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Intermittent mechanical strain

C L Hanis, K E Garrett, H T Essigmann, D A Robinson, S M Gunter, A G Nyitray, E L Brown
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of skin and soft tissue infections in health-care and community settings, but transmission of S. aureus in community-based populations is incompletely understood. S. aureus carriage phenotypes (persistent, intermittent, and non-carriers) were determined for households from Starr County, TX. Nasal swabs were collected from a cohort of 901 residents and screened for the presence of S. aureus. Isolated strains were spa-typed and assigned to clonal complexes...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Rajagopalan Saranathan, Sudhakar Pagal, Ajit R Sawant, Archana Tomar, M Madhangi, Suresh Sah, Annapurna Satti, K P Arunkumar, K Prashanth
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen and considered as a major threat due to its extreme drug resistance. In this study, the genome of a hyper-virulent MDR strain PKAB07 of A. baumannii isolated from an Indian patient was sequenced and analyzed to understand its mechanisms of virulence, resistance and evolution. Comparative genome analysis of PKAB07 revealed virulence and resistance related genes scattered throughout the genome, instead of being organized as an island, indicating the highly mosaic nature of the genome...
April 24, 2017: Virulence
Yuyu Li, Zhiai Hu, Chenchen Zhou, Yang Xu, Li Huang, Xin Wang, Shujuan Zou
BACKGROUND: External root resorption, commonly starting from cementum, is a severe side effect of orthodontic treatment. In this pathological process and repairing course followed, cementoblasts play a significant role. Previous studies implicated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could act on committed osteoblast precursors to promote differentiation, and inhibit apoptosis. But little was known about the role of PTH in cementoblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent PTH on cementoblasts and its influence after mechanical strain treatment...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
Longxiang Zhu, Jianhui Qiu, Eiichi Sakai, Kazushi Ito
The designed tough hydrogels, depending on energy dissipation mechanism, possess excellent biocompatibility, stimuli-responsiveness, and outstanding mechanical properties. However, the application of hydrogels is greatly limited in actuators and sensors for the lack of instantaneous recovery and resilience. In this work, we synthesized a double cross-linking poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel via a simple, one-pot, visible-light-trigger polymerization, with carboxymethyl cellulose as initiator and the first cross-linker, N,N'-methylene bis(acrylamide) (MBA) as the second cross-linker...
April 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Natalia Belemets, Nazarii Kobyliak, Oleksandr Virchenko, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Tsyryuk Olena, Petro Bodnar, Oleksiy Savchuk, Tetyana Galenova, Martin Caprnda, Luis Rodrigo, Lubomir Skladany, Delian Delev, Radka Opatrilova, Peter Kruzliak, Tetyana Beregova, Lyudmyla Ostapchenko
BACKGROUND: One of the pathogenic mechanisms of the progression non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). So, antioxidant therapy is necessary for successful treatment of the liver injury. We have paid attention to melanin produced by yeast Nadsoniella nigra strain X-1 as novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with low toxicity. In current study we aimed to investigate the preventive effect of melanin on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced NAFLD model in rats...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jérôme Weiss, Véronique Dansereau
Mechanics plays a key role in the evolution of the sea ice cover through its control on drift, on momentum and thermal energy exchanges between the polar oceans and the atmosphere along cracks and faults, and on ice thickness distribution through opening and ridging processes. At the local scale, a significant variability of the mechanical strength is associated with the microstructural heterogeneity of saline ice, however characterized by a small correlation length, below the ice thickness scale. Conversely, the sea ice mechanical fields (velocity, strain and stress) are characterized by long-ranged (more than 1000 km) and long-lasting (approx...
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Gregory R Rompala, Andrey Finegersh, Michelle Slater, Gregg E Homanics
While alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly heritable condition, the basis of AUD in families with a history of alcoholism is difficult to explain by genetic variation alone. Emerging evidence suggests that parental experience prior to conception can affect inheritance of complex behaviors in offspring via non-genomic (epigenetic) mechanisms. For instance, male C57BL/6J (B6) mice exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol (CIE) prior to mating with Strain 129S1/SvImJ ethanol-naïve females produce male offspring with reduced ethanol-drinking preference, increased ethanol sensitivity, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
May 2017: Alcohol
Gregory Shaw, Ann Lee-Barthel, Megan Lr Ross, Bing Wang, Keith Baar
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common complaint in active populations. More than 50% of all injuries in sports can be classified as sprains, strains, ruptures, or breaks of musculoskeletal tissues. Nutritional and/or exercise interventions that increase collagen synthesis and strengthen these tissues could have an important effect on injury rates. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether gelatin supplementation could increase collagen synthesis...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Stephen J Ives, Wesley K Lefferts, Margret Wharton, Patricia C Fehling, Denise L Smith
What is the central question of this study? Although heat stress is known to increase cardiovascular strain, no study, to date, had explored the potential impact of exercise-induced heat stress on vascular function. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that acute exercise tended to reduce flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), owing in part to reduced reactive hyperaemia/shear stimulus; thus, when FMD is normalized to shear no postexercise deficit exists. Exercise-induced heat stress increased reactive hyperaemia, shear rate, coupled with a sustained FMD postexercise, suggests that exercise-induced heat stress increases the amount of shear stimulus to elicit a similar response, indicating reduced vascular responsiveness, or reserve, which might increase cardiovascular susceptibility...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Liang Xiao, Hong-Guang Xu, Hong Wang, Ping Liu, Chen Liu, Xiang Shen, Tao Zhang, Yong-Ming Xu
OBJECTIVE: To establish a rabbit model for investigating the effects of intermittent cyclic mechanical tension (ICMT) on promoting degeneration of endplate cartilage. METHODS: Forty New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to surgery and randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: control group (no treatment, n = 10), sham group (animals underwent a sham operation but were not subjected to mechanical tensile strain, n = 15) and loaded group (discs were subjected to 1...
August 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
J G Murnane, R B Brennan, M G Healy, O Fenton
Land application of dairy soiled water (DSW) is expensive relative to its nutrient replacement value. The use of aerobic filters is an effective alternative method of treatment and potentially allows the final effluent to be reused on the farm. Knowledge gaps exist concerning the optimal design and operation of filters for the treatment of DSW. To address this, 18 laboratory-scale filters, with depths of either 0.6 m or 1 m, were intermittently loaded with DSW over periods of up to 220 days to evaluate the impacts of depth (0...
October 15, 2016: Water Research
Kristina M Gruevski, Chad E Gooyers, Thomas Karakolis, Jack P Callaghan
Preventing dehydration during in vitro testing of isolated layers of annulus fibrosus tissue may require different test conditions than functional spine units. The purpose of the study was twofold: (A) to quantify changes in mass and thickness of multilayer annulus samples in four hydration environments over 120 min; and (B) to quantify cycle-varying biaxial tensile properties of annulus samples in the four environments. The environments included a saline bath, air, relative humidity control, and misting combined with controlled humidity...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Cody A Siciliano, Jason L Locke, Tiffany A Mathews, Marcelo F Lopez, Howard C Becker, Sara R Jones
Alcoholism is a prevalent and debilitating neuropsychiatric disease, and much effort has been aimed at elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maladaptive alcohol drinking in an effort to design rational treatment strategies. In preclinical literature, the use of inbred mouse lines has allowed for the examination of ethanol effects across vulnerable and resistant phenotypes. C57BL/6J mice consistently show higher rates of ethanol drinking compared to most mouse strains. Conversely, DBA/2J mice display low rates of ethanol consumption...
February 2017: Alcohol
Chaofan Sun, Lijiao Chen, Xinlian Shi, Zhensheng Cao, Bibo Hu, Wenbin Yu, Manman Ren, Rongdang Hu, Hui Deng
Mechanical strain plays an important role in bone formation and resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The mechanism has not been fully studied, and the process becomes complex with increased amounts of periodontal patients seeking orthodontic care. Our aims were to elucidate the combined effects of proinflammatory cytokines and intermittent cyclic strain (ICS) on the osteogenic capacity of human periodontal ligament cells. Cultured human periodontal ligament cells were exposed to proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β 5 ng/mL and tumor necrosis factor-α 10 ng/mL) for 1 and 5 days, and ICS (0...
September 2016: Cell Biology International
Oluwafemi Ayodeji Adebo, Patrick Berka Njobeh, Sibusiso Sidu, Matsobane Godfrey Tlou, Vuyo Mavumengwana
Aflatoxin contamination remains a daunting issue to address in food safety. In spite of the efforts geared towards prevention and elimination of this toxin, it still persists in agricultural commodities. This has necessitated the search for other measures such as microbial degradation to combat this hazard. In this study, we investigated the biodegradation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), using lysates of three bacterial strains (Pseudomonas anguilliseptica VGF1, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus sp. VGF2) isolated from a gold mine aquifer...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jerry Natenstedt, Aimee C Kok, Jenny Dankelman, Gabrielle Jm Tuijthof
Articular cartilage has limited regeneration capacities. One of the factors that appear to affect the in vitro cultivation of articular cartilage is mechanical stimulation. So far, no combination of parameters has been identified that offers the best results. The goal is to review the literature in search of the best available set of quantitative mechanical stimuli that lead to optimal in vitro cultivation.The databases Scopus and PubMed were used to survey the literature, and strict in- and exclusion criteria were applied regarding the presence of quantitative data...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Hong-Guang Xu, Ming-Ming Ma, Quan Zheng, Xiang Shen, Hong Wang, Shu-Feng Zhang, Jia-Jia Xu, Chuan-Dong Wang, Xiao-Ling Zhang
STUDY DESIGN: The changes of endplate chondrocytes induced by intermittent cyclic mechanical tension (ICMT) were observed by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of RhoA/ROCK-1 signaling pathway and E-cadherin/P120-catenin complex in endplate chondrocytes degeneration induced by ICMT. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ICMT can induce the endplate chondrocyte degeneration...
August 15, 2016: Spine
Mohammed Ihsan, Greig Watson, Chris R Abbiss
Intense training results in numerous physiological perturbations such as muscle damage, hyperthermia, dehydration and glycogen depletion. Insufficient/untimely restoration of these physiological alterations might result in sub-optimal performance during subsequent training sessions, while chronic imbalance between training stress and recovery might lead to overreaching or overtraining syndrome. The use of post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) is gaining considerable popularity among athletes to minimize fatigue and accelerate post-exercise recovery...
August 2016: Sports Medicine
Sara Gianella, Christy M Anderson, Susanna R Var, Michelli F Oliveira, Steven M Lada, Milenka V Vargas, Marta Massanella, Susan J Little, Douglas D Richman, Matthew C Strain, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Davey M Smith
UNLABELLED: Asymptomatic replication of human herpesviruses (HHV) is frequent in HIV-infected men and is associated with increased T-cell activation and HIV disease progression. We hypothesized that the presence of replication of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (the most frequently detected HHV) might influence HIV DNA decay during antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated 607 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 107 CMV-seropositive, HIV-infected men who have sex with men, who started ART within a median of 3 months from their estimated date of infection (EDI) and were monitored for a median of 19 months thereafter...
April 2016: Journal of Virology
Kelly J Peyton, Xiao-ming Liu, William Durante
The vascular endothelium is continuously exposed to cyclic mechanical strain due to the periodic change in vessel diameter as a result of pulsatile blood flow. Since emerging evidence indicates the cyclic strain plays an integral role in regulating endothelial cell function, the present study determined whether application of a physiologic regimen of cyclic strain (6% at 1 hertz) influences the proliferation of human arterial endothelial cells. Prolonged exposure of human dermal microvascular or human aortic endothelial cells to cyclic strain for up to 7 days resulted in a marked decrease in cell growth...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
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