Jovile Raudoniute, Jaroslav Denkovskij, Edvardas Bagdonas, Sandra Meidute-Abaraviciene, Vaida Simonyte, Daiva Bironaite, Almantas Siaurys, Eiva Bernotiene, Ruta Aldonyte
Studies of lung diseases in vitro often rely on flat, plastic-based monocultures, due to short lifespan of primary cells, complicated anatomy, lack of explants, etc. We hereby present a native 3D model with cues for repopulating epithelial cells. Abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to modulate bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cigarette smoke-induced injury to pulmonary epithelium were tested in our model. Post-mortem human lung tissue was sliced, cut and decellularized. Resulting matrix pads were reseeded with pulmonary epithelium (A549 line)...
December 1, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903958/global-approaches-to-regulating-electronic-cigarettes
#8
Ryan David Kennedy, Ayodeji Awopegba, Elaine De León, Joanna E Cohen
OBJECTIVES: Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. METHODS: National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards...
November 30, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903957/medicalisation-smoking-and-e-cigarettes-evidence-and-implications
#9
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Coral Gartner
There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit...
November 30, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901521/electronic-cigarette-use-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-prevalence-and-attitudes
#10
Brian J Miller, Alexandre Wang, Joyce Wong, Nina Paletta, Peter F Buckley
BACKGROUND: Smoking is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular among smokers. Surveys indicate overall favorable attitudes toward the use of e-cigarettes to reduce or quit smoking, relieve withdrawal symptoms, and with respect to perceived health risks; however, less is known about their use in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of and attitudes toward e-cigarettes in patients with schizophrenia...
November 1, 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899253/betulin-inhibited-cigarette-smoke-induced-copd-in-mice
#11
Ma Chunhua, Hongyan Long, Weina Zhu, Zheng Liu, Ruan Jie, Yajie Zhang, Yarui Wang
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of betulin (BE) on CS (cigarette smoke)-induced COPD in mice and explore its underlying mechanisms. 60 male ICR mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, model group, dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, BE (20mg/kg) group and BE (40mg/kg) group. The COPD mice were induced by cigarette smoke exposure for 8 weeks. The result of H&E staining demonstrated that BE inhibited CS-induced pathological injury in lung tissue. Besides, BE could restore the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and in lung, catalase (CAT) in serum and reduce the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and in lung...
November 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898495/frequency-of-e-cigarette-use-health-status-and-risk-and-protective-health-behaviors-in-adolescents
#12
Michael S Dunbar, Joan S Tucker, Brett A Ewing, Eric R Pedersen, Jeremy N V Miles, Regina A Shih, Elizabeth J D'Amico
OBJECTIVES: E-cigarettes (ECs) are increasingly popular among adolescents, who perceive them as "safer" than cigarettes. Although research has examined risk factors for adolescent EC use, little is known about how EC use correlates with health status and protective health behaviors. METHODS: In all, 2488 adolescents (mean age = 17.31 years, SD = 0.67; 46% male) completed a survey on EC and cigarette use, physical and mental health, physical activity, diet, sleep, and alcohol and other drug (AOD) use...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898019/association-between-family-and-friend-smoking-status-and-adolescent-smoking-behavior-and-e-cigarette-use-in-korea
#13
Myoung Jin Joung, Mi Ah Han, Jong Park, So Yeon Ryu
Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents' parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896041/flavored-e-cigarette-use-characterizing-youth-young-adult-and-adult-users
#14
M B Harrell, S R Weaver, A Loukas, M Creamer, C N Marti, C D Jackson, J W Heath, P Nayak, C L Perry, T F Pechacek, M P Eriksen
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907) and young adult college students (n = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894999/matched-comparative-modeling-of-normal-and-diseased-human-airway-responses-using-a-microengineered-breathing-lung-chip
#15
Kambez H Benam, Richard Novak, Janna Nawroth, Mariko Hirano-Kobayashi, Thomas C Ferrante, Youngjae Choe, Rachelle Prantil-Baun, James C Weaver, Anthony Bahinski, Kevin K Parker, Donald E Ingber
Smoking represents a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it is difficult to characterize smoke-induced injury responses under physiological breathing conditions in humans due to patient-to-patient variability. Here, we show that a small airway-on-a-chip device lined by living human bronchiolar epithelium from normal or COPD patients can be connected to an instrument that "breathes" whole cigarette smoke in and out of the chips to study smoke-induced pathophysiology in vitro...
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893799/tobacco-smoking-and-tuberculosis-among-men-living-with-hiv-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-case-control-study
#16
Liza Bronner Murrison, Neil Martinson, Rachael M Moloney, Regina Msandiwa, Mondiwana Mashabela, Jonathan M Samet, Jonathan E Golub
SETTING: Although there is ample evidence that smoking increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB), the magnitude of impact on TB risk among HIV-infected persons is poorly described. Given that a high proportion of patients with TB are co-infected with HIV in South Africa, the risks arising from the intersection of smoking, TB, and HIV/AIDS have key relevance for tobacco control policies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with current tobacco smoking among men with HIV in South Africa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893577/a-novel-classification-system-for-injuries-after-electronic-cigarette-explosions
#17
Scott B Patterson, Allison R Beckett, Alicia Lintner, Carly Leahey, Ashley Greer, Sidney B Brevard, Jon D Simmons, Steven A Kahn
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) contain lithium batteries that have been known to explode and/or cause fires that have resulted in burn injury. The purpose of this article is to present a case study, review injuries caused by e-cigarettes, and present a novel classification system from the newly emerging patterns of burns. A case study was presented and online media reports for e-cigarette burns were queried with search terms "e-cigarette burns" and "electronic cigarette burns." The reports and injury patterns were tabulated...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891773/cigarette-smoke-alters-the-secretome-of-lung-epithelial-cells
#18
Alessandra Mossina, Christina Lukas, Juliane Merl-Pham, Franziska E Uhl, Kathrin Mutze, Andrea Schamberger, Claudia Staab-Weijnitz, Jie Jia, Ali Ö Yildirim, Melanie Königshoff, Stefanie M Hauck, Oliver Eickelberg, Silke Meiners
Cigarette smoke is the most relevant risk factor for the development of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many of its more than 4500 chemicals are highly reactive thereby altering protein structure and function. Here, we used subcellular fractionation coupled to label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to globally assess alterations in the proteome of different compartments of lung epithelial cells upon exposure to cigarette smoke extract. Proteomic profiling of the human alveolar-derived cell line A549 revealed the most pronounced changes within the cellular secretome with preferential downregulation of proteins involved in wound healing and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization...
November 28, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891215/hypothesis-may-e-cigarette-smoking-boost-the-allergic-epidemic
#19
EDITORIAL
Jean Bousquet, Claus Bachert, Laura Crotty Alexander, Frank T Leone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890516/trends-in-e-cigarette-awareness-and-perceived-harmfulness-in-the-u-s
#20
Timothy R Huerta, Daniel M Walker, Deborah Mullen, Tyler J Johnson, Eric W Ford
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are gaining in popularity as an alternative to regular cigarettes, as they are viewed as potentially less harmful. However, it remains unclear how awareness about e-cigarettes is permeating through the general U.S. POPULATION: This study seeks to extend previous research and examine trends in e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness, and their association with smoking-cessation efforts. METHODS: Data from three cycles (2012, 2013, and 2014) of the Health Information National Trends Survey were combined into a single data set...
November 24, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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