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Korsakoff's

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904449/james-wenceslaus-papez-his-circuit-and-emotion
#1
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
James Papez worked on the anatomical substrates of emotion and described a circuit, mainly composed of the hippocampus, thalamus and cingulum, and published his observations in 1937. However, such an idea existed before him, as evidenced by the rudimentary indications from Paul Broca, and Paul MacLean added some other structures like, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamus in its ambit and called it the limbic system. Paul Ivan Yakovlev, proposed a circuit which also referred to orbitofrontal, insular, anterior temporal lobe, and other nuclei of thalamus...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886469/phenomenological-characteristics-of-autobiographical-memory-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#2
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino
A body of research suggests compromise of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS). The present paper extends this literature by investigating the subjective experience of autobiographical recall in the syndrome. Patients with KS and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories. After memory retrieval, participants were asked to rate phenomenological characteristics of their memories (i.e., reliving, back in time, remembering, realness, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, emotion, rehearsal, importance, spatial recall and temporal recall)...
September 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885888/crossmodal-processing-of-emotions-in-alcohol-dependence-and-korsakoff-syndrome
#3
Mélanie Brion, Fabien D'Hondt, Séverine Lannoy, Anne-Lise Pitel, Donald A Davidoff, Pierre Maurage
INTRODUCTION: Decoding emotional information from faces and voices is crucial for efficient interpersonal communication. Emotional decoding deficits have been found in alcohol-dependence (ALC), particularly in crossmodal situations (with simultaneous stimulations from different modalities), but are still underexplored in Korsakoff syndrome (KS). The aim of this study is to determine whether the continuity hypothesis, postulating a gradual worsening of cognitive and brain impairments from ALC to KS, is valid for emotional crossmodal processing...
September 8, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#4
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725285/free-will-black-swans-and-addiction
#5
Ted Fenton, Reinout W Wiers
The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660741/split-brain-phenomena-in-anterior-communicating-artery-aneurysm-rupture-a-case-report
#6
Natalya Korsakova, Elizabeth Liebson, Lena Moskovich
In 1976, a patient with an anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoAA) rupture (diagnosed on angiography) and sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) underwent serial neuropsychological testing revealing a classical anterior cerebral artery (ACA) spasm picture with severe anterograde amnesia of Korsakoff's type and dysexecutive syndrome. In addition, the patient demonstrated impaired hemispheric interaction with alien hand syndrome, dyscopia-dysgraphia, complete left ear neglect, and other, more complex, split-brain phenomena...
June 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574307/korsakoff-syndrome-from-retrochiasmatic-suprasellar-lesions-rapid-reversal-after-relief-of-cerebral-compression-in-4-cases
#7
Luis E Savastano, Todd C Hollon, Ariel L Barkan, Stephen E Sullivan
Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic memory disorder caused by a severe deficiency of thiamine that is most commonly observed in alcoholics. However, some have proposed that focal structural lesions disrupting memory circuits-in particular, the mammillary bodies, the mammillothalamic tract, and the anterior thalamus-can give rise to this amnestic syndrome. Here, the authors present 4 patients with reversible Korsakoff syndromes caused by suprasellar retrochiasmatic lesions compressing the mammillary bodies and adjacent caudal hypothalamic structures...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524123/-a-clinical-and-neuropsychological-study-of-patients-before-and-after-resection-of-third-ventricle-colloid-cysts
#8
S B Buklina, A N Konovalov, D I Pitskhelauri, M A Shkarubo, A A Poddubskaya, M V Kolycheva
The literature lacks studies of cognitive impairments in large groups of patients after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. AIM: To evaluate cognitive impairments in patients before and after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a clinical and neuropsychological study of 52 patients with third ventricle colloid cysts using the Luria method (1962). Forty three patients were examined before and after cyst resection in the early postoperative period (three patients in this group were also examined in a long-term period of 3-7 months after surgery)...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465069/the-role-of-nondeclarative-memory-in-the-skill-for-language-evidence-from-syntactic-priming-in-patients-with-amnesia
#9
Evelien Heyselaar, Katrien Segaert, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Peter Hagoort
Syntactic priming, the phenomenon in which participants adopt the linguistic behaviour of their partner, is widely used in psycholinguistics to investigate syntactic operations. Although the phenomenon of syntactic priming is well documented, the memory system that supports the retention of this syntactic information long enough to influence future utterances, is not as widely investigated. We aim to shed light on this issue by assessing patients with Korsakoff's amnesia on an active-passive syntactic priming task and compare their performance to controls matched in age, education, and premorbid intelligence...
April 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430846/a-case-of-bariatric-surgery-related-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-with-persisting-anterograde-amnesia
#10
Philip Gerard Gasquoine
Objective: To describe the theoretical and clinical implications of the neuropsychological evaluation of a case of bariatric surgery-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Method: The patient was a 37-year old, female, bilingual, bachelor's degree educated, Mexican American public relations consultant without preexisting psychiatric, neurological, or substance abuse history. Recovery from laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgery for morbid obesity was complicated by intraabdominal abscess, multibacterial infection, and prolonged nausea and vomiting...
August 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413748/thiamine-assays-advances-challenges-and-caveats
#11
REVIEW
Katie A Edwards, Nicole Tu-Maung, Krystal Cheng, Binbin Wang, Antje J Baeumner, Clifford E Kraft
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is essential to the health of all living organisms and deficiency has long been associated with diseases in animals such as fish, birds, alligators, and domesticated ruminant mammals. Thiamine is also implicated in several human diseases including Alzheimer's, diabetes, dementia, depression and, most notably, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and Beriberi disease. Yet, highly sensitive and specific detection of thiamine remains an analytical challenge, as pM to nm levels of thiamine need to be detected in environmental and human samples, respectively, various phosphorylated variants need to be discriminated, and rapid on-site detection would be highly desirable...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412877/retrospective-time-perception-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#12
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Roy P C Kessels, Christian Matton, Jean-Eudes Bacquet, Laurent Urso, Pascal Antoine
The authors investigated retrospective timing in participants with Korsakoff's syndrome. Patients were assessed on four retrospective tasks on which they were instructed to read three-digit numbers aloud (15 seconds), fill connected squares (30 seconds), decide whether words were abstract or concrete (45 seconds), or read aloud a text about mushroom picking (60 seconds). Participants were not aware of the task's timing until the end of the tasks, when they were asked to estimate the elapsed time. Results revealed an underestimation of the elapsed time in Korsakoff participants, suggesting that time is perceived to pass quickly for these participants...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365885/the-spectrum-of-vestibular-and-ocular-motor-abnormalities-in-thiamine-deficiency
#13
REVIEW
Jorge C Kattah
PURPOSE: The first aim of this review is to summarize recent ocular motor signs in pre-encephalopathy patients with nutritional deficiency at risk of thiamine deficiency. Timely recognition of thiamine depletion in these patients, who may have a normal brain MRI, could lead to appropriate management and prevention of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) with full recovery. The second aim is to incorporate recent diagnostic testing on the revised WE diagnostic criteria and the identification of patients who may show slow, partial, or no response to treatment...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351256/wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#14
Alexander Donnelly
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a potentially debilitating and fatal condition that is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain. It can be treated effectively or prevented completely; however, the condition is often undiagnosed and inadequately managed. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is commonly considered to be specific to individuals who misuse alcohol; however, there are many other predisposing factors and causes associated with the condition. This article aims to raise awareness of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, to enable nurses in all practice settings to recognise the signs, symptoms and risk factors associated with the condition and be informed about available treatments...
March 29, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350154/-wernicke-encephalopathy-and-dry-beriberi-late-complications-after-bariatric-surgery-performed-on-a-patient-with-a-psychiatric-history
#15
G E M Penders, I M Daey Ouwens, F M M A van der Heijden
A 38-year-old woman was admitted in a psychiatric hospital because of memory disorders. Dry beriberi and Korsakoff's syndrome, as a late neuropsychiatric manifestation of Wernicke's encephalopathy, were established. The beriberi symptoms decreased slowly, but the patient's memory impairments persisted. These clinical features were caused by a thiamine deficiency. Gastric bypass surgery is associated with an increased risk of thiamine deficiency. Excessive alcohol consumption and poor compliance with vitamin deficiency treatment both contributed to the rapid onset of these disorders...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340112/long-term-mortality-of-patients-with-an-alcohol-related-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome
#16
Arantza Sanvisens, Paola Zuluaga, Daniel Fuster, Inmaculada Rivas, Jordi Tor, Miguel Marcos, Antonio J Chamorro, Roberto Muga
Aims: To characterize a series of contemporary patients with alcohol-related Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) or Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and to update the current prognosis of disease. Methods: Retrospective and prospective study of patients diagnosed with an alcohol-related WE or KS between 2002 and 2011 in a tertiary hospital. Socio-demographic, alcohol use characteristics, signs and symptoms, co-morbidity and blood parameters were obtained at admission. Patients were followed up until 2013 and causes of death were ascertained through the review of charts...
July 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316271/visuospatial-declarative-learning-despite-profound-verbal-declarative-amnesia-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#17
Erik Oudman, Albert Postma, Tanja C W Nijboer, Jan W Wijnia, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by severe amnesia. Although the presence of impairments in memory has long been acknowledged, there is a lack of knowledge about the precise characteristics of declarative memory capacities in order to implement memory rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the extent to which patients diagnosed with KS have preserved declarative memory capacities in working memory, long-term memory encoding or long-term memory recall operations, and whether these capacities are most preserved for verbal or visuospatial content...
March 20, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292462/source-monitoring-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome-did-i-touch-the-toothbrush-or-did-i-imagine-doing-so
#18
Mohamad El Haj, Jean Louis Nandrino, Yann Coello, Ralph Miller, Pascal Antoine
There is a body of research suggesting compromised ability to distinguish between different external sources of information (i.e., external monitoring) in Korsakoff's syndrome. Here we replicate and extend this literature by assessing the ability of patients with Korsakoff's syndrome to distinguish between different external sources of information (i.e., external monitoring), between internal and external sources of information (i.e., reality monitoring), and between different internal sources of information (i...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289650/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-wernicke-korsakoff-syndrome-a-case-report
#19
So Won Chung, Shin Who Park, Young Jae Seo, Jae-Hyung Kim, Chan Ho Lee, Jong Youb Lim
A 57-year-old man who was diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome showed severe impairment of cognitive function and a craving for alcohol, even after sufficient supplementation with thiamine. After completing 10 sessions of 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at 100% of the resting motor threshold over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dramatic improvement in cognitive function and a reduction in craving for alcohol were noted. This is the first case report of the efficacy of a high-frequency rTMS in the treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225048/thiamine-deficiency-oxidative-metabolic-pathways-and-ethanol-induced-neurotoxicity-how-poor-nutrition-contributes-to-the-alcoholic-syndrome-as-marchiafava-bignami-disease
#20
REVIEW
L M P Fernandes, F R Bezerra, M C Monteiro, M L Silva, F R de Oliveira, R R Lima, E A Fontes-Júnior, C S F Maia
Ethanol is an important risk factor for the occurrence of several brain disorders that depend on the amount, period and frequency of its consumption. Chronic use of ethanol often leads to the development of neurodegenerative syndromes, which cause morphological and functional impairments such as foetal alcohol syndrome in newborns exposed to ethanol during pregnancy, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome and, more rarely, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). MBD is characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum, without inflammation and is associated with oxidative stress and hypovitaminosis, as well as altered mental status, to mention dementia, seizures, depression and so on...
May 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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