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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668070/physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-in-a-flexible-office-based-workplace-employee-perceptions-and-priorities-for-change
#1
Heidi M Olsen, Wendy J Brown, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Nicola W Burton
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Many Australian employees now regularly work from home in some capacity. This new way of working has not been widely studied in relation to the potential implications for employees' health-related behaviour or workplace health promotion. The aim of this study was to explore office-based employees' perceptions of the impact of flexible work on physical activity and sedentary behaviour; and preferences for associated interventions. METHODS: Three focus groups were conducted with office-based employees (n=28) six months after the introduction of a flexible work policy...
April 18, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#2
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667366/divergent-effects-of-healthy-ageing-on-semantic-knowledge-and-control-evidence-from-novel-comparisons-with-semantically-impaired-patients
#3
Paul Hoffman
Effective use of semantic knowledge requires a set of conceptual representations and control processes which ensure that currently relevant aspects of this knowledge are retrieved and selected. It is well-established that levels of semantic knowledge increase across the lifespan. However, the effects of ageing on semantic control processes have not been assessed. I addressed this issue by comparing the performance profiles of young and older people on a verbal comprehension test. Two sets of variables were used to predict accuracy and RT in each group: (1) the psycholinguistic properties of words probed in each trial and (2) the performance on each trial by two groups of semantically impaired neuropsychological patients...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667314/the-diary-of-a-nonagenarian-centenarian-woman-with-dementia-memory-loss-life-changes-and-community-care-in-japan
#4
Sayuri Suwa, Saori Otani, Mayuko Tsujimura, Kotoko Nogawa, Yoko Shiya
AIM: This study aimed to explore the experiences and thoughts of a nonagenarian-centenarian woman with dementia living alone, through detailed analysis of her unsolicited diary. DATA SOURCE: After receiving consent from Aki (a pseudonym), her family and caregivers, copies of her diaries, hand-written in Japanese, were provided for analysis. METHODS: The content of the diaries was broadly organized into themes and qualitative content analysis carried out for each theme along a sequential timeline...
April 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667168/cognitive-decline-and-older-driver-crash-risk
#5
Laura A Fraade-Blanar, Beth E Ebel, Eric B Larson, Jeanne M Sears, Hilaire J Thompson, Kwun Chuen G Chan, Paul K Crane
OBJECTIVES: To examine automobile crash risk associated with cognition in older drivers without dementia. DESIGN: Retrospective secondary analysis of longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Our study used data from the Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) Study merged with Washington State crash reports and licensure records. Data were available from 2002 to 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Group Health enrollees from Washington State aged 65 and older with active driver's licenses (N=2,615)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667159/physical-activity-throughout-the-adult-life-span-and-domain-specific-cognitive-function-in-old-age-a-systematic-review-of-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-data
#6
REVIEW
Tobias Engeroff, Tobias Ingmann, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggests that physical activity might alleviate the age-related neurodegeneration and decline of cognitive function. However, most of this evidence is based on data investigating the association of exercise interventions or current physical activity behavior with cognitive function in elderly subjects. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and hypothesize that physical activity during the adult life span is connected with maintained domain-specific cognitive functions during late adulthood defined as age 60+ years...
April 17, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667152/falls-in-mexican-older-adults-aged-60-years-and-older
#7
Luis M Valderrama-Hinds, Soham Al Snih, Nai-Wei Chen, Martin A Rodriguez, Rebeca Wong
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major cause of disability, morbidity, institutionalization, and mortality in older adults. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine the risk factors for falls among Mexican older adults aged 60 years and older. METHODS: This study included 6247 participants and their spouse or partner aged 60 years and older from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, an ongoing longitudinal study (2001-2012) conducted in Mexico...
April 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666633/the-eeg-activity-during-binocular-depth-perception-of-2d-images
#8
Marsel Fazlyyyakhmatov, Nataly Zwezdochkina, Vladimir Antipov
The central brain functions underlying a stereoscopic vision were a subject of numerous studies investigating the cortical activity during binocular perception of depth. However, the stereo vision is less explored as a function promoting the cognitive processes of the brain. In this work, we investigated a cortical activity during the cognitive task consisting of binocular viewing of a false image which is observed when the eyes are refocused out of the random-dot stereogram plane (3D phenomenon). The power of cortical activity before and after the onset of the false image perception was assessed using the scull EEG recording...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666593/interaction-in-spoken-word-recognition-models-feedback-helps
#9
James S Magnuson, Daniel Mirman, Sahil Luthra, Ted Strauss, Harlan D Harris
Human perception, cognition, and action requires fast integration of bottom-up signals with top-down knowledge and context. A key theoretical perspective in cognitive science is the interactive activation hypothesis: forward and backward flow in bidirectionally connected neural networks allows humans and other biological systems to approximate optimal integration of bottom-up and top-down information under real-world constraints. An alternative view is that online feedback is neither necessary nor helpful; purely feed forward alternatives can be constructed for any feedback system, and online feedback could not improve processing and would preclude veridical perception...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666589/applications-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-in-studying-cognitive-development-the-case-of-mathematics-and-language
#10
REVIEW
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Maria A Sitnikova, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Thomas Dresler
In this review, we aim to highlight the application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a useful neuroimaging technique for the investigation of cognitive development. We focus on brain activation changes during the development of mathematics and language skills in schoolchildren. We discuss how technical limitations of common neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have resulted in our limited understanding of neural changes during development, while fNIRS would be a suitable and child-friendly method to examine cognitive development...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666566/-enheduanna-a-manifesto-of-falling-live-brain-computer-cinema-performance-performer-and-audience-participation-cognition-and-emotional-engagement-using-multi-brain-bci-interaction
#11
Polina Zioga, Frank Pollick, Minhua Ma, Paul Chapman, Kristian Stefanov
The fields of neural prosthetic technologies and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have witnessed in the past 15 years an unprecedented development, bringing together theories and methods from different scientific fields, digital media, and the arts. More in particular, artists have been amongst the pioneers of the design of relevant applications since their emergence in the 1960s, pushing the boundaries of applications in real-life contexts. With the new research, advancements, and since 2007, the new low-cost commercial-grade wireless devices, there is a new increasing number of computer games, interactive installations, and performances that involve the use of these interfaces, combining scientific, and creative methodologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666388/the-cognitive-complexity-of-concurrent-cognitive-motor-tasks-reveals-age-related-deficits-in-motor-performance
#12
Anderson Souza Oliveira, Mikkel Staall Reiche, Cristina Ioana Vinescu, Sif Amalie Halkjær Thisted, Carina Hedberg, Miguel Nobre Castro, Martin Gronbech Jørgensen
Aging reduces cognitive functions, and such impairments have implications in mental and motor performance. Cognitive function has been recently linked to the risk of falls in older adults. Physical activities have been used to attenuate the declines in cognitive functions and reduce fall incidence, but little is known whether a physically active lifestyle can maintain physical performance under cognitively demanding conditions. The aim of this study was to verify whether physically active older adults present similar performance deficits during upper limb response time and precision stepping walking tasks when compared to younger adults...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665854/a-community-based-physical-activity-intervention-to-prevent-mobility-related-disability-for-retired-older-people-retirement-in-action-react-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Afroditi Stathi, Janet Withall, Colin J Greaves, Janice L Thompson, Gordon Taylor, Antonieta Medina-Lara, Colin Green, James Bilzon, Selena Gray, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Claire E Sexton, Max J Western, Jolanthe L de Koning, Jessica C Bollen, Sarah J Moorlock, Naiara Demnitz, Poppy Seager, Jack M Guralnik, W Jack Rejeski, Ken R Fox
BACKGROUND: The REtirement in ACTion (REACT) study is a multi-centre, pragmatic, two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT) with an internal pilot phase. It aims to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community, group-based physical activity intervention for reducing, or reversing, the progression of functional limitations in older people who are at high risk of mobility-related disability. METHODS/DESIGN: A sample of 768 sedentary, community-dwelling, older people aged 65 years and over with functional limitations, but who are still ambulatory (scores between 4 and 9 out of 12 in the Short Physical Performance Battery test (SPPB)) will be randomised to receive either the REACT intervention, delivered over a period of 12 months by trained facilitators, or a minimal control intervention...
April 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665808/critical-role-of-nlrp3-caspase-1-pathway-in-age-dependent-isoflurane-induced-microglial-inflammatory-response-and-cognitive-impairment
#14
Zhi Wang, Shiyu Meng, Lin Cao, Ying Chen, Zhiyi Zuo, Shuling Peng
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients are more likely to suffer from postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after surgery and anesthesia. Except for declined organ function, the particular pathogenesis of POCD in elderly patients remains unknown. This study is carried out to determine the critical role of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-caspase-1 pathway in isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment. METHODS: Young (6-8 months old) and aged (14 months old) healthy male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665519/associations-between-cognitive-functioning-mood-symptoms-and-coping-styles-in-older-age-bipolar-disorder
#15
Nadine P G Paans, Annemiek Dols, Hannie C Comijs, Max L Stek, Sigfried N T M Schouws
BACKGROUND: Older age patients with bipolar disorder (OABD) have often passive coping styles, generally considered as detrimental for functioning. The aim of the current study is to identify the contribution of cognitive functioning, subjective cognitive complaints and mood symptoms to passive and active coping styles in older age BD. METHODS: In 90 euthymic patients (age > 60) with BD I or II, we examined coping, neuropsychological profile including memory, attention, executive function and fluency, subjective cognitive complaints and mood symptoms...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665431/recognition-memory-and-featural-similarity-between-concepts-the-pupil-s-point-of-view
#16
Maria Montefinese, David Vinson, Ettore Ambrosini
Differences in pupil dilation are observed for studied compared to new items in recognition memory. According to cognitive load theory, this effect reflects the greater cognitive demands of retrieving contextual information from study phase. Pupil dilation can also occur when new items conceptually related to old ones are erroneously recognized as old, but the aspects of similarity that modulate false memory and related pupil responses remain unclear. We investigated this issue by manipulating the degree of featural similarity between new (unstudied) and old (studied) concepts in an old/new recognition task...
April 14, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665406/sn56-neuronal-cell-death-after-24-h-and-14-days-chlorpyrifos-exposure-through-glutamate-transmission-dysfunction-increase-of-gsk-3%C3%AE-enzyme-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-tau-protein-levels
#17
Paula Moyano, María Teresa Frejo, María José Anadon, José Manuel García, María Jesús Díaz, Margarita Lobo, Emma Sola, Jimena García, Javier Del Pino
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide described to induce cognitive disorders, both after acute and repeated administration. However, the mechanisms through which it induces these effects are unknown. CPF has been reported to produce basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal cell death, involved on learning and memory regulation, which could be the cause of such cognitive disorders. Neuronal cell death was partially mediated by oxidative stress generation, P75NTR and α7 -nAChRs gene expression alteration triggered through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variants disruption, suggesting other mechanisms are involved...
April 14, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665103/health-and-care-related-risk-factors-for-suicide-among-nursing-home-residents-a-data-linkage-study
#18
Briony Murphy, Briohny Kennedy, Catherine Martin, Lyndal Bugeja, Melissa Willoughby, Joseph E Ibrahim
This study aimed to examine associations between health status and care needs of nursing home residents and risk of death from suicide compared to other causes through a retrospective data linkage cohort study examining nursing home resident deaths in Australia between 2000 and 2013. Data linkage was performed between aged care assessment tools-Resident Classification System and Aged Care Funding Instrument-and the National Coronial Information System. A competing risks survival analysis was performed to determine the association between care assessment variables (activities of daily living (ADL), behavior, and complex health care) and the risk of death from suicide and any other cause...
April 17, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664932/obesity-and-unhealthy-lifestyle-associated-with-poor-executive-function-among-malaysian-adolescents
#19
Joyce Ying Hui Tee, Wan Ying Gan, Kit-Aun Tan, Yit Siew Chin
The understanding on the roles of obesity and lifestyle behaviors in predicting executive function of adolescents has been limited. Low executive function proficiency may have adverse effects on adolescents' school academic performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between BMI-for-age and multiple lifestyle behaviors (operationalized as meal consumption, physical activity, and sleep quality) with executive function (operationalized as inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) on a sample of Malaysian adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years (N = 513)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664924/evidence-supporting-a-role-for-astrocytes-in-the-regulation-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-neuronal-oscillations-through-the-ca2-binding-protein-s100%C3%AE
#20
Adam T Brockett, Gary A Kane, Patrick K Monari, Brandy A Briones, Pierre-Antoine Vigneron, Gabriela A Barber, Andres Bermudez, Uma Dieffenbach, Alexander D Kloth, Timothy J Buschman, Elizabeth Gould
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is important for cognitive flexibility, the ability to switch between two task-relevant dimensions. Changes in neuronal oscillations and alterations in the coupling across frequency ranges have been correlated with attention and cognitive flexibility. Here we show that astrocytes in the mPFC of adult male Sprague Dawley rats, participate in cognitive flexibility through the astrocyte-specific Ca2+ binding protein S100β, which improves cognitive flexibility and increases phase amplitude coupling between theta and gamma oscillations...
2018: PloS One
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