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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353186/addictive-behaviors-social-and-psychosocial-factors-and-electronic-cigarette-use-among-adolescents-a-population-based-study
#1
M Lindström, M Rosvall
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate associations between e-cigarette use and social and psychosocial factors and cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and narcotics use among adolescents attending 9th grade in primary school and 2nd grade in secondary school. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The public health survey among adolescents in Scania in 2016 includes pupils in grades 9 and 2. The associations between e-cigarette use and lifestyle, social and psychosocial factors, and trust were investigated with logistic regressions...
January 17, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-anti-viral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#2
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection we used an air-liquid interface culture system, and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351185/brief-report-lead-levels-in-selected-electronic-cigarettes-from-canada-and-the-united-states
#3
Zachary R Dunbar, Ananth Das, Richard J O'Connor, Maciej L Goniewicz, Binnian Wei, Mark J Travers
Few published studies have investigated the presence of lead in the e-liquid of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Lead inhalation is associated with increased risk of stroke, heart disease, and other diseases. This study used a novel application of graphite furnace technology to compare the concentration of lead between e-liquids of different packaging and product designs using e-liquids that are or were commercially available in the United States and Canada. Eleven nicotine-free disposable ENDS devices and 12 bottled refill solutions that contained nicotine were purchased from retailers in Canada and the United States between 2015 and 2017...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350618/a-call-to-end-the-epidemic-of-adolescent-e-cigarette-use
#4
Grace Kong, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350617/adolescents-and-e-cigarettes-objects-of-concern-may-appear-larger-than-they-are
#5
Lynn T Kozlowski, Kenneth E Warner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349255/gender-specific-associations-between-involvement-in-team-sport-culture-and-canadian-adolescents-substance-use-behavior
#6
Randy Boyes, Dylan E O'Sullivan, Brooke Linden, Michael McIsaac, William Pickett
Canadian adolescents have some of the highest rates of substance use in the world. The etiology of this phenomenon has not been fully explored, and one possible contextual determinant is involvement in sport activities that foster risk-taking behaviors through physical and social mechanisms. Using the 2013-14 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children (HBSC) study we therefore examined this hypothesis in a contemporary national sample of Canadian adolescents. The strength and direction of the relationship between sport and substance use varied by gender and substance, with team sport participation associated with increased binge drinking (RR 1...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346340/disparities-in-preconception-health-indicators-%C3%A2-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-2013-2015-and-pregnancy-risk-assessment-monitoring-system-2013-2014
#7
Cheryl Robbins, Sheree L Boulet, Isabel Morgan, Denise V D'Angelo, Lauren B Zapata, Brian Morrow, Andrea Sharma, Charlan D Kroelinger
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Preconception health is a broad term that encompasses the overall health of nonpregnant women during their reproductive years (defined here as aged 18-44 years). Improvement of both birth outcomes and the woman's health occurs when preconception health is optimized. Improving preconception health before and between pregnancies is critical for reducing maternal and infant mortality and pregnancy-related complications. The National Preconception Health and Health Care Initiative's Surveillance and Research work group suggests ten prioritized indicators that states can use to monitor programs or activities for improving the preconception health status of women of reproductive age...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342380/e-cigarettes-and-the-harm-reduction-continuum
#8
Amy L Fairchild, Ju Sung Lee, Ronald Bayer, James Curran
On July 28, 2017, the recently appointed commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Scott Gottlieb, announced a "new comprehensive plan for tobacco and nicotine regulation." To permit both scientific deliberation and product innovation, the FDA will delay rules on the regulation of..
January 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339821/cigarette-smoking-is-associated-with-an-altered-vaginal-tract-metabolomic-profile
#9
T M Nelson, J C Borgogna, R D Michalek, D W Roberts, J M Rath, E D Glover, J Ravel, M D Shardell, C J Yeoman, R M Brotman
Cigarette smoking has been associated with both the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and a vaginal microbiota lacking protective Lactobacillus spp. As the mechanism linking smoking with vaginal microbiota and BV is unclear, we sought to compare the vaginal metabolomes of smokers and non-smokers (17 smokers/19 non-smokers). Metabolomic profiles were determined by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in a cross-sectional study. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene populations revealed samples clustered into three community state types (CSTs) ---- CST-I (L...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339516/human-airway-branch-variation-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Benjamin M Smith, Hussein Traboulsi, John H M Austin, Ani Manichaikul, Eric A Hoffman, Eugene R Bleecker, Wellington V Cardoso, Christopher Cooper, David J Couper, Stephen M Dashnaw, Jia Guo, MeiLan K Han, Nadia N Hansel, Emlyn W Hughes, David R Jacobs, Richard E Kanner, Joel D Kaufman, Eric Kleerup, Ching-Long Lin, Kiang Liu, Christian M Lo Cascio, Fernando J Martinez, Jennifer N Nguyen, Martin R Prince, Stephen Rennard, Stephen S Rich, Leora Simon, Yanping Sun, Karol E Watson, Prescott G Woodruff, Carolyn J Baglole, R Graham Barr
Susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) beyond cigarette smoking is incompletely understood, although several genetic variants associated with COPD are known to regulate airway branch development. We demonstrate that in vivo central airway branch variants are present in 26.5% of the general population, are unchanged over 10 y, and exhibit strong familial aggregation. The most common airway branch variant is associated with COPD in two cohorts (n = 5,054), with greater central airway bifurcation density, and with emphysema throughout the lung...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338717/risk-factors-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in%C3%A2-children-under-five-years-attending-the-bamenda-regional-hospital-in-cameroon
#11
Alexis A Tazinya, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Lawrence T Mbuagbaw, Martin Abanda, Julius Atashili, Marie Therese Obama
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children worldwide. About 6.6 million children less than 5 years of age die every year in the world; 95% of them in low-income countries and one third of the total deaths is due to ARI. This study aimed at determining the proportion of acute respiratory infections and the associated risk factors in children under 5 years visiting the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study involving 512 children under 5 years was carried out from December 2014 to February 2015...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338581/perceived-discrimination-as-a-risk-factor-for-use-of-emerging-tobacco-products-more-similarities-than-differences-across-demographic-groups-and-attributions-for-discrimination
#12
Jennifer B Unger
BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking and other substance use among members of disadvantaged minority groups. However, most studies have focused on a single minority group, have not considered the individual's attribution for the discrimination, and have not considered emerging tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations between perceived discrimination and use of six tobacco products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah, and smokeless tobacco) in a diverse sample of 1,068 adults in the United States...
January 17, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337701/update-on-metal-induced-occupational-lung-disease
#13
Anne E Wyman, Stella E Hines
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Occupational and environmental exposures to metals can result in multiple pulmonary conditions. This article will review recent epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that have enhanced our understanding of the association between particular lung diseases and exposure to specific metals. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have broadened our understanding of the mechanisms of lung diseases such as CBD in established industries and drawn attention to conditions that may arise from exposure to metals such as indium in developing technologies...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337585/narrative-theory-ii-self-generated-and-experimenter-provided-negative-income-shock-narratives-increase-delay-discounting
#14
Alexandra M Mellis, Sarah E Snider, Warren K Bickel
Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336657/what-factors-are-associated-with-electronic-cigarette-shisha-tobacco-and-conventional-cigarette-use-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-australian-adolescents
#15
Tahlia Williams, Victoria White
BACKGROUND: Adolescents' use of electronic cigarettes and shisha-tobacco increased in several countries during the 2000s, including in the United States, United Kingdom and Canada. Few studies have examined the factors associated with exclusive e-cigarette or shisha-tobacco use and whether adolescents using these substances exclusively differ from those using traditional cigarettes. OBJECTIVES: To examine the socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of exclusive e-cigarette and exclusive shisha-tobacco use to those found for users of tobacco cigarettes and multiple nicotine products in Australian adolescents...
January 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336646/anti-cyclic-citrullinated-peptide-antibodies-other-common-autoantibodies-and-smoking-as-risk-factors-for-lymphoma-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
E Baecklund, C Backlin, J Rönnelid, R Toes, Twj Huizinga, E Åhlin, J Askling, F H Hochberg, L Klareskog, J Kay, K E Smedby
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of lymphoma. There is no biomarker to indicate future lymphoma risk in RA and it is not known whether factors associated with an increased risk of RA also confer an increased risk of lymphoma. We investigated whether anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, other autoantibodies, and smoking, are associated with lymphoma development in RA. METHOD: From two population-based case-control studies, the Scandinavian Lymphoma Etiology (SCALE) study and the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) I study, we identified lymphoma cases with a validated RA diagnosis (n = 50), to whom we matched study participants with RA but no lymphoma (n = 261), lymphoma but no RA (n = 257), and neither RA nor lymphoma (n = 233)...
January 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335939/-e-cigarettes-in-urgent-cases-an-acceptable-alternative
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Hering
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335906/the-health-behaviors-of-ethnically-diverse-women-at-increased-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-the-behaviors-affecting-baby-and-you-b-a-b-y-study
#18
Carrie J Nobles, Bess H Marcus, Edward J Stanek, Barry Braun, Brian W Whitcomb, JoAnn E Manson, Glenn Markenson, Lisa Chasan-Taber
Objectives Cigarette smoking, low physical activity, and sedentary behavior are modifiable risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, only one study has evaluated predictors of these health risk behaviors among women at high risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Therefore, our goal was to examine predictors of smoking, low physical activity, and sedentary behavior during pregnancy in an ethnically diverse high risk cohort. Methods This cross-sectional analysis utilized baseline data from the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B...
January 15, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333677/diminished-alternative-reinforcement-as-a-mechanism-linking-conduct-problems-and-substance-use-in-adolescence-a-longitudinal-examination
#19
Rubin Khoddam, Junhan Cho, N J Jackson, Adam M Leventhal
AIMS: To determine whether diminished alternative reinforcement (i.e., engagement and enjoyment from substance-free activities) mediated the longitudinal association of conduct problems with substance use in early-mid adolescence. DESIGN: Structural equation modeling tested whether the association between Wave 1 (baseline) conduct problems and Wave 3 (24-month follow-up) substance use outcomes was mediated by diminished alternative reinforcement at Wave 2 (12-month follow-up)...
January 14, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332004/host-agent-vector-environment-measures-for-electronic-cigarette-research-used-in-nih-grants
#20
Mary L Garcia-Cazarin, Rachel J Mandal, Rachel Grana, Kay L Wanke, Helen I Meissner
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the focus and comprehensiveness of domains measured in e-cigarette research. METHODS: A portfolio analysis of National Institutes of Health grants focusing on e-cigarette research and funded between the fiscal years 2007 and 2015 was conducted. Grant proposals were retrieved using a government database and coded using the Host-Agent-Vector-Environment (HAVE) model as a framework to characterise the measures proposed...
January 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
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