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Alcohol-related brain damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285024/shorter-telomere-length-in-people-with-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study-from-australia
#1
Cherrie Galletly, Varinderpal S Dhillon, Dennis Liu, Ryan P Balzan, Lisa A Hahn, Michael F Fenech
Schizophrenia is a complex mental illness affecting the normal functioning of the brain, interfering with the ability to think, feel and act. It can be conceptualised as a syndrome of accelerated ageing, with early onset of cardiovascular disease and high rates of premature mortality. Telomere attrition increases with oxidative stress and is considered a biomarker of ageing. Previous studies have assessed abnormalities in telomere length in schizophrenia, but the results are inconsistent. The present study used a case-control design to assess whether people with schizophrenia have shortened telomeres, indicative of accelerated ageing...
March 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223234/advanced-glycation-end-products-produced-systemically-and-by-macrophages-a-common-contributor-to-inflammation-and-degenerative-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Kyunghee Byun, YongCheol Yoo, Myeongjoo Son, Jaesuk Lee, Goo-Bo Jeong, Young Mok Park, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Bonghee Lee
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor have been implicated in the progressions of many intractable diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis, and are also critical for pathologic changes in chronic degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and alcoholic brain damage. Recently activated macrophages were found to be a source of AGEs, and the most abundant form of AGEs, AGE-albumin excreted by macrophages has been implicated in these diseases and to act through common pathways...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212849/hydrogen-sulfide-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-alcohol-mediated-neurotoxicity
#3
REVIEW
Akash K George, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Yuankun Zhai, Neetu Tyagi
Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168896/binge-drinking-affects-brain-oscillations-linked-to-motor-inhibition-and-execution
#4
Eduardo López-Caneda, Socorro Rodríguez Holguín, Ángeles Correas, Carina Carbia, Alberto González-Villar, Fernando Maestú, Fernando Cadaveira
INTRODUCTION: Neurofunctional studies have shown that binge drinking patterns of alcohol consumption during adolescence and youth are associated with anomalies in brain functioning. Recent evidence suggests that event-related oscillations may be an appropriate index of neurofunctional damage associated with alcoholism. However, there is no study to date that has evaluated the effects of binge drinking on oscillatory brain responses related to task performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine brain oscillations linked to motor inhibition and execution in young binge drinkers (BDs) compared with age-matched controls...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000031/paradoxical-antidepressant-effects-of-alcohol-are-related-to-acid-sphingomyelinase-and-its-control-of-sphingolipid-homeostasis
#5
Christian P Müller, Liubov S Kalinichenko, Jens Tiesel, Matthias Witt, Thomas Stöckl, Eva Sprenger, Jens Fuchser, Janine Beckmann, Marc Praetner, Sabine E Huber, Davide Amato, Christiane Mühle, Christian Büttner, Arif B Ekici, Irena Smaga, Lucyna Pomierny-Chamiolo, Bartosz Pomierny, Malgorzata Filip, Volker Eulenburg, Erich Gulbins, Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Martin Reichel, Johannes Kornhuber
Alcohol is a widely consumed drug that can lead to addiction and severe brain damage. However, alcohol is also used as self-medication for psychiatric problems, such as depression, frequently resulting in depression-alcoholism comorbidity. Here, we identify the first molecular mechanism for alcohol use with the goal to self-medicate and ameliorate the behavioral symptoms of a genetically induced innate depression. An induced over-expression of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), as was observed in depressed patients, enhanced the consumption of alcohol in a mouse model of depression...
March 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987329/fetal-alcohol-exposure-alters-blood-flow-and-neurological-responses-to-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-adult-mice
#6
Shameena Bake, Rachel Gardner, Joseph D Tingling, Rajesh C Miranda, Farida Sohrabji
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in physical and neurocognitive deficits that are collectively termed "fetal alcohol spectrum disorders" (FASD). Although FASD is associated with lifelong intellectual disability, the mechanisms mediating the emergence of secondary mental health and physical disabilities are poorly understood. Based on our previous data showing that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure in mice resulted in an immediate reduction in cranially directed fetal blood flow, we hypothesized that such exposure would also result in persistent alterations in cranially directed blood flow in the prenatally alcohol-exposed (PAE) adult...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855543/alcohol-related-cognitive-impairment-current-trends-and-future-perspectives
#7
Victoria Hayes, Apo Demirkol, Nicole Ridley, Adrienne Withall, Brian Draper
Excessive alcohol use is associated with a wide range of physical, psychological and social consequences, and is responsible for a significant proportion of the burden of disease globally. An area which has received increasing interest is alcohol-related brain damage, not just because of the cost to the individual and society through resource utilization, but also because of the potential for prevention and reversibility. This paper aims to review the current literature on this subject and seeks to explore issues around diagnosis and treatment of alcohol-related brain damage...
November 18, 2016: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830632/alcohol-use-is-associated-with-thinner-cerebral-cortex-and-larger-ventricles-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#8
E H Lange, S Nerland, K N Jørgensen, L Mørch-Johnsen, R Nesvåg, C B Hartberg, U K Haukvik, K Osnes, I Melle, O A Andreassen, I Agartz
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use is associated with brain damage but less is known about brain effects from moderate alcohol use. Previous findings indicate that patients with severe mental illness, particularly schizophrenia, are vulnerable to alcohol-related brain damage. We investigated the association between levels of alcohol consumption and cortical and subcortical brain structures in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients and healthy controls, and investigated for group differences for this association...
November 10, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818965/alcohol-related-dementia-and-neurocognitive-impairment-a-review-study
#9
REVIEW
Ankur Sachdeva, Mina Chandra, Mona Choudhary, Prabhoo Dayal, Kuljeet Singh Anand
CONTEXT: Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We retrieved papers for this review by searching the PubMed database for terms "alcohol and dementia", "alcohol and cognitive impairment", and "alcohol and wernicke-korsakoff" mentioned in the title of the published papers...
September 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812507/gene-expression-in-the-mouse-brain-following-early-pregnancy-exposure-to-ethanol
#10
Christine R Zhang, Suyinn Chong
Exposure to alcohol during early embryonic or fetal development has been linked with a variety of adverse outcomes, the most common of which are structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system [1]. Behavioural and cognitive deficits reported in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero include intellectual impairment, learning and memory difficulties, diminished executive functioning, attention problems, poor motor function and hyperactivity [2]. The economic and social costs of these outcomes are substantial and profound [3], [4]...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774212/the-use-of-neuroscientific-evidence-in-canadian-criminal-proceedings
#11
Jennifer A Chandler
This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734188/cortical-damage-in-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-with-good-prognosis-a-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#12
Lei Wu, Di Jin, Xuan Sun, Liang Liang, Deihui Huang, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a thiamine deficiency-related condition, in which lesions are usually present in the periventricular and subcortical areas of the brain. However, lesions have also been found in atypical areas, such as the cerebral cortex. The present study summarizes the clinical outcomes and radiological features of WE with cortical impairment. We report two cases of cortical involvement in patients with WE, and review 22 similar cases from other reports. Among all 24 cases, 4 patients had a confirmed history of chronic daily alcohol abuse, and 19 of them had an identified causes of thiamine deficiency...
April 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651284/the-differential-effects-of-alcohol-and-nicotine-specific-nitrosamine-ketone-on-white-matter-ultrastructure
#13
A Papp-Peka, M Tong, J J Kril, S M De La Monte, G T Sutherland
AIMS: The chronic consumption of alcohol is known to result in neurodegeneration and impairment of cognitive function. Pathological and neuroimaging studies have confirmed that brain atrophy in alcoholics is mainly due to widespread white matter (WM) loss with neuronal loss restricted to specific regions, such as the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies of cigarette smokers also suggest that chronic inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to brain atrophy, although the neurotoxic component is unknown...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616894/the-relationship-between-emotion-regulation-capacity-heart-rate-variability-and-quality-of-life-in-individuals-with-alcohol-related-brain-damage
#14
Jean-Paul Steinmetz, Claus Vögele, Christiane Theisen-Flies, Carine Federspiel, Stefan Sütterlin
The reliable measurement of quality of life (QoL) presents a challenge in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage. This study investigated vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) as a physiological predictor of QoL. Self- and proxy ratings of QoL and dysexecutive symptoms were collected once, while vmHRV was repeatedly assessed over a 3-week period at weekly intervals in a sample of nine alcohol-related brain damaged patients. We provide robustness checks, bootstrapped correlations with confidence intervals, and standard errors for mean scores...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565756/increased-dna-double-strand-break-was-associated-with-downregulation-of-repair-and-upregulation-of-apoptotic-factors-in-rat-hippocampus-after-alcohol-exposure
#15
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Prosper N'Gouemo, Kamal Datta
Binge drinking is known to cause damage in critical areas of the brain, including the hippocampus, which is important for relational memory and is reported to be sensitive to alcohol toxicity. However, the roles of DNA double-strand break (DSB) and its repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR), and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in alcohol-induced hippocampal injury remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this first study was to assess alcohol-induced DNA DSB and the mechanism by which alcohol affects DSB repair pathways in rat hippocampus...
August 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447979/anosognosia-for-memory-impairment-in-addiction-insights-from-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-of-metamemory
#16
REVIEW
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Edith V Sullivan
In addiction, notably Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), patients often have a tendency to fail to acknowledge the reality of the disease and to minimize the physical, psychological, and social difficulties attendant to chronic alcohol consumption. This lack of awareness can reduce the chances of initiating and maintaining sobriety. Presented here is a model focusing on compromised awareness in individuals with AUD of mild to moderate cognitive deficits, in particular, for episodic memory impairment-the ability to learn new information, such as recent personal experiences...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345013/fetal-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-of-neurodevelopmental-deficits-and-exacerbation-by-ethanol-and-methamphetamine
#17
REVIEW
Peter G Wells, Shama Bhatia, Danielle M Drake, Lutfiya Miller-Pinsler
In utero exposure of mouse progeny to alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) and methamphetamine (METH) causes substantial postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits. One emerging pathogenic mechanism underlying these deficits involves fetal brain production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that alter signal transduction, and/or oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules like lipids, proteins, and DNA, the latter leading to altered gene expression, likely via non-mutagenic mechanisms. Even physiological levels of fetal ROS production can be pathogenic in biochemically predisposed progeny, and ROS formation can be enhanced by drugs like EtOH and METH, via activation/induction of ROS-producing NADPH oxidases (NOX), drug bioactivation to free radical intermediates by prostaglandin H synthases (PHS), and other mechanisms...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333729/neurobiological-bases-of-alcohol-addiction
#18
REVIEW
Ana Matošić, Srđan Marušić, Branka Vidrih, Ana Kovak-Mufić, Lipa Cicin-Šain
Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289267/an-autopsy-approach-to-bolus-deaths
#19
Verena Blaas, Johannes Manhart, Anne Port, Wolfgang Keil, Andreas Büttner
BACKGROUND: The term "bolus death" or "cafe coronary" refers to a misplaced larynx or laryngeal inlet by foreign bodies, in most cases by unchewed pieces of food such as meat, sausage, or fruit. The pathophysiologic mechanism of death is still debatable - sudden reflex cardiac arrests and asphyxial suffocations are implicated. In particular, children, alcoholics, and persons with brain-related damages belong to this risk group. A defective dentition is also associated with the risk of bolus deaths...
August 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139235/the-nsw-brain-tissue-resource-centre-banking-for-alcohol-and-major-neuropsychiatric-disorders-research
#20
G T Sutherland, D Sheedy, J Stevens, T McCrossin, C C Smith, M van Roijen, J J Kril
The New South Wales Brain Tissue Resource Centre (NSWBTRC) at the University of Sydney (Australia) is an established human brain bank providing tissue to the neuroscience research community for investigations on alcohol-related brain damage and major psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. The NSWBTRC relies on wide community engagement to encourage those with and without neuropsychiatric illness to consent to donation through its allied research programs. The subsequent provision of high-quality samples relies on standardized operational protocols, associated clinical data, quality control measures, integrated information systems, robust infrastructure, and governance...
May 2016: Alcohol
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