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Measles infection in travellers

Kristi L Koenig, Siri Shastry, Bandr Mzahim, Abdulmajeed Almadhyan, Michael J Burns
Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the "Identify-Isolate-Inform" tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common...
September 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ana Rita de Toledo-Piza, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo, Maria Isabel de Oliveira, Giuseppina Negri, Gislene Namiyama, Mariana Tonelotto, Karina de Senna Villar, Henrique Krambeck Rofatto, Ronaldo Zucatelli Mendonça
Measles is a viral disease highly contagious spread by respiratory transmission. Although infection can be controlled by vaccination, numerous cases of measles have been registered in many areas of the world, highlighting the need for additional interventions. Terrestrial gastropods exude mucus on their body surface when traveling, to protect the body from mechanical injury, desiccation or contact with harmful substances. The mucus of mollusks has been studied as a source of new natural compounds with diverse biological activities...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
A E Heywood, N Zwar, B L Forssman, H Seale, N Stephens, J Musto, C Lane, B Polkinghorne, M Sheikh, M Smith, H Worth, C R Macintyre
Immigrants and their children who return to their country of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFR) are at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases compared to other travellers. VFR travel is an important disease control issue, as one quarter of Australia's population are foreign-born and one quarter of departing Australian international travellers are visiting friends and relatives. We conducted a 1-year prospective enhanced surveillance study in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia to determine the contribution of VFR travel to notifiable diseases associated with travel, including typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Joanna J Regan, M Robynne Jungerman, Susan A Lippold, Faith Washburn, Efrosini Roland, Tina Objio, Christopher Schembri, Reena Gulati, Paul J Edelson, Francisco Alvarado-Ramy, Nicki Pesik, Nicole J Cohen
OBJECTIVE: CDC routinely conducts contact investigations involving travelers on commercial conveyances, such as aircrafts, cargo vessels, and cruise ships. METHODS: The agency used established systems of communication and partnerships with other federal agencies to quickly provide accurate traveler contact information to states and jurisdictions to alert contacts of potential exposure to two travelers with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) who had entered the United States on commercial flights in April and May 2014...
July 2016: Public Health Reports
Kristi L Koenig, Abdulmajeed Almadhyan, Michael J Burns
First isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda, and from mosquitoes in the same forest the following year, Zika virus has gained international attention due to concerns for infection in pregnant women potentially causing fetal microcephaly. More than one million people have been infected since the appearance of the virus in Brazil in 2015. Approximately 80% of infected patients are asymptomatic. An association with microcephaly and other birth defects as well as Guillain-Barre Syndrome has led to a World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016...
May 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Penny E Neave, Anita E Heywood, Katherine B Gibney, Karin Leder
BACKGROUND: International travel carries the risk of imported diseases, which are an increasingly significant public health problem. There is little guidance about which variables should be collected by surveillance systems for strategy-based surveillance. METHODS: Surveillance forms for dengue, malaria, hepatitis A, typhoid and measles were collected from Australia and New Zealand and information on these compared with national surveillance forms from the UK and Canada by travel health experts...
July 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Kristi L Koenig
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a novel infectious disease caused by a coronavirus (MERS-CoV) first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. MERS later spread to other countries in the Arabian Peninsula, followed by an outbreak in South Korea in 2015. At least 26 countries have reported MERS cases, and these numbers may increase over time. Due to international travel opportunities, all countries are at risk of imported cases of MERS, even if outbreaks do not spread globally. Therefore, it is essential for emergency department (ED) personnel to be able to rapidly assess MERS risk and take immediate actions if indicated...
September 2015: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jordan Smith Darr, David Bruce Conn
Each year, hundreds of millions of people travel across international borders or even oceans, and up to 230 million may remain for long periods. Among these, 3-5 million settle permanently in their new homes, with about 1 million migrating permanently to the United States of America. This may result in transport of parasites and other pathogens, which might become established, infecting individuals in the new location. Beyond concern of disease spread, the health of migrants is of concern since the rigors, circumstances, and living conditions surrounding migrations may increase the vulnerability of migrants to infections...
2015: BioMed Research International
Alexandra Mangili, Tine Vindenes, Mark Gendreau
Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few...
October 2015: Microbiology Spectrum
J Trmal, R Limberková
The Czech Republic is a measles free country where only isolated, mostly imported cases have been reported. A measles epidemic that occurred in the Ústí nad Labem Region is presented, with the first case diagnosed early in February 2014 and the last one reported in August 2014. The index case and source of infection to other susceptible patients was an adult male with a history of travel to India. The diagnosis of measles was difficult to make as the patient presented with feverish condition due to co-infection with dengue fever, chikungunya, and measles...
September 2015: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Seif S Al-Abri, Doaa M Abdel-Hady, Salem S Al Mahrooqi, Hanan S Al-Kindi, Amina K Al-Jardani, Idris S Al-Abaidani
BACKGROUND: The number of travelers in Oman has increased significantly in the last 2 decades with an increase in the expatriate population workforce leading to the emergence of infections related to travel. This paper aims to highlight the burden of travel-related infections in Oman. METHOD: Our study is a descriptive record-based review and analysis of travel-associated diseases over a 14 year time period from 1999 to 2013. The data was sourced from the communicable disease surveillance system, and central public health laboratory results...
September 2015: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Kyra Y L Chua, Kiran Thapa, Chaturangi M Yapa, Lucy K Somerville, Sharon C-A Chen, Dominic E Dwyer, Vicky Sheppeard, Jen Kok
BACKGROUND: Despite the World Health Organization (WHO)-reported elimination of measles in Australia, importation of cases especially in travellers from Asia continues in Sydney, Australia's largest city. Laboratory confirmation supports clinico-epidemiological evidence of measles virus infection, and is needed to establish elimination. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of a random access real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using the moderate complexity SmartCycler(®) platform, and measles antigen detection by immunofluorescence (IFA), for the detection of measles virus in patient samples...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Robert F Zimmerman, Elizabeth S Belanger, Christopher D Pfeiffer
Dermatologic manifestations of travel-related illness are particularly vexing due to the broad differential diagnosis and clinicians' unfamiliarity with uncommonly seen diseases. This paper aims to educate and update the reader on selected infectious diseases in the returned traveler whose disease manifestations are primarily dermatologic. First, the evolving epidemiology of these infections is examined; understanding the geographic distribution of infectious etiologies helps refine and narrow the differential diagnosis...
March 2015: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Surender Nikhil Gupta, Naveen Gupta, Shivani Gupta
BACKGROUND: In April, 2009, in a co-education school, we investigated suspected triple outbreak; varicella first and then with chance detection of rubeola and rubella. The aim was to confirm diagnosis and recommend remedial measures to prevent further outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We defined a case of varicella with maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in students or staff of the school and residents of neighboring villages of Khalet and Roady since 23(rd) March to 14(th) October, 2009...
January 2015: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Lesley J Scott
In the EU, the live attenuated, tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine ProQuad is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in individuals from 12 months of age using a two-dose schedule and may be used in infants from 9 months of age to conform with a national vaccination schedule, outbreak situations or travel to a region with a high prevalence of measles. Clinical data in young children indicates that vaccination with ProQuad is as immunogenic as the component vaccines, provides long-term protection against these potentially serious childhood infections and has an acceptable safety profile...
April 2015: Paediatric Drugs
Zeina Najjar, Kirsty Hope, Penelope Clark, Oanh Nguyen, Alexander Rosewell, Stephen Conaty
OBJECTIVE: On 7 April 2012, a recently returned traveller from Thailand to Australia was confirmed to have measles. An outbreak of measles subsequently occurred in the state of New South Wales, prompting a sustained and coordinated response by public health authorities. The last confirmed case presented on 29 November 2012. This report describes the outbreak and its characteristics. METHODS: Cases were investigated following Australian protocols, including case interviews and assessment of contacts for post-exposure prophylaxis...
2014: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Mohsen Gadallah, Nasr El Sayed, Amr Kandeel, Ibrahim Moussa, Amira Mohsen, Sahar Dewedar
INTRODUCTION: Egypt adopted a comprehensive strategy to eliminate measles and rubella by conducting a catch up campaign (in 2008) targeting children and young adults in the age group 10-19 years. This study aimed to explore the seroprevalence of rubella among females aged 20 to 30 years in order to provide the Ministry of Health with information to develop future strategies for rubella supplemental immunization activities among women of childbearing age before marriage and conception...
December 2014: Central European Journal of Public Health
Ningjing Zhang, Xiaoshu Zhang, Hong Fu, Jing An, Ying Chen, Na Jin, Bingling Zhang, Hui Li
OBJECTIVE: To understand the risk factors of measles among babies under 8-months-old and people ≥15 years old, in Gansu province. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed measles cases were divided into two groups among children below 8-months-old and those ≥15 year olds. Descriptive epidemiology and 1:3 case control study were conducted to find out those related risk factors as:hospital exposure, contact with measles cases, vaccination, history of measles etc. so as to determine the risk factors and appropriate control measures...
October 2014: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Geeta K Swamy, R Phillips Heine
In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women...
January 2015: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kevin Fonseca, Bonnie Meatherall, Danielle Zarra, Michael Drebot, Judy MacDonald, Kanti Pabbaraju, Sallene Wong, Patricia Webster, Robbin Lindsay, Raymond Tellier
A woman who recently traveled to Thailand came to a local emergency department with a fever and papular rash. She was tested for measles, malaria, and dengue. Positive finding for IgM antibody against dengue and a failure to seroconvert for IgG against dengue for multiple blood samples suggested an alternate flavivirus etiology. Amplification of a conserved region of the non-structural protein 5 gene of the genus Flavivirus yielded a polymerase chain reaction product with a matching sequence of 99% identity with Zika virus...
November 2014: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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