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Alcohol-related brain damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804239/protective-effects-of-donepezil-against-alcohol-induced-toxicity-in-cell-culture-role-of-caspase-3
#1
Bruk Getachew, Tamaro Hudson, Thomas Heinbockel, Antonei B Csoka, Yousef Tizabi
Ethanol (EtOH) is one of the most frequently abused drugs with heavy health, economic, and societal burdens. Although moderate to low EtOH may have some neuroprotective effects, heavy EtOH consumption associated with high blood alcohol level (BAL) can be quite detrimental. The brain is particularly vulnerable to the damaging effects of high BAL, leading to neuronal loss, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. Although the exact causes of these detriments are not fully elucidated, it is believed that damage to the cholinergic system is at least partially responsible for the cognitive impairment...
May 26, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797195/unravelling-motor-behaviour-hallmarks-in-intoxicated-adolescents-methylmercury-subtoxic-dose-exposure-and-binge-ethanol-intake-paradigm-in-rats
#2
Aline Nascimento Oliveira, Alana Miranda Pinheiro, Ivaldo Jesus Almeida Belém-Filho, Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes, Sabrina Carvalho Cartágenes, Paula Cardoso Ribera, Enéas Andrade Fontes-Júnior, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez, Marta Chagas Monteiro, Marcelo Oliveira Lima, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz Maia
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a hazardous environmental pollutant, affecting Amazon basin communities by anthropogenic activities. The exact safe level of MeHg exposure is unclear, despite the efforts of health international societies to avoid mercury (Hg) poisoning. Central nervous system is severely impacted by Hg intoxication, reflecting on motor impairment. In addition, alcohol has been associated to an overall brain damage. According to lifestyle of Amazon riverside communities, alcohol intake occurs frequently...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714153/thiamine-and-alcohol-for-brain-pathology-super-imposing-or-different-causative-factors-for-brain-damage
#3
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Matteo Dal Ben, Silvia Gazzin, Claudio Tiribelli
Drinking more than the recommended limits is a worldwide emerging problem, difficult to circumscribe, and alcohol related brain damages are an under-recognized health problem. Alcohol-cognitive disruption can be considered as transient and recoverable if the alcohol consumption is limited and occasional; if not, it can progress to the so-called alcohol-related dementia (ARD), or to the Wernicke encephalopathy, or it can even induce the Korsakoff syndrome, an irreversible and long-lasting medical condition. ARD still remains poorly diagnosed and addressed, even if it had recently raised increased research interest...
April 2, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625762/effectiveness-of-preventive-cognitive-therapy-while-tapering-antidepressants-versus-maintenance-antidepressant-treatment-versus-their-combination-in-prevention-of-depressive-relapse-or-recurrence-drd-study-a-three-group-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Claudi L H Bockting, Nicola S Klein, Hermien J Elgersma, Gerard D van Rijsbergen, Christien Slofstra, Johan Ormel, Erik Buskens, Jack Dekker, Peter J de Jong, Willem A Nolen, Aart H Schene, Steven D Hollon, Huibert Burger
BACKGROUND: Keeping individuals on antidepressants after remission or recovery of major depressive disorder is a common strategy to prevent relapse or recurrence. Preventive cognitive therapy (PCT) has been proposed as an alternative to maintenance antidepressant treatment, but whether its addition would allow tapering of antidepressants or enhance the efficacy of maintenance antidepressant treatment is unclear. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of antidepressants alone, with PCT while tapering off antidepressants, or PCT added to antidepressants in the prevention of relapse and recurrence...
May 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615864/molecular-neuropathology-of-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#5
REVIEW
José J Miguel-Hidalgo
Postmortem studies reveal structural and molecular alterations of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in both the gray and white matter (GM and WM) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in human subjects with chronic alcohol abuse or dependence. These glial cellular changes appear to parallel and may largely explain structural and functional alterations detected using neuroimaging techniques in subjects with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Moreover, due to the crucial roles of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in neurotransmission and signal conduction, these cells are very likely major players in the molecular mechanisms underpinning alcoholism-related connectivity disturbances between the PFC and relevant interconnecting brain regions...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487796/alcohol-intake-and-brain-white-matter-in-middle-aged-men-microscopic-and-macroscopic-differences
#6
Linda K McEvoy, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Jeremy A Elman, Lisa T Eyler, Carol E Franz, Donald J Hagler, Sean N Hatton, Michael J Lyons, Matthew S Panizzon, Anders M Dale, William S Kremen
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with deleterious changes in the brain but associations of moderate alcohol intake are not well understood. We examined the association of alcohol consumption with brain white matter health in 377 middle-aged men (56-66 years old; mean 61.8 ± 2.6 years) who were participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). T1-, T2-, proton density-, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained. Diffusion measures were quantified from 12 major white matter tracts...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449568/binge-alcohol-exposure-causes-neurobehavioral-deficits-and-gsk3%C3%AE-activation-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-rats
#7
Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke
Heavy alcohol exposure causes profound damage to the adolescent brain, particularly the hippocampus, which underlie some behavioral deficits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain inconclusive. The current study sought to determine whether binge alcohol exposure affects the hippocampus-related behaviors and key signaling proteins that may mediate alcohol neurotoxicity in adolescent rats. Alcohol exposure reduced the number of both NeuN-positive and doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampus...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439776/clinical-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#8
REVIEW
Marco Solmi, Giorgio Pigato, John M Kane, Christoph U Correll
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe condition that can affect almost 1 out of 4 patients on current or previous antipsychotic treatment, including both first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). While two novel vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitors, deutetrabenazine and valbenazine, have shown acute efficacy for TD, the majority of patients do not remit, and TD appears to recur once treatment is withdrawn. Hence, prevention of TD remains a crucial goal...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403418/binge-drinking-and-the-young-brain-a-mini-review-of-the-neurobiological-underpinnings-of-alcohol-induced-blackout
#9
REVIEW
Daniel F Hermens, Jim Lagopoulos
Binge drinking has significant effects on memory, particularly with regards to the transfer of information to long-term storage. Partial or complete blocking of memory formation is known as blackout. Youth represents a critical period in brain development that is particularly vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Animal models show that the adolescent brain is more vulnerable to the acute and chronic effects of alcohol compared with the adult brain. This mini-review addresses the neurobiological underpinnings of binge drinking and associated memory loss (blackout) in the adolescent and young adult period...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251843/alcohol-consumption-during-adolescence-a-link-between-mitochondrial-damage-and-ethanol-brain-intoxication
#10
REVIEW
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Rodrigo G Mira, Angie K Torres, Claudia Jara, María José Pérez, Erick H Vergara, Waldo Cerpa, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
Adolescence is a period of multiple changes where social behaviors influence interpersonal-relations. Adolescents live new experiences, including alcohol consumption which has become an increasing health problem. The age of onset for consumption has declined in the last decades, and additionally, the adolescents now uptake greater amounts of alcohol per occasion. Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for accidents, mental illnesses or other pathologies, as well as for the appearance of addictions, including alcoholism...
December 1, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#11
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
May 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196951/behavioral-and-biochemical-effects-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-zebrafish-acutely-exposed-to-ethanol
#12
Ricieri Mocelin, Matheus Marcon, Simone D'ambros, Ana P Herrmann, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo, Angelo Piato
Alcohol hangover refers to unpleasant symptoms experienced as a direct consequence of a binge drinking episode. The effects observed in this condition are related to the increase in alcohol metabolites and imbalance in oxidative status. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a mucolytic agent and an antidote for paracetamol overdose. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that NAC is a multi-target drug acting through neuroprotective, antioxidant and neurotrophic mechanisms as well as a glutamate modulator. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC in zebrafish acutely exposed to ethanol (EtOH)...
February 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196862/voluntary-exposure-to-a-toxin-the-genetic-influence-on-ethanol-consumption
#13
Paula L Hoffman, Laura M Saba, Lauren A Vanderlinden, Boris Tabakoff
Ethyl alcohol is a toxin that, when consumed at high levels, produces organ damage and death. One way to prevent or ameliorate this damage in humans is to reduce the exposure of organs to alcohol by reducing alcohol ingestion. Both the propensity to consume large volumes of alcohol and the susceptibility of human organs to alcohol-induced damage exhibit a strong genetic influence. We have developed an integrative genetic/genomic approach to identify transcriptional networks that predispose complex traits, including propensity for alcohol consumption and propensity for alcohol-induced organ damage...
February 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191394/medications-for-alcohol-use-disorders-an-overview
#14
REVIEW
Mohammed Akbar, Mark Egli, Young-Eun Cho, Byoung-Joon Song, Antonio Noronha
Patients who suffer from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) usually go through various socio-behavioral and pathophysiological changes that take place in the brain and other organs. Recently, consumption of unhealthy food and excess alcohol along with a sedentary lifestyle has become a norm in both developed and developing countries. Despite the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption, chronic and/or excessive alcohol intake is reported to negatively affect the brain, liver and other organs, resulting in cell death, organ damage/failure and death...
May 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#15
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129797/microglia-and-alcohol-meet-at-the-crossroads-microglia-as-critical-modulators-of-alcohol-neurotoxicity
#16
REVIEW
Joana F Henriques, Camila C Portugal, Teresa Canedo, João B Relvas, Teresa Summavielle, Renato Socodato
Alcohol use disorders affect millions of people worldwide causing huge social and economic burden on modern society. Excessive alcohol consumption or intoxication provokes severe damage to the body inducing immune suppression, liver damage and neurological disorder. In the central nervous system (CNS), alcohol exposure can lead to neuronal loss, cognitive decline, motor dysfunction, inflammation and impairment of neuroimmune responses. Glial cells, from which microglia represent roughly 10-15%, are primary modulators of the neuroimmune responses and inflammation in the CNS...
February 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106518/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-and-neocortical-development-a-transgenerational-model-of-fasd
#17
Charles W Abbott, David J Rohac, Riley T Bottom, Sahil Patadia, Kelly J Huffman
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, or FASD, represent a range of adverse developmental conditions caused by prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE) from maternal consumption of alcohol. PrEE induces neurobiological damage in the developing brain leading to cognitive-perceptual and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Alcohol-mediated alterations to epigenetic function may underlie PrEE-related brain dysfunction, with these changes potentially carried across generations to unexposed offspring. To determine the transgenerational impact of PrEE on neocortical development, we generated a mouse model of FASD and identified numerous stable phenotypes transmitted via the male germline to the unexposed third generation...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988580/development-prevention-and-treatment-of-alcohol-induced-organ-injury-the-role-of-nutrition
#18
REVIEW
Shirish Barve, Shao-Yu Chen, Irina Kirpich, Walter H Watson, Craig Mcclain
Alcohol and nutrition have the potential to interact at multiple levels. For example, heavy alcohol consumption can interfere with normal nutrition, resulting in overall malnutrition or in deficiencies of important micronutrients, such as zinc, by reducing their absorption or increasing their loss. Interactions between alcohol consumption and nutrition also can affect epigenetic regulation of gene expression by influencing multiple regulatory mechanisms, including methylation and acetylation of histone proteins and DNA...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988573/alcohol-s-effects-on-the-brain-neuroimaging-results-in-humans-and-animal-models
#19
Natalie M Zahr, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Brain imaging technology has allowed researchers to conduct rigorous studies of the dynamic course of alcoholism through periods of drinking, sobriety, and relapse and to gain insights into the effects of chronic alcoholism on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have distinguished alcohol-related brain effects that are permanent from those that are reversible with abstinence. In support of postmortem neuropathological studies showing degeneration of white matter, MRI studies have shown a specific vulnerability of white matter to chronic alcohol exposure...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898302/-belief-system-regarding-cannabis-its-use-and-consequences-users-versus-non-users-in-colombian-university-students
#20
Gonzalo Galván, Álvaro Sánchez-Carballo, Ileana Gómez-Morales, Oscar Humánez-Julio, Manuel Guerrero-Martelo, Francisco Vásquez De la Hoz
Descriptive and comparative study of cross-sectional that had as objective to evaluate and compare the beliefs about cannabis, its use and potential consequences between two groups of Colombian university students, matched by gender and age. The frst group consisted of ordinary consumers of cannabis (n=35) the second group consisted of students that have never tried cannabis (n=35). The results showed that the group of consumers presents a moderate risk of abuse and only the 20% fulflled dependence criteria...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
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