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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449562/longer-telomere-length-of-t-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-early-and-chronic-psychosis
#1
Yin Cui, Vishwanath Vasudev Prabhu, Thong Ba Nguyen, Subramaniam Mohana Devi, Young-Chul Chung
Objective: To investigate pathological conditions that act as sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic substances to examine telomere length (TL) in patients with either early (duration of illness [DI] ≤5 years) or chronic (DI >5 years) psychosis using T lymphocytes. Methods: Based on these factors and the important role that T lymphocytes play in inflammation, the present study measured the TL of T lymphocytes in patients with either early or chronic psychosis...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449347/caregiving-for-older-adults-with-obesity-in-the-united-states
#2
Claire K Ankuda, John Harris, Katherine Ornstein, Deborah A Levine, Kenneth M Langa, Amy S Kelley
OBJECTIVES: To determine the difference in receipt of activity of daily living (ADL) assistance between obese and normal-weight older adults. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: National Health and Aging Trends Study, 2011-2015. PARTICIPANTS: U.S. adults aged 65 and older with ADL disability and a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 kg/m(2) or greater (N = 5,612) MEASUREMENTS: BMI was classified as normal weight (18...
April 27, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449293/a-novel-approach-to-study-medical-decision-making-in-the-clinical-setting-the-own-point-of-view-perspective
#3
Thierry Pelaccia, Jacques Tardif, Emmanuel Triby, Bernard Charlin
BACKGROUND: Making diagnostic and therapeutic decisions is a critical activity among physicians. It relies on the ability of physicians to use cognitive processes and specific knowledge in the context of a clinical reasoning. This ability is a core competency in physicians, especially in the field of emergency medicine where the rate of diagnostic errors is high. Studies that explore medical decision-making in an authentic setting are increasing significantly. They are based on the use of qualitative methods which are applied at two separate times: 1) a video recording of the subject's actual activity in an authentic setting and 2) an interview with the subject, supported by the video recording...
April 27, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449242/resting-sympathetic-arousal-moderates-the-association-between-parasympathetic-reactivity-and-working-memory-performance-in-adults-reporting-high-levels-of-life-stress
#4
Ryan J Giuliano, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Leslie E Roos, Elizabeth A Skowron
The neurovisceral integration model stipulates that autonomic function plays a critical role in the regulation of higher-order cognitive processes, yet most work to date has examined parasympathetic function in isolation from sympathetic function. Furthermore, the majority of work has been conducted on normative samples, which typically demonstrate parasympathetic withdrawal to increase arousal needed to complete cognitive tasks. Little is known about how autonomic regulation supports cognitive function in populations exposed to high levels of stress, which is critical given that chronic stress exposure alters autonomic function...
April 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449116/the-iconography-of-mourning-and-its-neural-correlates-a-functional-neuroimaging-study
#5
Karin Labek, Samantha Berger, Anna Buchheim, Julia Bosch, Jennifer Spohrs, Lisa Dommes, Petra Beschoner, Julia C Stingl, Roberto Viviani
The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus)...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449077/executive-network-activation-is-linked-to-walking-speed-in-older-adults-functional-mri-and-tcd-ultrasound-evidence-from-the-mobilize-boston-study
#6
Azizah J Jor'dan, Victoria N Poole, Ikechukwu Iloputaife, William Milberg, Brad Manor, Michael Esterman, Lewis A Lipsitz
Background: Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF) in response to a cognitive task (task-related ΔCBF) have been shown by Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) to be reduced in slow walkers. However, it is unknown whether reduced task-related ΔCBF is associated with reduced neural activity in specific brain regions, as measured by blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: We assessed the regional changes in neural activity associated with reduced middle cerebral artery (MCA) task-related ΔCBF to an executive task and slow walking speed in 67 community-dwelling older adults from the MOBILIZE Boston Study...
April 26, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448946/oral-administration-of-methysticin-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Athanassios Fragoulis, Stephanie Siegl, Markus Fendt, Sandra Jansen, Ulf Soppa, Lars-Ove Brandenburg, Thomas Pufe, Joachim Weis, Christoph Jan Wruck
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence for the involvement of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an anti-inflammatory transcription factor that regulates the oxidative stress defense. Our previous experiments demonstrated that kavalactones protect neuronal cells against Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress in vitro by Nrf2 pathway activation. Here, we tested an in vivo kavalactone treatment in a mouse model of AD...
April 19, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448458/does-an-empty-nest-affect-elders-health-empirical-evidence-from-china
#8
Min Gao, Yanyu Li, Shengfa Zhang, Linni Gu, Jinsui Zhang, Zhuojun Li, Weijun Zhang, Donghua Tian
The "empty-nest" elderly family has become increasingly prevalent among old people in China. This study aimed to explore the causality between empty nests and elders' health using effective instrumental variables, including "whether old parents talk with their families when they are upset" and "ownership of housing". The results showed that empty nests had a significantly adverse influence on elders' physical health, cognitive ability and psychological health. Furthermore, urban elders' cognitive ability was more influenced by empty nests than that of rural elders...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448453/working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#9
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448308/the-effects-of-prenatal-maternal-stress-on-early-temperament-the-2011-queensland-flood-study
#10
Gabrielle Simcock, Guillaume Elgbeili, David P Laplante, Sue Kildea, Vanessa Cobham, Helen Stapleton, Marie-Paule Austin, Alain Brunet, Suzanne King
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of disaster-related prenatal maternal stress on infant temperament and whether the sex of the infant or the timing of the stressor in pregnancy would moderate the effects. METHODS: Mothers' objective experiences of a sudden-onset flood in Queensland, Australia, their subjective emotional reactions, and cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed. At 6 months postpartum, 121 mothers reported their infant's temperament on the 5 dimensions of the Short Temperament Scale for Infants...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448176/child-and-adolescent-adherence-with-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-anxiety-predictors-and-associations-with-outcomes
#11
Phyllis Lee, Asima Zehgeer, Golda S Ginsburg, James McCracken, Courtney Keeton, Philip C Kendall, Boris Birmaher, Dara Sakolsky, John Walkup, Tara Peris, Anne Marie Albano, Scott Compton
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is effective, but nonadherence with treatment may reduce the benefits of CBT. This study examined (a) four baseline domains (i.e., demographic, youth clinical characteristics, therapy related, family/parent factors) as predictors of youth adherence with treatment and (b) the associations between youth adherence and treatment outcomes. Data were from 279 youth (7-17 years of age, 51.6% female; 79.6% White, 9% African American), with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448163/the-interplay-between-feelings-and-beliefs-about-condoms-as-predictors-of-their-use
#12
Erin M Ellis, Rekha Rajagopal, Marc T Kiviniemi
OBJECTIVE: Negative feelings about condoms are a key barrier to their use. Using the behavioural affective associations model, we examined the joint effects of affective associations and cognitive beliefs about condoms on condom use. DESIGN: In Study 1 (N = 97), students completed measures of their affective associations and cognitive beliefs about sex and condoms, sexual activity and condom use. In Study 2 (N = 171), a measure of behavioural intentions and condom selection task were added...
April 27, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447996/task-interruption-and-resumption-paradigm-for-testing-the-activation-and-pursuit-of-an-abstract-thinking-goal
#13
Jae-Eun Namkoong, Marlone D Henderson
This protocol is based on the task interruption and resumption paradigm, the premise of which is that active goals lead to persistent behavior and thus a higher resumption rate after a period of delay or interruption. The task interruption and resumption protocol described in this research is tailored to test the activation of cognitive goals (e.g., a goal to think more abstractly). Cognitive goals may be pursued even during the interruption period; thus, to prevent this, the protocol involves cognitive distraction...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447809/understanding-the-cognitive-processes-involved-in-writing-to-learn
#14
Kathleen M Arnold, Sharda Umanath, Kara Thio, Walter B Reilly, Mark A McDaniel, Elizabeth J Marsh
Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447331/understanding-action-and-adventure-sports-participation-an-ecological-dynamics-perspective
#15
Tuomas Immonen, Eric Brymer, Dominic Orth, Keith Davids, Francesco Feletti, Jarmo Liukkonen, Timo Jaakkola
Previous research has considered action and adventure sports using a variety of associated terms and definitions which has led to confusing discourse and contradictory research findings. Traditional narratives have typically considered participation exclusively as the pastime of young people with abnormal characteristics or personalities having unhealthy and pathological tendencies to take risks because of the need for thrill, excitement or an adrenaline 'rush'. Conversely, recent research has linked even the most extreme forms of action and adventure sports to positive physical and psychological health and well-being outcomes...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447214/eeg-abnormalities-and-long-term-seizure-outcome-in-high-functioning-autism
#16
Özdem Ertürk Çetin, Barış Korkmaz, Gülce Alev, Veysi Demirbilek
Electroencephalographic abnormalities may occur in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) even in the absence of clinical seizures. These abnormalities may vary from nonspecific changes to epileptiform abnormalities and are more common compared to the overall population. The level of intelligence is a significant risk factor for epilepsy in ASD. However, the relation between the functionality of the individuals with autism and the electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities, and the clinical significance of these abnormalities still remain relatively unclear...
April 26, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446944/protective-effects-of-proline-rich-peptide-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-disease-an-electrophysiological-study
#17
Naser Khalaji, John Sarkissian, Vergine Chavushyan, Vaghinak Sarkisian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly that slowly destroys memory and cognitive functions. The disease has no cure and leads to significant structural and functional brain abnormalities. To facilitate the treatment of this disease, we aimed to investigate proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) action of hypothalamus on hippocampal (HP) neurons and dynamics of their recovery, after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of amyloid-β (Aβ). METHODS: Experiments were carried out on 24 adult, male Albino rats (average weight: 230±30 g)...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446870/a-randomized-controlled-erp-study-on-the-effects-of-multi-domain-cognitive-training-and-task-difficulty-on-task-switching-performance-in-older-adults
#18
Kristina Küper, Patrick D Gajewski, Claudia Frieg, Michael Falkenstein
Executive functions are subject to a marked age-related decline, but have been shown to benefit from cognitive training interventions. As of yet, it is, however, still relatively unclear which neural mechanism can mediate training-related performance gains. In the present electrophysiological study, we examined the effects of multi-domain cognitive training on performance in an untrained cue-based task switch paradigm featuring Stroop color words: participants either had to indicate the word meaning of Stroop stimuli (word task) or perform the more difficult task of color naming (color task)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446656/effect-of-a-long-term-intensive-lifestyle-intervention-on-prevalence-of-cognitive-impairment
#19
Mark A Espeland, José A Luchsinger, Laura D Baker, Rebecca Neiberg, Steven E Kahn, Steven E Arnold, Rena R Wing, George L Blackburn, George Bray, Mary Evans, Helen P Hazuda, Robert W Jeffery, Valerie M Wilson, Jeanne M Clark, Mace Coday, Kathryn Demos-McDermott, John P Foreyt, Frank Greenway, James O Hill, Edward S Horton, John M Jakicic, Karen C Johnson, William C Knowler, Cora E Lewis, David M Nathan, Anne Peters, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Henry Pownall, Thomas A Wadden, Stephen R Rapp
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether an average of 10 years of lifestyle intervention designed to reduce weight and increase physical activity lowers the prevalence of cognitive impairment among adults at increased risk due to type 2 diabetes and obesity or overweight. METHODS: Central adjudication of mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia was based on standardized cognitive test battery scores administered to 3,802 individuals who had been randomly assigned, with equal probability, to either the lifestyle intervention or the diabetes support and education control...
April 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446588/hierarchical-differences-in-population-coding-within-auditory-cortex
#20
Joshua David Downer, Mamiko Niwa, Mitchell L Sutter
Most models of auditory cortical (AC) population coding have focused on primary auditory cortex (A1). Thus, our understanding of how neural coding for sounds progresses along the cortical hierarchy remains obscure. To illuminate this, we recorded from AC fields, A1 and middle-lateral belt (ML) of rhesus macaques. We presented amplitude-modulated (AM) noise during both passive listening and while the animals performed an AM detection task ("Active" condition). In both fields, neurons exhibit monotonic AM-depth tuning, with A1 neurons mostly exhibiting increasing rate-depth functions and ML neurons ~evenly distributed between increasing and decreasing functions...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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