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Alcohol-related brain damage

Lei Wu, Di Jin, Xuan Sun, Liang Liang, Deihui Huang, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a thiamine deficiency-related condition, in which lesions are usually present in the periventricular and subcortical areas of the brain. However, lesions have also been found in atypical areas, such as the cerebral cortex. The present study summarizes the clinical outcomes and radiological features of WE with cortical impairment. We report two cases of cortical involvement in patients with WE, and review 22 similar cases from other reports. Among all 24 cases, 4 patients had a confirmed history of chronic daily alcohol abuse, and 19 of them had an identified causes of thiamine deficiency...
October 12, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
A Papp-Peka, M Tong, J J Kril, S M De La Monte, G T Sutherland
AIMS: The chronic consumption of alcohol is known to result in neurodegeneration and impairment of cognitive function. Pathological and neuroimaging studies have confirmed that brain atrophy in alcoholics is mainly due to widespread white matter (WM) loss with neuronal loss restricted to specific regions, such as the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies of cigarette smokers also suggest that chronic inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to brain atrophy, although the neurotoxic component is unknown...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Jean-Paul Steinmetz, Claus Vögele, Christiane Theisen-Flies, Carine Federspiel, Stefan Sütterlin
The reliable measurement of quality of life (QoL) presents a challenge in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage. This study investigated vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) as a physiological predictor of QoL. Self- and proxy ratings of QoL and dysexecutive symptoms were collected once, while vmHRV was repeatedly assessed over a 3-week period at weekly intervals in a sample of nine alcohol-related brain damaged patients. We provide robustness checks, bootstrapped correlations with confidence intervals, and standard errors for mean scores...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Prosper N'Gouemo, Kamal Datta
Binge drinking is known to cause damage in critical areas of the brain, including the hippocampus, which is important for relational memory and is reported to be sensitive to alcohol toxicity. However, the roles of DNA double-strand break (DSB) and its repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR), and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in alcohol-induced hippocampal injury remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this first study was to assess alcohol-induced DNA DSB and the mechanism by which alcohol affects DSB repair pathways in rat hippocampus...
August 2016: Alcohol
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Edith V Sullivan
In addiction, notably Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), patients often have a tendency to fail to acknowledge the reality of the disease and to minimize the physical, psychological, and social difficulties attendant to chronic alcohol consumption. This lack of awareness can reduce the chances of initiating and maintaining sobriety. Presented here is a model focusing on compromised awareness in individuals with AUD of mild to moderate cognitive deficits, in particular, for episodic memory impairment-the ability to learn new information, such as recent personal experiences...
July 22, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Peter G Wells, Shama Bhatia, Danielle M Drake, Lutfiya Miller-Pinsler
In utero exposure of mouse progeny to alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) and methamphetamine (METH) causes substantial postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits. One emerging pathogenic mechanism underlying these deficits involves fetal brain production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that alter signal transduction, and/or oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules like lipids, proteins, and DNA, the latter leading to altered gene expression, likely via non-mutagenic mechanisms. Even physiological levels of fetal ROS production can be pathogenic in biochemically predisposed progeny, and ROS formation can be enhanced by drugs like EtOH and METH, via activation/induction of ROS-producing NADPH oxidases (NOX), drug bioactivation to free radical intermediates by prostaglandin H synthases (PHS), and other mechanisms...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Ana Matošić, Srđan Marušić, Branka Vidrih, Ana Kovak-Mufić, Lipa Cicin-Šain
Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
Verena Blaas, Johannes Manhart, Anne Port, Wolfgang Keil, Andreas Büttner
BACKGROUND: The term "bolus death" or "cafe coronary" refers to a misplaced larynx or laryngeal inlet by foreign bodies, in most cases by unchewed pieces of food such as meat, sausage, or fruit. The pathophysiologic mechanism of death is still debatable - sudden reflex cardiac arrests and asphyxial suffocations are implicated. In particular, children, alcoholics, and persons with brain-related damages belong to this risk group. A defective dentition is also associated with the risk of bolus deaths...
August 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
G T Sutherland, D Sheedy, J Stevens, T McCrossin, C C Smith, M van Roijen, J J Kril
The New South Wales Brain Tissue Resource Centre (NSWBTRC) at the University of Sydney (Australia) is an established human brain bank providing tissue to the neuroscience research community for investigations on alcohol-related brain damage and major psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. The NSWBTRC relies on wide community engagement to encourage those with and without neuropsychiatric illness to consent to donation through its allied research programs. The subsequent provision of high-quality samples relies on standardized operational protocols, associated clinical data, quality control measures, integrated information systems, robust infrastructure, and governance...
May 2016: Alcohol
Shi-Qi Fang, Yong-Tang Wang, Jing-Xiang Wei, Ya-Hai Shu, Lan Xiao, Xiu-Min Lu
As one of the most commonly abused psychotropic substances, ethanol exposure has deleterious effects on the central nervous system (CNS). The most detrimental results of ethanol exposure during development are the loss of neurons in brain regions such as the hippocampus and neocortex, which may be related to the apoptosis and necrosis mediated by oxidative stress. Recent studies indicated that a number of natural drugs from plants play an important role in protection of nerve cells from damage. Among these, it has been reported that chlorogenic acid (CA) has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress...
April 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ralph Hingson, Wenxing Zha, Bruce Simons-Morton, Aaron White
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related blackouts are periods of amnesia that reflect the failure of the brain to record memories of what transpires while drinking. This paper examined the incidence, predictors, and behavioral correlates of blackouts among emerging adults and examined whether questions about blackouts could serve as better markers of risk for other alcohol related harms than questions about levels of consumption. METHODS: In 2012 to 2013, 1,463 (68%) of 2,140 respondents 1-year past high school reported having consumed alcohol...
April 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
José A Hernández, Rosa C López-Sánchez, Adela Rendón-Ramírez
The excessive intake of alcohol is a serious public health problem, especially given the severe damage provoked by chronic or prenatal exposure to alcohol that affects many physiological processes, such as memory, motor function, and cognitive abilities. This damage is related to the ethanol oxidation in the brain. The metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and then to acetate is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species that accentuate the oxidative state of cells. This metabolism of ethanol can induce the oxidation of the fatty acids in phospholipids, and the bioactive aldehydes produced are known to be associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Sarah Treit, Dongming Zhou, Albert E Chudley, Gail Andrew, Carmen Rasmussen, Sarah M Nikkel, Dawa Samdup, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Christine Loock, Christian Beaulieu
Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5-19 years...
2016: PloS One
Mohammed Akbar, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Ghazi Daradkeh, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Youngshim Choi, Lubna Mahmood, Byoung-Joon Song
Mitochondria are important for providing cellular energy ATP through the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. They are also critical in regulating many cellular functions including the fatty acid oxidation, the metabolism of glutamate and urea, the anti-oxidant defense, and the apoptosis pathway. Mitochondria are an important source of reactive oxygen species leaked from the electron transport chain while they are susceptible to oxidative damage, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue injury. In fact, impaired mitochondrial function is commonly observed in many types of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, alcoholic dementia, brain ischemia-reperfusion related injury, and others, although many of these neurological disorders have unique etiological factors...
April 15, 2016: Brain Research
David P Gavin, Handojo Kusumo, Huaibo Zhang, Alessandro Guidotti, Subhash C Pandey
BACKGROUND: The contribution of epigenetic factors, such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation, to the regulation of alcohol-drinking behavior has been increasingly recognized over the last several years. GADD45b is a protein demonstrated to be involved in DNA demethylation at neurotrophic factor gene promoters, including at brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) which has been highly implicated in alcohol-drinking behavior. METHODS: DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1), 3a, and 3b, and Gadd45a, b, and g mRNA were measured in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental areas of high ethanol (EtOH) consuming C57BL/6J (C57) and low alcohol consuming DBA/2J (DBA) mice using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jeremy W Duncan, Xiao Zhang, Niping Wang, Shakevia Johnson, Sharonda Harris, Chinelo Udemgba, Xiao-Ming Ou, Moussa B Youdim, Craig A Stockmeier, Jun Ming Wang
Binge drinking induces several neurotoxic consequences including oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Because of these effects, drugs which prevent ethanol-induced damage to the brain may be clinically beneficial. In this study, we investigated the ethanol-mediated KLF11-MAO cell death cascade in the frontal cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a modified Majchowicz 4-day binge ethanol model and control rats. Moreover, MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) were investigated for neuroprotective activity against binge ethanol...
June 2016: Neuropharmacology
Timo Siepmann, Kristian Barlinn, Ana Isabel Penzlin, Ben M W Illigens, Hagen Kitzler, Ulf Bodechtel
BACKGROUND: Cortical lesions in status epilepticus have been reported but the underlying mechanisms are poorly elucidated. CASE SUMMARY: We report on afemale patient (75 years) with a history of alcohol abuse who presented with complex partial status epilepticus and lateralized epileptiform discharges in the left frontal and temporal regions in EEG. While cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed left hippocampal T2-hyperintensity and diffusion restriction, cerebrospinal fluid was normal and revealed no limbic encephalitis-related antibodies...
December 2015: Neurodiagnostic Journal
N Cabé, A Laniepce, L Ritz, C Lannuzel, C Boudehent, F Vabret, F Eustache, H Beaunieux, A-L Pitel
Alcohol-related cognitive impairments are largely underestimated in clinical practice, even though they could limit the benefit of alcohol treatment and hamper the patient's ability to remain abstinent or to respect his/her therapeutic contract. These neuropsychological deficits can impact the management of patients well before the development of the well-known Korsakoff's syndrome. Indeed, even in the absence of ostensible neurological complications, excessive and chronic alcohol consumption results in damage of brain structure and function...
February 2016: L'Encéphale
Helen Thorley, Katie Porter, Clare Fleming, Tim Jones, Joanna Kesten, Elsa Marques, Alison Richards, Jelena Savović
BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol drinking in homeless and vulnerably housed people can lead to malnutrition, which is associated with complications such as alcohol-related brain damage. Homeless alcohol drinkers are likely to have worse health outcomes and different nutritional needs compared with housed alcohol-drinking persons. It is not clear whether interventions to improve nutritional status in this population have been effective. The purpose of this review is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions for preventing or correcting micronutrient deficiencies and other forms of malnutrition and related comorbidities in this population...
2015: Systematic Reviews
Lindsey C Vedder, Joseph M Hall, Kimberly R Jabrouin, Lisa M Savage
BACKGROUND: Many alcoholics display moderate to severe cognitive dysfunction accompanied by brain pathology. A factor confounded with prolonged heavy alcohol consumption is poor nutrition, and many alcoholics are thiamine deficient. Thus, thiamine deficiency (TD) has emerged as a key factor underlying alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). TD in humans can lead to Wernicke Encephalitis that can progress into Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and these disorders have a high prevalence among alcoholics...
November 2015: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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