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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156435/more-than-a-to-b-understanding-and-managing-visitor-spatial-behaviour-in-urban-forests-using-public-participation-gis
#1
Silviya Korpilo, Tarmo Virtanen, Tiina Saukkonen, Susanna Lehvävirta
Planning and management needs up-to-date, easily-obtainable and accurate information on the spatial and social aspects of visitor behaviour in order to balance human use and impacts, and protection of natural resources in public parks. We used a web-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) approach to gather citizen data on visitor behaviour in Helsinki's Central Park in order to aid collaborative spatial decision-making. The study combined smartphone GPS tracking, route drawing and a questionnaire to examine differences between user groups in their use of formal trails, off-trail behaviour and the motivations that affect it...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152565/should-coastal-planners-have-concern-over-where-land-ice-is-melting
#2
Eric Larour, Erik R Ivins, Surendra Adhikari
There is a general consensus among Earth scientists that melting of land ice greatly contributes to sea-level rise (SLR) and that future warming will exacerbate the risks posed to human civilization. As land ice is lost to the oceans, both the Earth's gravitational and rotational potentials are perturbed, resulting in strong spatial patterns in SLR, termed sea-level fingerprints. We lack robust forecasting models for future ice changes, which diminishes our ability to use these fingerprints to accurately predict local sea-level (LSL) changes...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152195/microsite-and-elevation-zone-effects-on-seed-pilferage-germination-and-seedling-survival-during-early-whitebark-pine-recruitment
#3
Elizabeth R Pansing, Diana F Tomback, Michael B Wunder, Joshua P French, Aaron C Wagner
Tree recruitment is a spatially structured process that may undergo change over time because of variation in postdispersal processes. We examined seed pilferage, seed germination, and seedling survival in whitebark pine to determine whether 1) microsite type alters the initial spatial pattern of seed caches, 2) higher abiotic stress (i.e. higher elevations) exacerbates spatial distribution changes, and 3) these postdispersal processes are spatially clustered. At two study areas, we created a seed distribution pattern by burying seed caches in microsite types frequently used by whitebark pine's avian seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker) in upper subalpine forest and at treeline, the latter characterized by high abiotic environmental stress...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152180/varying-congruence-among-spatial-patterns-of-vascular-plants-and-vertebrates-based-on-habitat-groups
#4
Haigen Xu, Yun Cao, Mingchang Cao, Jun Wu, Yi Wu, Zhifang Le, Peng Cui, Jiaqi Li, Fangzhou Ma, Li Liu, Feilong Hu, Mengmeng Chen, Wenjun Tong
Proxies are adopted to represent biodiversity patterns due to inadequate information for all taxa. Despite the wide use of proxies, their efficacy remains unclear. Previous analyses focused on overall species richness for fewer groups, affecting the generality and depth of inference. Biological taxa often exhibit very different habitat preferences. Habitat groupings may be an appropriate approach to advancing the study of richness patterns. Diverse geographical patterns of species richness and their potential mechanisms were then examined for habitat groups...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151657/mwpcr-multiscale-weighted-principal-component-regression-for-high-dimensional-prediction
#5
Hongtu Zhu, Dan Shen, Xuewei Peng, Leo Yufeng Liu
We propose a multiscale weighted principal component regression (MWPCR) framework for the use of high dimensional features with strong spatial features (e.g., smoothness and correlation) to predict an outcome variable, such as disease status. This development is motivated by identifying imaging biomarkers that could potentially aid detection, diagnosis, assessment of prognosis, prediction of response to treatment, and monitoring of disease status, among many others. The MWPCR can be regarded as a novel integration of principal components analysis (PCA), kernel methods, and regression models...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151024/insecticide-resistance-in-anopheles-arabiensis-from-ethiopia-2012-2016-a-nationwide-study-for-insecticide-resistance-monitoring
#6
Louisa A Messenger, Josephat Shililu, Seth R Irish, Gedeon Yohannes Anshebo, Alemayehu Getachew Tesfaye, Yemane Ye-Ebiyo, Sheleme Chibsa, Dereje Dengela, Gunawardena Dissanayake, Estifanos Kebede, Endalew Zemene, Abebe Asale, Mekonnen Yohannes, Hiwot Solomon Taffese, Kristen George, Christen Fornadel, Aklilu Seyoum, Robert A Wirtz, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) remain the cornerstones of malaria vector control. However, the development of insecticide resistance and its implications for operational failure of preventative strategies are of concern. The aim of this study was to characterize insecticide resistance among Anopheles arabiensis populations in Ethiopia and describe temporal and spatial patterns of resistance between 2012 and 2016. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2016, resistance status of An...
November 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150504/temporal-stability-of-escherichia-coli-concentrations-in-waters-of-two-irrigation-ponds-in-maryland
#7
Yakov Pachepsky, Rachel Kierzewski, Matthew Stocker, Kevin Sellner, Walter Mulbry, Hoonsoo Lee, Moon Kim
Fecal contamination of water sources is an important water quality issue for agricultural irrigation ponds. Escherichia coli concentrations are commonly used to evaluate recreational and irrigation water quality. We hypothesized that there may exist temporally stable spatial patterns of E. coli concentrations across ponds meaning that some areas mostly have higher and other have mostly lower than average concentrations of E. coli To test this hypothesis, we sampled two irrigation ponds in Maryland in nodes of spatial grids biweekly during the summer of 2016...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149506/integrating-soft-and-hard-tissues-via-interface-tissue-engineering
#8
REVIEW
Sahishnu Patel, Jon-Michael Caldwell, Stephen B Doty, William N Levine, Scott Rodeo, Louis J Soslowsky, Stavros Thomopoulos, Helen H Lu
The enthesis, or interface between bone and soft tissues such as ligament and tendon, is prone to injury and often does not heal post-surgical intervention. Interface tissue engineering represents an integrative strategy for regenerating the native enthesis by functionally connecting soft and hard tissues and thereby improving clinical outcome. This review focuses on integrative and cell-instructive scaffold designs that target the healing of the two most commonly injured soft tissue-bone junctions: the tendon-bone interface (e...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148964/twenty-five-years-of-the-binary-power-law-for-characterizing-heterogeneity-of-disease-incidence
#9
Laurence V Madden, Gareth Hughes, Wanderson Bucker Moraes, Xiangming Xu, William W Turechek
Spatial pattern, an important epidemiological property of plant diseases, can be quantified at different scales using a range of methods. The spatial heterogeneity (or overdispersion) of disease incidence among sampling units is an especially important measure of small-scale pattern. As an alternative to Taylor's power law for the heterogeneity of counts with no upper bound, the binary power law (BPL) was proposed in 1992 as a model to represent the heterogeneity of disease incidence (number of plant units diseased out of n observed in each sampling unit, or the proportion diseased in each sampling unit)...
November 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148137/brain-computer-interfaces-with-multi-sensory-feedback-for-stroke-rehabilitation-a-case-study
#10
Danut C Irimia, Woosang Cho, Rupert Ortner, Brendan Z Allison, Bogdan E Ignat, Guenter Edlinger, Christoph Guger
Conventional therapies do not provide paralyzed patients with closed-loop sensorimotor integration for motor rehabilitation. This work presents the recoveriX system, a hardware and software platform that combines a motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface (BCI), functional electrical stimulation (FES), and visual feedback technologies for a complete sensorimotor closed-loop therapy system for poststroke rehabilitation. The proposed system was tested on two chronic stroke patients in a clinical environment...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147740/geo-spatial-characterization-of-soil-mercury-and-arsenic-at-a-high-altitude-bolivian-gold-mine
#11
Glen D Johnson, Brian Pavilonis, Jack Caravanos, Jean Grassman
Soil mercury concentrations at a typical small-scale mine site in the Bolivian Andes were elevated (28-737 mg/kg or ppm) in localized areas where mercury amalgams were either formed or vaporized to release gold, but was not detectable beyond approximately 10 m from its sources. Arsenic was measurable, exceeding known background levels throughout the mine site (77-137,022 ppm), and was also measurable through the local village of Ingenio (36-1803 ppm). Although arsenic levels were high at all surveyed locations, its spatial pattern followed mercury, being highest where mercury was high...
November 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147578/modelling-historical-changes-in-the-force-of-infection-of-chagas-disease-to-inform-control-and-elimination-programmes-application-in-colombia
#12
Zulma M Cucunubá, Pierre Nouvellet, Lesong Conteh, Mauricio Javier Vera, Victor Manuel Angulo, Juan Carlos Dib, Gabriel Jaime Parra-Henao, María Gloria Basáñez
Background: WHO's 2020 milestones for Chagas disease include having all endemic Latin American countries certified with no intradomiciliary Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, and infected patients under care. Evaluating the variation in historical exposure to infection is crucial for assessing progress and for understanding the priorities to achieve these milestones. Methods: Focusing on Colombia, all the available age-structured serological surveys (undertaken between 1995 and 2014) were searched and compiled...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146192/calcium-imaging-method-to-visualize-the-spatial-patterns-of-neural-responses-in-the-pygmy-squid-idiosepius-paradoxus-central-nervous-system
#13
Motoki Koizumi, Shuichi Shigeno, Makoto Mizunami, Nobuaki K Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods exhibit unique behaviors such as camouflage and tactile learning. The brain functions correlated to these behaviors have long been analyzed through behavioral observations of animals subject to surgical manipulation or electrical stimulation of brain lobes. However, physiological methods have rarely been introduced to investigate the functions of each individual lobe, though physiological work on giant axons and slices of the vertical lobe system of the cephalopods have provided deep insights into ion conductance of nerves and long-term synaptic plasticity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146075/persistent-organic-pollutant-emission-via-dust-deposition-throughout-pakistan-spatial-patterns-regional-cycling-and-their-implication-for-human-health-risks
#14
Muhammad Sohail, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Joel Podgorski, Avit Kumar Bhowmik, Adeel Mahmood, Nadeem Ali, Tara Sabo-Attwood, Habib Bokhari, Heqing Shen
In the current study, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in outdoor dustfall was monitored for the first time along the Indus river system of Pakistan. Among the studied OCPs (ng/g, dry weight), DDTs (0.16-62) were the predominant contaminants identified in deposited dust followed by HCHs (0.1-10.2), HCB (0.09-7.4) and chlordanes (0.1-2.8). The indicative diagnostic ratio for DDTs and HCHs suggested recent emission of DDTs as well as historical emission of both chemicals in regions where they were used for crop protection and malarial control...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145452/behavioral-climatic-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infections-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-2015-16
#15
Trevon L Fuller, Guilherme Calvet, Camila Genaro Estevam, Jussara Rafael Angelo, Gbenga J Abiodun, Umme-Aiman Halai, Bianca De Santis, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira, Eliane Machado Araujo, Simone Alves Sampaio, Marco Cesar Lima de Mendonça, Allison Fabri, Rita Maria Ribeiro, Ryan Harrigan, Thomas B Smith, Claudia Raja Gabaglia, Patrícia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Karin Nielsen-Saines
The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459) from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145432/evaluating-the-intensity-of-fire-at-the-acheulian-site-of-gesher-benot-ya-aqov-spatial-and-thermoluminescence-analyses
#16
Nira Alperson-Afil, Daniel Richter, Naama Goren-Inbar
This manuscript presents an attempt to evaluate the intensity of fire through spatial patterning and thermoluminescence methodology. Previous studies of Layer II-6 Level 2 at the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov suggested that hominins differentiated their activities across space, including multiple activities around a hearth reconstructed on the basis of the distribution of burned flint artifacts. A transect of ~4 m was extended from the center of the reconstructed hearth of Level 2 to its periphery in order to examine the intensity of fire...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143459/the-spatial-patterning-of-rgd-and-bmp-2-mimetic-peptides-at-the-subcellular-scale-modulates-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-osteogenesis
#17
I Bilem, L Plawinski, P Chevallier, C Ayela, E D Sone, G Laroche, M C Durrieu
Engineering artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs), based on the biomimicry of the spatial distribution of proteins and growth factors within their native microenvironment, is of great importance for understanding mechanisms of bone tissue regeneration. Herein, photolithography is used to decorate glass surfaces with subcellular patterns of RGD and BMP-2 ligands; two mimetic peptides recognized to be involved in stem cells osteogenesis. The biological relevance of well-defined RGD and BMP-2 patterned surfaces is evaluated by investigating the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into osteoblasts, in the absence of induction media...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143409/chronnectome-fingerprinting-identifying-individuals-and-predicting-higher-cognitive-functions-using-dynamic-brain-connectivity-patterns
#18
Jin Liu, Xuhong Liao, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
The human brain is a large, interacting dynamic network, and its architecture of coupling among brain regions varies across time (termed the "chronnectome"). However, very little is known about whether and how the dynamic properties of the chronnectome can characterize individual uniqueness, such as identifying individuals as a "fingerprint" of the brain. Here, we employed multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 105) and a sliding time-window dynamic network analysis approach to systematically examine individual time-varying properties of the chronnectome...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142333/approaches-to-macroevolution-1-general-concepts-and-origin-of-variation
#19
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, i.e. the origin and the sorting of variation, in a hierarchical framework. Macroevolution occurs in multiple currencies that are only loosely correlated, notably taxonomic diversity, morphological disparity, and functional variety. The origin of variation within this conceptual framework is increasingly understood in developmental terms, with the semi-hierarchical structure of gene regulatory networks (GRNs, used here in a broad sense incorporating not just the genetic circuitry per se but the factors controlling the timing and location of gene expression and repression), the non-linear relation between magnitude of genetic change and the phenotypic results, the evolutionary potential of co-opting existing GRNs, and developmental responsiveness to nongenetic signals (i...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141223/gradients-of-rac1-nanoclusters-support-spatial-patterns-of-rac1-signaling
#20
Amanda Remorino, Simon De Beco, Fanny Cayrac, Fahima Di Federico, Gaetan Cornilleau, Alexis Gautreau, Maria Carla Parrini, Jean-Baptiste Masson, Maxime Dahan, Mathieu Coppey
Rac1 is a small RhoGTPase switch that orchestrates actin branching in space and time and protrusion/retraction cycles of the lamellipodia at the cell front during mesenchymal migration. Biosensor imaging has revealed a graded concentration of active GTP-loaded Rac1 in protruding regions of the cell. Here, using single-molecule imaging and super-resolution microscopy, we show an additional supramolecular organization of Rac1. We find that Rac1 partitions and is immobilized into nanoclusters of 50-100 molecules each...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
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