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Narender Kumar, John C Larkin
Cell cycle regulation is fundamental to growth and development, and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors (CKIs) are major negative regulators of the cell cycle. Plant genomes encode substantially more CKIs than metazoan or fungal genomes. Plant CKIs fall into two distinct families, KIP-RELATED PROTEINS (KRPs) and SIAMESE-RELATED proteins (SMRs). SMRs can inhibit both S-phase and M-phase CDK complexes in vitro and are transcribed throughout the cell cycle, yet SMRs do not inhibit DNA replication in vivo. This suggests that SMRs must be activated post transcriptionally after the start of S-phase, but the mechanism of this hypothesized activation is unknown...
February 6, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Anastasia Vogel, Sebastian Dechert, Christian Brückner, Franc Meyer
Siamese-twin porphyrin is a pyrazole-containing expanded porphyrin incorporating two porphyrin-like binding pockets. The macrocycle, however, does not possess an aromatic π system but rather two separated conjugation pathways that are isolated by the pyrazole junctions. Mono- and bimetallic complexes of the Siamese-twin porphyrin are known. This work addresses in detail the electronic consequences that monometalation (with Pd(II)) has on the electronic properties of the nonmetalated binding pocket by studying the solid-state structure, acid/base, and electrochemical properties of the monopalladium twin-porphyrin complex...
February 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Bung-On Prajanban, Nisachon Jangpromma, Tomohiro Araki, Sompong Klaynongsruang
In light of the increasing threat of bacterial drug resistance to human health on a global scale, research and development of antimicrobial peptides as a novel class of potent antibiotics has gained considerable attention. The present study focuses on the structural evaluation and membrane interaction of two new cationic antimicrobial peptides, cOT2 and sOT2, derived from Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) and Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) ovotransferrins. Here, cOT1 (+3) and sOT1 (+3) were derived from reptile ovotransferrins by chromatographic purification and characterized by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing analysis...
February 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Amalia Agut, Juana D Carrillo, Miryam Martínez, Jose Murciano, Eliseo Belda, Antonio Bernabé, Marta Soler
A 7-month-old, 2.8 kg, intact female Siamese cat was evaluated for repetitive and intermittent episodes of vomiting and anorexia. Abdominal palpation revealed a round, firm, nonpainful mass in the right cranial abdomen. Ultrasonography findings were consistent with a cystic structure adjacent to the descending duodenum. The structure exhibited a "muscular rim sign." A duodenal duplication cyst was confirmed by histopathological analysis. Computed tomography ruled out concurrent vertebral anomalies and clarified anatomic relationships for surgical planning...
January 29, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Erich M Schwarz, Adrienne H K Roeder
Endoreduplication is a specialized cell cycle in which DNA replication occurs, but mitosis is skipped creating enlarged polyploid cells. Endoreduplication is associated with the differentiation of many specialized cell types. In the Arabidopsis thaliana sepal epidermis endoreduplicated giant cells form interspersed between smaller cells. Both the transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana MERISTEM LAYER1 (ATML1) and the plant-specific cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor LOSS OF GIANT CELLS FROM ORGANS (LGO)/SIAMESE RELATED1 (SMR1) are required for the formation of giant cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mohammad Navid Forsatkar, Mohammad Ali Nematollahi, Peter A Biro, Christa Beckmann
Temperature has profound effects on physiology of ectothermic animals. However, the effects on temperature variation on behavioral traits are poorly studied in contrast to physiological endpoints. This may be important as even small differences in temperatures have large effects on physiological rates including overall metabolism, and behavior is known to be linked to metabolism at least in part. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of ambient temperature on boldness responses of a species of fish commonly used in behavioral experiments, the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens)...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Jing-Hui Zhang, Wei Tang, Zhao-Xi Zhang, Bing-Yi Luan, Sheng-Bo Yu, Hong-Jin Sui
The myodural bridge was proposed initially in 1995. The myodural bridge is a connective tissue bridge that connects a pair of deep muscles at the suboccipital region to the dura mater. There have been numerous studies concerning the morphology and function of the myodural bridge. To determine whether a myodural bridge exists in reptiles, six Siamese crocodiles were investigated using gross anatomy dissection and P45 sheet plastination technologies. As a result, we demonstrated that the posterior occipital muscles of the Siamese crocodile are directly or indirectly connected to the proatlas, atlas, and intermembrane between them...
October 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Wanda M Waterworth, Steven Footitt, Clifford M Bray, William E Finch-Savage, Christopher E West
Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kyoo-Tae Kim, Seung-Hun Lee, Dongmi Kwak
A 4-year-old female Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) housed at a zoo died without any prior clinical signs. During necropsy, numerous scattered, well-demarcated, yellowish-white, firm nodules were observed throughout the liver and lungs. Microscopic examination with periodic acid-Schiff staining revealed granulomatous inflammation in the liver and lungs. Liver granulomas were characterized by the presence of a connective tissue barrier and hyphae, and the centers of the granulomas showed signs of necrosis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
V Duquennoy-Martinot, C Depoortère, C Deveaux, A Capon, O Abdelwahab, C François, P Guerreschi
The expansion of soft tissue, especially skin, is an old and physiological process to increase the skin reserve allowing excision while coveraging of the resulting loss of substance. Easy in principle, this process is subjected to constraints in children requiring precise planning and rigorous technical procedure. Between 1990 and 2016, we performed 293 expansion protocols with 411 implants in 244 children. The scalp was the most interested area (158 cases), followed by the trunk (29). The congenital nevi represented the most frequent indication (119 cases), followed by sequelae of burns and scars (64 cases) and hamartoma sebaceous of Jadassohn (27 cases)...
October 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Leslie A Lyons, Robert A Grahn, Francesca Genova, Michela Beccaglia, John J Hopwood, Maria Longeri
The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of diseased animals, causing the reduction of the frequency of the causal variant in the population, and, potentially, the eventual eradication of the disease...
July 2, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
C Eduardo Siqueira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Preeyanan Anwised, Nisachon Jangpromma, Theeranan Temsiripong, Rina Patramanon, Sakda Daduang, Sarawut Jitrapakdee, Tomohiro Araki, Sompong Klaynongsruang
Recombinant Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin (cHb) has been constructed and expressed using Escherichia coli as the expression system in conjunction with a trigger factor from the Cold-shock system as the fusion protein. While successful processing as soluble protein in E. coli was achieved, the net yields of active protein from downstream purification processes remained still unsatisfactory. In this study, cHb was constructed and expressed in the eukaryotic expression system Pichia pastoris. The results showed that cHb was excreted from P...
August 2016: Protein Journal
Gareth Arnott, Emma Beattie, Robert W Elwood
Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour...
August 2016: Behavioural Processes
Yulia Kraus, Andy Aman, Ulrich Technau, Grigory Genikhovich
The startling capacity of the amphibian Spemann organizer to induce naïve cells to form a Siamese twin embryo with a second set of body axes is one of the hallmarks of developmental biology. However, the axis-inducing potential of the blastopore-associated tissue is commonly regarded as a chordate feature. Here we show that the blastopore lip of a non-bilaterian metazoan, the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, possesses the same capacity and uses the same molecular mechanism for inducing extra axes as chordates: Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
2016: Nature Communications
L H Sipaúba-Tavares, A M Appoloni, J B K Fernandes, R N Millan
The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet); live food diet (plankton) and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton). The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton) treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0...
June 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Quentin Trais Pearson
This article focuses on the historical confrontation between Western obstetrical medicine and indigenous midwifery in nineteenth-century Siam (Thailand). Beginning with the campaign of medical missionaries to reform Siamese obstetrical care, it explores the types of arguments that were employed in the contest between these two forms of expert knowledge. Missionary-physicians used their anatomical knowledge to contest both particular indigenous obstetrical practices and more generalized notions concerning its moral and metaphysical foundations...
2016: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Teresa L Dzieweczynski, Brennah A Campbell, Jessica L Kane
As the use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) continues to rise, these compounds enter the environment in increasing frequency. One such PPCP, fluoxetine, has been found in detectable amounts in aquatic ecosystems worldwide, where it may interfere with the behavior of exposed organisms. Fluoxetine exposure has been found to influence boldness and exploration in a range of fish species; however, how it might alter behavior in multiple contexts or over time is rarely examined. To this end, the effects of fluoxetine on boldness over time were studied in male Siamese fighting fish...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Francesca Bertolini, Barbara Gandolfi, Eui Soo Kim, Bianca Haase, Leslie A Lyons, Max F Rothschild
The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array...
April 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Mohammad Navid Forsatkar, Mohammad Ali Nematollahi, Culum Brown
The effects of pharmacological waste on aquatic ecosystems are increasingly highlighted in ecotoxicology research. Many of these products are designed for human physiology but owing to the conservative nature of vertebrate evolution they also tend to have effects on aquatic organisms and fishes in particular when they find their way into aquatic systems via wastewater effluent. One area of research has focused on reproductive control and the associated hormone treatments. Many of these hormones affect the reproductive physiology of fishes and may cause feminization of male reproductive traits...
May 2016: Ecotoxicology
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