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Alcohol-related brain damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855543/alcohol-related-cognitive-impairment-current-trends-and-future-perspectives
#1
Victoria Hayes, Apo Demirkol, Nicole Ridley, Adrienne Withall, Brian Draper
Excessive alcohol use is associated with a wide range of physical, psychological and social consequences, and is responsible for a significant proportion of the burden of disease globally. An area which has received increasing interest is alcohol-related brain damage, not just because of the cost to the individual and society through resource utilization, but also because of the potential for prevention and reversibility. This paper aims to review the current literature on this subject and seeks to explore issues around diagnosis and treatment of alcohol-related brain damage...
November 18, 2016: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830632/alcohol-use-is-associated-with-thinner-cerebral-cortex-and-larger-ventricles-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#2
E H Lange, S Nerland, K N Jørgensen, L Mørch-Johnsen, R Nesvåg, C B Hartberg, U K Haukvik, K Osnes, I Melle, O A Andreassen, I Agartz
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use is associated with brain damage but less is known about brain effects from moderate alcohol use. Previous findings indicate that patients with severe mental illness, particularly schizophrenia, are vulnerable to alcohol-related brain damage. We investigated the association between levels of alcohol consumption and cortical and subcortical brain structures in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients and healthy controls, and investigated for group differences for this association...
November 10, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818965/alcohol-related-dementia-and-neurocognitive-impairment-a-review-study
#3
REVIEW
Ankur Sachdeva, Mina Chandra, Mona Choudhary, Prabhoo Dayal, Kuljeet Singh Anand
CONTEXT: Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We retrieved papers for this review by searching the PubMed database for terms "alcohol and dementia", "alcohol and cognitive impairment", and "alcohol and wernicke-korsakoff" mentioned in the title of the published papers...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812507/gene-expression-in-the-mouse-brain-following-early-pregnancy-exposure-to-ethanol
#4
Christine R Zhang, Suyinn Chong
Exposure to alcohol during early embryonic or fetal development has been linked with a variety of adverse outcomes, the most common of which are structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system [1]. Behavioural and cognitive deficits reported in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero include intellectual impairment, learning and memory difficulties, diminished executive functioning, attention problems, poor motor function and hyperactivity [2]. The economic and social costs of these outcomes are substantial and profound [3], [4]...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774212/the-use-of-neuroscientific-evidence-in-canadian-criminal-proceedings
#5
Jennifer A Chandler
This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734188/cortical-damage-in-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-with-good-prognosis-a-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#6
Lei Wu, Di Jin, Xuan Sun, Liang Liang, Deihui Huang, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a thiamine deficiency-related condition, in which lesions are usually present in the periventricular and subcortical areas of the brain. However, lesions have also been found in atypical areas, such as the cerebral cortex. The present study summarizes the clinical outcomes and radiological features of WE with cortical impairment. We report two cases of cortical involvement in patients with WE, and review 22 similar cases from other reports. Among all 24 cases, 4 patients had a confirmed history of chronic daily alcohol abuse, and 19 of them had an identified causes of thiamine deficiency...
October 12, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651284/the-differential-effects-of-alcohol-and-nicotine-specific-nitrosamine-ketone-on-white-matter-ultrastructure
#7
A Papp-Peka, M Tong, J J Kril, S M De La Monte, G T Sutherland
AIMS: The chronic consumption of alcohol is known to result in neurodegeneration and impairment of cognitive function. Pathological and neuroimaging studies have confirmed that brain atrophy in alcoholics is mainly due to widespread white matter (WM) loss with neuronal loss restricted to specific regions, such as the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies of cigarette smokers also suggest that chronic inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to brain atrophy, although the neurotoxic component is unknown...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616894/the-relationship-between-emotion-regulation-capacity-heart-rate-variability-and-quality-of-life-in-individuals-with-alcohol-related-brain-damage
#8
Jean-Paul Steinmetz, Claus Vögele, Christiane Theisen-Flies, Carine Federspiel, Stefan Sütterlin
The reliable measurement of quality of life (QoL) presents a challenge in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage. This study investigated vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) as a physiological predictor of QoL. Self- and proxy ratings of QoL and dysexecutive symptoms were collected once, while vmHRV was repeatedly assessed over a 3-week period at weekly intervals in a sample of nine alcohol-related brain damaged patients. We provide robustness checks, bootstrapped correlations with confidence intervals, and standard errors for mean scores...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565756/increased-dna-double-strand-break-was-associated-with-downregulation-of-repair-and-upregulation-of-apoptotic-factors-in-rat-hippocampus-after-alcohol-exposure
#9
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Prosper N'Gouemo, Kamal Datta
Binge drinking is known to cause damage in critical areas of the brain, including the hippocampus, which is important for relational memory and is reported to be sensitive to alcohol toxicity. However, the roles of DNA double-strand break (DSB) and its repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR), and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in alcohol-induced hippocampal injury remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this first study was to assess alcohol-induced DNA DSB and the mechanism by which alcohol affects DSB repair pathways in rat hippocampus...
August 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447979/anosognosia-for-memory-impairment-in-addiction-insights-from-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-of-metamemory
#10
REVIEW
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Edith V Sullivan
In addiction, notably Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), patients often have a tendency to fail to acknowledge the reality of the disease and to minimize the physical, psychological, and social difficulties attendant to chronic alcohol consumption. This lack of awareness can reduce the chances of initiating and maintaining sobriety. Presented here is a model focusing on compromised awareness in individuals with AUD of mild to moderate cognitive deficits, in particular, for episodic memory impairment-the ability to learn new information, such as recent personal experiences...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345013/fetal-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-of-neurodevelopmental-deficits-and-exacerbation-by-ethanol-and-methamphetamine
#11
REVIEW
Peter G Wells, Shama Bhatia, Danielle M Drake, Lutfiya Miller-Pinsler
In utero exposure of mouse progeny to alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) and methamphetamine (METH) causes substantial postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits. One emerging pathogenic mechanism underlying these deficits involves fetal brain production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that alter signal transduction, and/or oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules like lipids, proteins, and DNA, the latter leading to altered gene expression, likely via non-mutagenic mechanisms. Even physiological levels of fetal ROS production can be pathogenic in biochemically predisposed progeny, and ROS formation can be enhanced by drugs like EtOH and METH, via activation/induction of ROS-producing NADPH oxidases (NOX), drug bioactivation to free radical intermediates by prostaglandin H synthases (PHS), and other mechanisms...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333729/neurobiological-bases-of-alcohol-addiction
#12
REVIEW
Ana Matošić, Srđan Marušić, Branka Vidrih, Ana Kovak-Mufić, Lipa Cicin-Šain
Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289267/an-autopsy-approach-to-bolus-deaths
#13
Verena Blaas, Johannes Manhart, Anne Port, Wolfgang Keil, Andreas Büttner
BACKGROUND: The term "bolus death" or "cafe coronary" refers to a misplaced larynx or laryngeal inlet by foreign bodies, in most cases by unchewed pieces of food such as meat, sausage, or fruit. The pathophysiologic mechanism of death is still debatable - sudden reflex cardiac arrests and asphyxial suffocations are implicated. In particular, children, alcoholics, and persons with brain-related damages belong to this risk group. A defective dentition is also associated with the risk of bolus deaths...
August 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139235/the-nsw-brain-tissue-resource-centre-banking-for-alcohol-and-major-neuropsychiatric-disorders-research
#14
G T Sutherland, D Sheedy, J Stevens, T McCrossin, C C Smith, M van Roijen, J J Kril
The New South Wales Brain Tissue Resource Centre (NSWBTRC) at the University of Sydney (Australia) is an established human brain bank providing tissue to the neuroscience research community for investigations on alcohol-related brain damage and major psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. The NSWBTRC relies on wide community engagement to encourage those with and without neuropsychiatric illness to consent to donation through its allied research programs. The subsequent provision of high-quality samples relies on standardized operational protocols, associated clinical data, quality control measures, integrated information systems, robust infrastructure, and governance...
May 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044836/beneficial-effects-of-chlorogenic-acid-on-alcohol-induced-damage-in-pc12-cells
#15
Shi-Qi Fang, Yong-Tang Wang, Jing-Xiang Wei, Ya-Hai Shu, Lan Xiao, Xiu-Min Lu
As one of the most commonly abused psychotropic substances, ethanol exposure has deleterious effects on the central nervous system (CNS). The most detrimental results of ethanol exposure during development are the loss of neurons in brain regions such as the hippocampus and neocortex, which may be related to the apoptosis and necrosis mediated by oxidative stress. Recent studies indicated that a number of natural drugs from plants play an important role in protection of nerve cells from damage. Among these, it has been reported that chlorogenic acid (CA) has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress...
April 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012148/alcohol-induced-blackouts-as-predictors-of-other-drinking-related-harms-among-emerging-young-adults
#16
Ralph Hingson, Wenxing Zha, Bruce Simons-Morton, Aaron White
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related blackouts are periods of amnesia that reflect the failure of the brain to record memories of what transpires while drinking. This paper examined the incidence, predictors, and behavioral correlates of blackouts among emerging adults and examined whether questions about blackouts could serve as better markers of risk for other alcohol related harms than questions about levels of consumption. METHODS: In 2012 to 2013, 1,463 (68%) of 2,140 respondents 1-year past high school reported having consumed alcohol...
April 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949445/lipids-and-oxidative-stress-associated-with-ethanol-induced-neurological-damage
#17
REVIEW
José A Hernández, Rosa C López-Sánchez, Adela Rendón-Ramírez
The excessive intake of alcohol is a serious public health problem, especially given the severe damage provoked by chronic or prenatal exposure to alcohol that affects many physiological processes, such as memory, motor function, and cognitive abilities. This damage is related to the ethanol oxidation in the brain. The metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and then to acetate is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species that accentuate the oxidative state of cells. This metabolism of ethanol can induce the oxidation of the fatty acids in phospholipids, and the bioactive aldehydes produced are known to be associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928125/relationships-between-head-circumference-brain-volume-and-cognition-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#18
Sarah Treit, Dongming Zhou, Albert E Chudley, Gail Andrew, Carmen Rasmussen, Sarah M Nikkel, Dawa Samdup, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Christine Loock, Christian Beaulieu
Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5-19 years...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883165/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cell-death-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-through-nitroxidative-stress
#19
Mohammed Akbar, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Ghazi Daradkeh, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Youngshim Choi, Lubna Mahmood, Byoung-Joon Song
Mitochondria are important for providing cellular energy ATP through the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. They are also critical in regulating many cellular functions including the fatty acid oxidation, the metabolism of glutamate and urea, the anti-oxidant defense, and the apoptosis pathway. Mitochondria are an important source of reactive oxygen species leaked from the electron transport chain while they are susceptible to oxidative damage, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue injury. In fact, impaired mitochondrial function is commonly observed in many types of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, alcoholic dementia, brain ischemia-reperfusion related injury, and others, although many of these neurological disorders have unique etiological factors...
April 15, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842245/role-of-growth-arrest-and-dna-damage-inducible-beta-in-alcohol-drinking-behaviors
#20
David P Gavin, Handojo Kusumo, Huaibo Zhang, Alessandro Guidotti, Subhash C Pandey
BACKGROUND: The contribution of epigenetic factors, such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation, to the regulation of alcohol-drinking behavior has been increasingly recognized over the last several years. GADD45b is a protein demonstrated to be involved in DNA demethylation at neurotrophic factor gene promoters, including at brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) which has been highly implicated in alcohol-drinking behavior. METHODS: DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1), 3a, and 3b, and Gadd45a, b, and g mRNA were measured in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental areas of high ethanol (EtOH) consuming C57BL/6J (C57) and low alcohol consuming DBA/2J (DBA) mice using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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