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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353046/gas-within-the-bladder
#1
Juan Carlos Cataño, Diego E Giraldo
We present a case of an 83-year-old woman with history of diabetes mellitus, which came to the emergency room with a hyperosmolar state and UTI symptoms, she was started on IV fluids and antibiotics, but the abdominal CT scan image showed gas within the bladder.
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352409/recent-perspectives-on-the-molecular-basis-of-biofilm-formation-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-approaches-for-treatment-and-biofilm-dispersal
#2
REVIEW
Sinosh Skariyachan, Vaishnavi Sneha Sridhar, Swathi Packirisamy, Supreetha Toplar Kumargowda, Sneha Basavaraj Challapilli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium causes widespread diseases in humans. This bacterium is frequently related to nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bacteriaemia especially in immunocompromised patients. The current review focuses on the recent perspectives on biofilms formation by these bacteria. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often adhere to a surface. These adherent cells are usually embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)...
January 19, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345620/functional-role-of-the-type-1-pilus-rod-structure-in-mediating-host-pathogen-interactions
#3
Caitlin N Spaulding, Henry Louis Schreiber, Weili Zheng, Karen W Dodson, Jennie E Hazen, Matt S Conover, Fengbin Wang, Pontus Svenmarker, Areli Luna-Rico, Olivera Francetic, Magnus Andersson, Scott Hultgren, Edward H Egelman
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which cause urinary tract infections (UTI), utilize type 1 pili, a chaperone usher pathway (CUP) pilus, to cause UTI and colonize the gut. The pilus rod, comprised of repeating FimA subunits, provides a structural scaffold for displaying the tip adhesin, FimH. We solved the 4.2 Å resolution structure of the type 1 pilus rod using cryo-electron microscopy. Residues forming the interactive surfaces that determine the mechanical properties of the rod were maintained by selection based on a global alignment of fimA sequences...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342469/the-2017-update-of-the-german-clinical-guideline-on-epidemiology-diagnostics-therapy-prevention-and-management-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-adult-patients-part%C3%A2-1
#4
Jennifer Kranz, Stefanie Schmidt, Cordula Lebert, Laila Schneidewind, Falitsa Mandraka, Mirjam Kunze, Sina Helbig, Winfried Vahlensieck, Kurt Naber, Guido Schmiemann, Florian M Wagenlehner
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to update the 2010 evidence- and consensus-based national clinical guideline on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary group consisting of 17 representatives of 12 medical societies and a patient representative was formed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, -EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to identify literature published in 2010-2015...
January 17, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340897/invasion-and-translocation-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-urosepsis-and-patients-with-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infection
#5
B Owrangi, N Masters, A Kuballa, C O'Dea, T L Vollmerhausen, M Katouli
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are found in high numbers in the gut of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). We hypothesised that in hospitalised patients, UPEC strains might translocate from the gut to the blood stream and that this could be due to the presence of virulence genes (VGs) that are not commonly found in UPEC strains that cause UTI only. To test this, E. coli strains representing 75 dominant clonal groups of UPEC isolated from the blood of hospitalised patients with UTI (urosepsis) (n = 22), hospital-acquired (HA) UTI without blood infection (n = 24) and strains isolated from patients with community-acquired (CA)-UTIs (n = 29) were tested for their adhesion to, invasion and translocation through Caco-2 cells, in addition to the presence of 34 VGs associated with UPEC...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339564/accuracy-of-the-urinalysis-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-febrile-infants-60-days-and-younger
#6
Leah Tzimenatos, Prashant Mahajan, Peter S Dayan, Melissa Vitale, James G Linakis, Stephen Blumberg, Dominic Borgialli, Richard M Ruddy, John Van Buren, Octavio Ramilo, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVES: Reports of the test accuracy of the urinalysis for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young febrile infants have been variable. We evaluated the test characteristics of the urinalysis for diagnosing UTIs, with and without associated bacteremia, in young febrile infants. METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective study of febrile infants ≤60 days old at 26 emergency departments in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network...
January 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339563/the-diagnosis-of-uti-colony-count-criteria-revisited
#7
Kenneth B Roberts, Ellen R Wald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338914/prophylactic-antibiotics-following-radical-cystectomy-reduces-urinary-tract-infections-and-readmission-for-sepsis-from-a-urinary-source
#8
Ryan P Werntz, Ann Martinez-Acevedo, Hamed Amadi, Ryan Kopp, Jeffrey La Rochelle, Theresa Koppie, Christopher Amling, Kamran P Sajadi
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTI) and sepsis contribute significantly to the morbidity associated with cystectomy and urinary diversion in the first 30 days. We hypothesized that continuous antibiotic prophylaxis decreased UTIs in the first 30 days following radical cystectomy. METHODS: Patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who underwent a radical cystectomy with urinary diversion for bladder cancer at Oregon Health and Science University from January 2014 to May 2015 were included in the study...
January 12, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338897/asymptomatic-bacteriuria-and-urinary-tract-infection-in-pregnant-women-with-and-without-diabetes-cohort-study
#9
Caroline Schneeberger, Jan Jaap H M Erwich, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Ben W J Mol, Alewijn Ott, Suzanne E Geerlings
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) or gestational DM (GDM). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cohort study in five hospitals and two midwifery clinics in the Netherlands. Pregnant women with and without DM or GDM were screened for the presence of ASB around 12 and 32 weeks' gestation. Characteristics of participants as well as outcome data were collected from questionnaires and medical records...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338688/transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate-provides-more-favorable-clinical-outcomes-compared-with-conservative-medical-treatment-in-patients-with-urinary-retention-caused-by-benign-prostatic-obstruction
#10
Yu-Hsiang Lin, Chen-Pang Hou, Tien-Hsing Chen, Horng-Heng Juang, Phei-Lang Chang, Pei-Shan Yang, Chien-Lun Chen, Ke-Hung Tsui
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the long-term surgical outcomes of patients with urinary retention (UR) caused by a benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), and compare their outcomes with those of patients who received medication without surgical intervention. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed claims data collected during the period of 1997-2012 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database...
January 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338314/inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-papillary-tips-and-urine-of-nephrolithiasis-patients
#11
Andrew Yang Sun, Bryan Hinck, Benjamin R Cohen, Karen Keslar, Robert L Fairchild, Manoj Monga
INTRODUCTION: Intrarenal inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis, with prior work showing increased urine levels of IL-6, IL-8, and CCL-2 in stone patients. However, no studies have assessed for inflammation in the renal papillae. We sought to characterize novel papillary tip and urinary biomarkers in stone patients. METHODS: 92 patients with nephrolithiasis undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy were enrolled. Papillary tip biopsies, kidney urine, and bladder urine were collected, as well as voided urine from 8 healthy volunteers...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332116/applying-preventive-measures-leading-to-significant-reduction-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-adult-intensive-care-unit
#12
Fahad M Al-Hameed, Gulam R Ahmed, Asim A AlSaedi, Muhammad J Bhutta, Faisal F Al-Hameed, Majid M AlShamrani
To determine the impact of applying the best available clinical evidence on the preventive measures to reduce the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) in adult intensive care units (ICU).     Methods:  Data were collected from adult ICUs (28 beds) from 2008 to 2016. The proper use of silicon catheter, aseptic insertion technique, emptying bag three-fourth via close circuit, the use of appropriate size catheter, securing the draining tube on the thigh to keep catheter bag below patient's bladder level and removal of the catheter as early as possible were ensured in all patients...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331548/effect-of-outpatient-antibiotics-for-urinary-tract-infections-on-antimicrobial-resistance-among-commensal-enterobacteriaceae-a-multinational-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Andrew J Stewardson, Jascha Vervoort, Niels Adriaenssens, Samuel Coenen, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Anna Kowalczyk, Benedikt Huttner, Christine Lammens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Herman Goossens, Stephan Harbarth
OBJECTIVES: We quantified the impact of antibiotics prescribed in primary care for urinary tract infections (UTIs) on intestinal colonisation by ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP-RE) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), while accounting for household clustering. METHODS: Prospective cohort study from January 2011 to August 2013 at primary care sites in Belgium, Poland and Switzerland. We recruited outpatients requiring antibiotics for suspected UTIs or asymptomatic bacteriuria (exposed patients), outpatients not requiring antibiotics (non-exposed patients), and 1-3 household contacts for each patient...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331324/rectal-culture-directed-antibiotic-prophylaxis-before-transrectal-prostate-biopsy-reduced-infectious-complications-and-healthcare-costs
#14
J V Baldissera-Aradas, L Rodríguez-Villamil, R Blanco-Fernández, C Pérez-García, G Viejo de la Guerra, I González-Rodríguez, J Mosquera-Madera
BACKGROUND: Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TUPB) is associated with infectious complications (ICs), which are related to a greater prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria (CRB) in rectal flora. We examined the ICs that occurred in 2 groups: A guided antibiotic prophylaxis (GP) group and an empiric prophylaxis (EP) group. We assessed the financial impact of GP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The GP group was studied prospectively (June 2013 to July 2014)...
January 10, 2018: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327298/the-impact-of-obesity-on-outcomes-for-patients-undergoing-mastectomy-using-the-acs-nsqip-data-set
#15
Mary Garland, Fang-Chi Hsu, Clancy Clark, Akiko Chiba, Marissa Howard-McNatt
PURPOSE: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 34.7% of females in the United States are obese (BMI ≥ 30) in 2014, compared to 32.5% in 2010. The previous research has demonstrated high BMI as an independent risk factor for surgical complications after breast surgery. As more patients become obese, we sought to examine whether increasing obesity had an effect on outcomes of women who underwent a unilateral mastectomy without breast reconstruction. METHODS: The study reviewed the 2007-2012 ACS-NSQIP database and identified all patients who underwent a unilateral mastectomy without reconstruction...
January 11, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324795/nanodiamonds-facilitate-killing-of-intracellular-uropathogenic-e-coli-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-urinary-tract-infection-pathogenesis
#16
Janaki Kannan Iyer, Alexia Dickey, Parvaneh Rouhani, Anil Kaul, Nirmal Govindaraju, Raj Narain Singh, Rashmi Kaul
About 25-44% of women will experience at least one episode of recurrent UTI and the causative agent in over 70% of UTI cases is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC cause recurrent UTI by evading the bladder's innate immune system through internalization into the bladder epithelium where antibiotics cannot reach or be effective. Thus, it is important to develop novel therapeutics to eliminate these intracellular pathogens. Nanodiamonds (NDs) are biocompatible nanomaterials that serve as promising candidates for targeted therapeutic applications...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324733/antibiotics-dispensed-to-privately-insured-pregnant-women-with-urinary-tract-infections-united-states-2014
#17
Elizabeth C Ailes, April D Summers, Emmy L Tran, Suzanne M Gilboa, Kathryn E Arnold, Dana Meaney-Delman, Jennita Reefhuis
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4)...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324651/incidence-microbiological-profile-and-risk-factors-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-intensive-care-units-a-10-year-observation-in-a-provincial-hospital-in-southern-poland
#18
Małgorzata Kołpa, Marta Wałaszek, Agnieszka Gniadek, Zdzisław Wolak, Wiesław Dobroś
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occurring in patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) are serious complications in the treatment process. Aetiological factors of these infections can have an impact on treatment effects, treatment duration and mortality. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of HAIs in patients hospitalized in an ICU over a span of 10 years. The active surveillance method was used to detect HAIs in adult patients who spent over 48 h in a general ICU ward located in southern Poland between 2007 and 2016...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324628/ulinastatin-protects-against-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-attenuating-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-activation-and-reducing-inflammatory-mediators
#19
Chao Cao, Chengfen Yin, Songtao Shou, Jun Wang, Lechang Yu, Xuening Li, Yanfen Chai
Acute lung injury (ALI) and its severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Ulinastatin (UTI), a serine protease inhibitor, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and has been suggested to modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis; thus, it is now widely used in the treatment of pancreatitis, sepsis, and septic shock. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an essential LPS signaling receptor, plays a critical role in the activation of innate immunity...
January 10, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323625/catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-persons-with-neurogenic-bladders
#20
Todd A Linsenmeyer
This review is based on the author's Donald Munro Lecture given at the annual conference of the Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals in New Orleans, LA. Indwelling catheters play an important role in bladder management following SCI for many individuals with neurogenic bladders. There is an increased risk of UTI compared to other types of bladder management with indwelling urethral catheters but not SP catheters. To minimize the risk of symptomatic UTI, the following steps are essential: prevent bladder wall distention and resulting ischemia, maintain colonization with "good" bacteria, and prevent bladder stones...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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