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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235448/how-do-the-reference-montage-and-electrodes-setup-affect-the-measured-scalp-eeg-potentials
#1
Shiang Hu, Yongxiu Lai, Pedro Antonio Valdés-Sosa, Maria Luisa Brings-Vega, Dezhong Yao
OBJECTIVE: Human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely applied in cognitive neuroscience and clinical studies due to its non-invasiveness and ultra-high time resolution. However, the representativeness of the measured EEG potentials for the underneath neural activities is still a problem under debate. This study aims to investigate systematically how both reference montage and electrodes setup affect the accuracy of EEG potentials. APPROACH: First, the standard EEG potentials are generated by the forward calculation with a single dipole in the neural source space, for eleven channel numbers (10, 16, 21, 32, 64, 85, 96, 128, 129, 257, 335)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235398/antipsychotic-treatment-of-community-dwelling-and-institutionalised-patients-with-dementia-in-germany
#2
Philipp Hessmann, Richard Dodel, Erika Baum, Matthias J Müller, Greta Paschke, Bernhard Kis, Jan Zeidler, Mike Klora, Jens-Peter Reese, Monika Balzer-Geldsetzer
OBJECTIVE: A restrictive use of antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recommended due to an increased risk of cerebrovascular events and mortality. We hypothesise that the prescription of antipsychotics is associated with the patients' socio-demographic and clinical status (e.g., dementia severity). METHODS: The prescription of antipsychotics was cross-sectionally evaluated in 272 community-dwelling and 123 institutionalised patients with AD across all severity stages of dementia...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235172/scaling-up-child-development-centres-in-bangladesh
#3
N Z Khan, R Sultana, F Ahmed, A B Shilpi, N Sultana, G L Darmstadt
BACKGROUND: Child Development Centres (CDCs) have been established within government medical college tertiary hospitals across Bangladesh. Services entail a parent-professional partnership in a child and family friendly environment with a focus on assessment, diagnosis, and management of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents 0-16 years of age. Services are provided by a multidisciplinary team of professionals (child health physician, child psychologist, and developmental therapist) who emphasize quality of services over the numbers of children seen...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235076/a-comparison-of-the-impact-of-physical-exercise-cognitive-training-and-combined-intervention-on-spontaneous-walking-speed-in-older-adults
#4
Kristell Pothier, Christine Gagnon, Sarah A Fraser, Maxime Lussier, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Nicolas Berryman, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, T T Minh Vu, Karen Z H Li, Laurent Bosquet, Louis Bherer
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous walking speed (SWS) is one of the most important indicators of health in older adults. Studies have shown benefits of physical trainings on SWS in older adults but the impact of cognitive training and multidomain interventions remains understudied. AIMS: This original study aimed at comparing the impact of aerobic/resistance exercise, computerized cognitive training and the combination of both interventions compared with active control conditions on SWS in healthy older adults...
December 12, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234919/-soft-skills-somewhat-different-doping
#5
REVIEW
H J Heppner
Doping actually means the taking of illegal substances or the use of forbidden methods to increase or maintain performance. Diseases associated with age and functional decline can lead to constraints in the activities of daily living and this leads to loss of autonomy; therefore, doping in its different variations is used to try to achieve performance, which would not otherwise be possible. A somewhat different method is soft skills, i.e. personal, social and methodological competences, which are adopted to remain fit with the help of selection and compensation...
December 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234725/computerized-cognitive-training-for-older-diabetic-adults-at-risk-of-dementia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Rachel Bloom, Michal Schnaider-Beeri, Ramit Ravona-Springer, Anthony Heymann, Hai Dabush, Lior Bar, Shirel Slater, Yuri Rassovsky, Alex Bahar-Fuchs
Introduction: Older adults with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of cognitive decline and dementia and form an important target group for dementia risk reduction studies. Despite evidence that computerized cognitive training (CCT) may benefit cognitive performance in cognitively healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment, whether CCT may benefit cognitive performance or improve disease self-management in older diabetic adults has not been studied to date. In addition, whether adaptive difficulty levels and tailoring of interventions to individuals' cognitive profile are superior to generic training remains to be established...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234598/investigating-structural-and-perfusion-deficits-due-to-repeated-head-trauma-in-active-professional-fighters
#7
Virendra Mishra, Karthik Sreenivasan, Sarah J Banks, Xiaowei Zhuang, Zhengshi Yang, Dietmar Cordes, Charles Bernick
Repeated head trauma experienced by active professional fighters results in various structural, functional and perfusion damage. However, whether there are common regions of structural and perfusion damage due to fighting and whether these structural and perfusion differences are associated with neuropsychological measurements in active professional fighters is still unknown. To that end, T1-weighted and pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI on a group of healthy controls and active professional fighters were acquired...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234406/amelioration-of-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-by-%C3%AE-pinene-in-c57bl-6-mice
#8
Gil-Yong Lee, Chan Lee, Gyu Hwan Park, Jung-Hee Jang
Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are mediated via disruption of cholinergic neurons and enhanced oxidative stress. Therefore, attention has been focused on searching for antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and/or treatment of AD through their ability to fortify cholinergic function and antioxidant defense capacity. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect of α-pinene (APN) against learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234402/extract-of-fructus-cannabis-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-impairment-induced-by-d-galactose-in-an-aging-rats-model
#9
Ning-Yuan Chen, Cheng-Wu Liu, Wei Lin, Yi Ding, Zhang-Ya Bian, Ling Huang, Hao Huang, Kai-Hui Yu, Si-Bang Chen, Yu Sun, Lei Wei, Jun-Hua Peng, Shang-Ling Pan
Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) has been used as a health food and folk medicine in China for centuries. In the present study, we sought to define the underlying mechanism by which the extract of Fructus Cannabis (EFC) protects against memory impairment induced by D-galactose in rats. To accelerate aging and induce memory impairment in rats, D-galactose (400 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 14 weeks. EFC (200 and 400 mg/kg) was simultaneously administered intragastrically once daily in an attempt to slow the aging process...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234277/investigating-the-usability-and-acute-effects-of-a-bedside-video-console-to-prefrontal-cortical-activity-alterations-a-preclinical-study-in-healthy-elderly
#10
Ruud H Knols, Jaap Swanenburg, Dino De Bon, Federico Gennaro, Martin Wolf, Bernard Krüger, Dominique Bettex, Eling D de Bruin
Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON). Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model) were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in-) correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234273/indirubin-derivative-7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime-7bio-attenuates-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-cognitive-impairments-in-mice
#11
Liping Chen, Chunhui Huang, Jieyi Shentu, Minjun Wang, Sicheng Yan, Fei Zhou, Zaijun Zhang, Chuang Wang, Yifan Han, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui
Indirubins are natural occurring alkaloids extracted from indigo dye-containing plants. Indirubins could inhibit various kinases, and might be used to treat chronic myelocytic leukemia, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. 7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (7Bio), an indirubin derivative derived from indirubin-3-oxime, possesses inhibitory effects against cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), two pharmacological targets of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we have discovered that 2...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234089/impact-of-treatment-on-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-and-metabolism-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#12
A L van der Straten, D Denys, G A van Wingen
Neurobiological models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) posit that its clinical symptoms such as repetitive thoughts and behaviors are related to hyperactivity in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit. Small scale neuroimaging studies have shown that treatment of OCD is associated with reduced activity across different brain structures within this circuitry. We performed the first meta-analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies that investigated cerebral blood flow or glucose metabolism in patients with OCD before and after pharmacological or psychological treatment...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234075/replay-of-large-scale-spatio-temporal-patterns-from-waking-during-subsequent-nrem-sleep-in-human-cortex
#13
Xi Jiang, Isaac Shamie, Werner K Doyle, Daniel Friedman, Patricia Dugan, Orrin Devinsky, Emad Eskandar, Sydney S Cash, Thomas Thesen, Eric Halgren
Animal studies support the hypothesis that in slow-wave sleep, replay of waking neocortical activity under hippocampal guidance leads to memory consolidation. However, no intracranial electrophysiological evidence for replay exists in humans. We identified consistent sequences of population firing peaks across widespread cortical regions during complete waking periods. The occurrence of these "Motifs" were compared between sleeps preceding the waking period ("Sleep-Pre") when the Motifs were identified, and those following ("Sleep-Post")...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233783/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-20-and-30-minutes-combined-with-sertraline-for-the-treatment-of-depression
#14
Elena L Pavlova, Alexandra A Menshikova, Roman V Semenov, Ekaterina N Bocharnikova, Galina N Gotovtseva, Tatiana A Druzhkova, Anna G Gersamia, Anna A Gudkova, Alla B Guekht
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be an effective treatment for depression, however, the duration of the stimulation session, among other parameters, needs to be optimized. METHODS: 69 mild to moderately depressed patients (age 37.6±10.5years, 19 men) were randomized into three groups - 30-, 20-minute or sham tDCS. 10 daily sessions of anodal/sham tDCS of the left DLPFC (0.5mA; electrode 3,5×7cm) combined with 50mg/day of sertraline were performed...
December 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233677/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota-modifications-the-long-way-between-preclinical-studies-and-clinical-evidence
#15
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
Recent studies have suggested the role of an infectious component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of this, research has focused on some bacteria constituting the intestinal microbial flora which can produce amyloid. Once generated, the latter hypothetically triggers a systemic inflammatory response which compromises complex brain functions, such as learning and memory. Clinical studies have shown that, in cognitively impaired elderly patients with brain amyloidosis, there is lower abundance in the gut of E...
December 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233655/recombinant-human-erythropoietin-protects-against-brain-injury-through-blunting-the-mtorc1-pathway-in-the-developing-brains-of-rats-with-seizures
#16
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin, Jing Zhang, Manman Niu, Jiong Qin
AIMS: Recurrent seizures can result in neuronal death, cognitive deficits and intellectual disability, which causes devastating damage in children. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered a neuroprotective factor in many nervous system diseases. However, the precise mechanisms through which rhEPO exerts its neuroprotective effects on epilepsy remain unknown. Thus, in this study, we determined whether rhEPO protects against brain injury by inducing cortical neuronal autophagy through blunting the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in the developing brains of rats with seizures...
December 9, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#17
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233555/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-functional-deficits-in-r6-2-and-q140-huntington-s-disease-mice
#18
Jack C Reidling, Aroa Relaño-Ginés, Sandra M Holley, Joseph Ochaba, Cindy Moore, Brian Fury, Alice Lau, Andrew H Tran, Sylvia Yeung, Delaram Salamati, Chunni Zhu, Asa Hatami, Carlos Cepeda, Joshua A Barry, Talia Kamdjou, Alvin King, Dane Coleal-Bergum, Nicholas R Franich, Frank M LaFerla, Joan S Steffan, Mathew Blurton-Jones, Charles K Meshul, Gerhard Bauer, Michael S Levine, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Leslie M Thompson
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying treatment. Expansion of the glutamine-encoding repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene causes broad effects that are a challenge for single treatment strategies. Strategies based on human stem cells offer a promising option. We evaluated efficacy of transplanting a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell (hNSC) line into striatum of HD modeled mice. In HD fragment model R6/2 mice, transplants improve motor deficits, rescue synaptic alterations, and are contacted by nerve terminals from mouse cells...
December 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233417/comparison-of-student-confidence-and-perceptions-of-biochemistry-concepts-using-a-team-based-learning-versus-traditional-lecture-based-format
#19
Rebecca Gryka, Mary E Kiersma, Tracy R Frame, Stephanie M Cailor, Aleda M H Chen
PURPOSE: To evaluate differences in student confidence and perceptions of biochemistry concepts using a team-based learning (TBL) format versus a traditional lecture-based format at two universities. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY: Two pedagogies (TBL vs lecture-based) were utilized to deliver biochemistry concepts at two universities in a first-professional year, semester-long biochemistry course. A 21-item instrument was created and administered pre-post semester to assess changes in confidence in learning biochemistry concepts using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (eight items, 5-point, Likert-type) and changes in student perceptions of biochemistry utilizing the theory of planned behavior (TPB) domains (13 items, 7- point, Likert-type)...
March 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233204/is-there-a-role-for-vitamin-d-in-supporting-cognitive-function-as-we-age
#20
Niamh Aspell, Brian Lawlor, Maria O'Sullivan
Globally, an estimated 46 million people are currently living with dementia and this figure is projected to increase 3-fold by 2050, highlighting this major public health concern and its substantial associated healthcare costs. With pharmacological treatment yet to reach fruition, the emphasis on evidence-based preventative lifestyle strategies is becoming increasingly important and several modifiable lifestyle factors have been identified that may preserve cognitive health. These include good cardiovascular health, physical activity, low alcohol intake, smoking and a healthy diet, with growing interest in vitamin D...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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