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Family Work for Psychosis

Larry J Seidman, Andrea Pousada-Casal, Silvia Scala, Eric C Meyer, William S Stone, Heidi W Thermenos, Elena Molokotos, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Ming T Tsuang, Stephen V Faraone
BACKGROUND: The degree of overlap between schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective psychosis (AFF) has been a recurring question since Kraepelin's subdivision of the major psychoses. Studying nonpsychotic relatives allows a comparison of disorder-associated phenotypes, without potential confounds that can obscure distinctive features of the disorder. Because attention and working memory have been proposed as potential endophenotypes for SCZ and AFF, we compared these cognitive features in individuals at familial high-risk (FHR) for the disorders...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
David L Braff, Carol A Tamminga
First, we describe the hallmark contributions of Irv Gottesman's pioneering scholarship for schizophrenia research including concepts of polygenicity, gene × environment interactions, epigenetics and the endophenotype concept. Gottesman and colleagues' twin studies showed that genes, not social factors, mediate schizophrenia risk. He then showed that schizophrenia is highly polygenic. Next, he introduced the concept of epigenetics into schizophrenia research. Gottesman then introduced the quantitative endophenotype concept...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
D Leguay
This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Emmi Keskinen, Riikka Marttila, Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen, Kristiina Moilanen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Markku Timonen, Matti Isohanni, John McGrath, Jouko Miettunen, Erika Jääskeläinen
AIM: To find factors that are associated with not having psychotic illness in a prospective general population sample, with a special interest in individuals with parental psychosis. METHODS: Data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10 458) and several registers were used to detect individuals with and without parental psychosis. Altogether, 594 persons had parent(s) with psychosis and 48 of them also had psychosis subsequently. Variables related to pregnancy and birth, family and childhood, health and habits in adolescence, school performance and physical activity were studied to identify determinants of unaffected status among individuals with and without parental psychosis...
September 13, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Anna Butjosa, Juana Gómez-Benito, Elena Huerta-Ramos, Núria Del Cacho, Ana Barajas, Iris Baños, Judith Usall, Montserrat Dolz, Bernardo Sánchez, Janina Carlson, Josep Maria Haro, Susana Ochoa
This study presents a quantitative analysis of the incidence of stressful life events (SLEs) and the variables gender, age at onset, family history and psychotic symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). A descriptive, cross-sectional methodology was used to interview 68 patients with FEP between 13 and 47 years of age. The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale collected one-year period prior to onset of FEP - used to analyse the subcategories academic, work, love and marriage, children, residence, legal affairs, finances and social activities-, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale were used to assess the relevance of certain SLEs during adolescence...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Rebecca Boddy, Carolyn Gordon, Fiona MacCallum, Mary McGuinness
AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of men during their partner's admission to a Mother and Baby Unit for first episode postpartum psychosis. BACKGROUND: Postpartum psychosis can be life-changing for women, however little is known about the impact on their partners or their partners' needs. DESIGN: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach was used to analyse interview transcripts. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven participants...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Thorsten M Kranz, Adam Berns, Jerry Shields, Karen Rothman, Julie Walsh-Messinger, Raymond R Goetz, Moses V Chao, Dolores Malaspina
BACKGROUND: Rare gene variants are important sources of schizophrenia vulnerability that likely interact with polygenic susceptibility loci. This study examined if novel or rare missense coding variants in any of four different signaling genes in sporadic schizophrenia cases were associated with clinical phenotypes in an exceptionally well-characterized sample. METHOD: Structured interviews, cognition, symptoms and life course features were assessed in 48 ethnically-diverse cases with psychosis who underwent targeted exome sequencing of PTPRG (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Receptor Type G), SLC39A13 (Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter) Member 13), TGM5 (transglutaminase 5) and ARMS/KIDINS220 (Ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein or Kinase D-Interacting Substrate of 220kDa)...
April 2016: EBioMedicine
A El-Gilany, M Khater, Z Gomaa, E Hussein, I Hamdy
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders among prisoners and its associated factors, and to estimate the prevalence of different mental and personality disorders. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 16 randomly selected prisons in Egypt. A stratified proportional random sample of 1350 adult prisoners was included in the study. Data were collected by a psychiatrist by direct interview with prisoners...
March 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Fiona Lobban, Christine Barrowclough
Working with families in psychosis improves outcomes and is cost effective. However, implementation is poor, partly due to lack of a clear theoretical framework. This paper presents an interpersonal framework for extending the more familiar cognitive behavioral therapy model of psychosis to include the role of relatives' behavior in the process of recovery. A summary of the framework is presented, and the evidence to support each link is reviewed in detail. Limitations of the framework are discussed and further research opportunities highlighted...
2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Rahul Saha, Shubh Mohan Singh, Anil Nischal
This case report describes a 30-year-old mother of four with a 6-year history of obvious paranoia and psychosis from a poor rural farming community in India. Her symptoms and social functioning deteriorated over time, but the family did not seek medical care until she killed her 3-month-old daughter while under the influence of command hallucinations. Subsequent treatment with antipsychotic medication resulted in control of her psychotic symptoms and greatly improved psychosocial functioning. This case is an example of one of the many negative consequences of a community's failure to recognize and treat mental illnesses...
October 2015: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
M Heslin, R Desai, J M Lappin, K Donoghue, B Lomas, U Reininghaus, A Onyejiaka, T Croudace, P B Jones, R M Murray, P Fearon, G A Doody, P Dazzan, H L Fisher, A Demjaha, T Craig, C Morgan
AIMS: Few studies have investigated risk factors for psychotic major depression (PMD). We aimed to investigate the biological and psychosocial risk factors associated with PMD compared with other psychotic disorders. METHODS: Based on the aetiology and ethnicity in schizophrenia and other psychoses (ÆSOP) study, we used a case-control study to identify and recruit, at baseline and 10-year follow-up, all first episode cases of psychosis, presenting for the first time to specialist mental health services in defined catchment areas in the UK...
February 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Peter Savadjiev, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Matcheri Keshavan, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Tim J Crow, Marek Kubicki
The characterization of neurodevelopmental aspects of brain alterations require neuroimaging methods that reflect correlates of neurodevelopment, while being robust to other progressive pathological processes. Newly developed neuroimaging methods for measuring geometrical features of the white matter fall exactly into this category. Our recent work shows that such features, measured in the anterior corpus callosum in diffusion MRI data, correlate with psychosis symptoms in patients with adolescent onset schizophrenia and subside a reversal of normal sexual dimorphism...
January 2016: Human Brain Mapping
A E Cullen, F L Day, R E Roberts, C M Pariante, K R Laurens
BACKGROUND: Pituitary volume enlargements have been observed among individuals with first-episode psychosis. These abnormalities are suggestive of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, which may contribute to the development of psychosis. However, the extent to which these abnormalities characterize individuals at elevated risk for schizophrenia prior to illness onset is currently unclear, as volume increases, decreases and no volume differences have all been reported relative to controls...
November 2015: Psychological Medicine
TianHong Zhang, HuiJun Li, YingYing Tang, Hui Li, LiNa Zheng, Qian Guo, ShanShan Zhao, KaiMing Zhuo, ZhenYing Qian, LanLan Wang, YunFei Dai, Annabelle Chow, ChunBo Li, KaiDa Jiang, JiJun Wang, ZePing Xiao
Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is viewed as a marker of prodromal psychosis. However, information regarding genetic risk (e.g. SPD) is often overlooked in the identification process. This study assessed whether SPD screening questionnaire help the prodromal psychosis (also widely applied "clinical high risk" (CHR) for clinical sample) detection in Chinese mental health service. This work also examined whether SPD had higher frequency in genetic risk population and CHR subjects. Two wave studies concerning the SPD identification was used for analysis...
August 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Liv Nilsen, Irene Norheim, Jan C Frich, Svein Friis, Jan Ivar Røssberg
BACKGROUND: Family work is one of the best researched psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic psychosis. However, family work is less studied for patients with a first episode psychosis and the studies have revealed contradicting results. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined qualitatively group leaders' experiences with family work. In the present study we wanted to explore challenges faced by mental health professionals working as group leaders for family interventions with first episode psychosis patients...
2015: BMC Psychiatry
Saša Branković
Medication non-adherence is a great challenge in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Several factors leading to medication non-adherence in schizophrenia have been identified: drug side-effects, lack of illness insight, negative attitude of the patient and friends/relatives toward medication, stigma of mental illness and taking medication, poor therapeutic alliance, substance abuse, and role of the illness in maintaining the family system. In this work I propose a new vista on the phenomenon of medication non-adherence in psychosis...
June 2015: Psychiatria Danubina
S Ramdour, J A Duxbury, G Becket, S Wilson
Delays in effective treatment of a first episode psychosis can result in more severe symptoms, a longer time to achieve symptom control and a poorer quality of life; yet around 40% do not take antipsychotic medication as prescribed. There is evidence that patients and staff have different perceptions of what affects adherence with medication. Research in adults suggests healthcare professionals and patients understand the importance of good insight in promoting adherence with medication for schizophrenia; however, healthcare staff may overestimate the impact of side effects and underestimate the importance of medication effectiveness...
September 2015: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Navaneetham Janardhana, Shravya Raghunandan, Dodala Muniratnam Naidu, L Saraswathi, Valli Seshan
BACKGROUND: Caring is a fundamental issue in the rehabilitation of a person with mental illness and more so for people with severe mental illness. The lack of adequate manpower resources in the country is adding and enlisting the responsibility of providing care on the families to provide physical, medical, social and psychological care for their severely unwell mentally ill people. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the load of caregiving with reference to the types of care during the symptomatic and remission phases of severe mental illness and the various ways in which caregivers adapt their lives to meet the needs of people with severe mental illness...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Susanna Every-Palmer, Justin Barry-Walsh, Michele Pathé
OBJECTIVE: Due to the nature of their work, politicians are at greater risk of stalking, harassment and attack than the general population. The small, but significantly elevated risk of violence to politicians is predominantly due not to organised terrorism or politically motivated extremists but to fixated individuals with untreated serious mental disorders, usually psychosis. Our objective was to ascertain the frequency, nature and effects of unwanted harassment of politicians in New Zealand and the possible role of mental illness in this harassment...
July 2015: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Cindy H Liu, Matcheri S Keshavan, Ed Tronick, Larry J Seidman
Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are debilitating disorders that together affect 2%-3% of the adult population. Approximately 50%-70% of the offspring of parents with schizophrenia manifest a range of observable difficulties including socioemotional, cognitive, neuromotor, speech-language problems, and psychopathology, and roughly 10% will develop psychosis. Despite the voluminous work on premorbid vulnerabilities to psychosis, especially on schizophrenia, the work on premorbid intervention approaches is scarce...
July 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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