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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718202/patterns-of-mortality-in-a-montane-mixed-conifer-forest-in-san-diego-county-california
#1
Mary Pyott Freeman, Douglas A Stow, Li An
We examine spatial patterns of conifer tree mortality and their changes over time for the montane mixed-conifer forests of San Diego County. These forest areas have recently experienced extensive tree mortality due to multiple factors. A spatial contextual image processing approach was utilized with high spatial resolution digital airborne imagery to map dead trees for the years 1997, 2000, 2002, and 2005 for three study areas: Palomar, Volcan, and Laguna mountains. Plot-based fieldwork was conducted to further assess mortality patterns...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717638/spatial-patterns-and-impacts-of-environmental-and-climatic-factors-on-canine-sinonasal-aspergillosis-in-northern-california
#2
Monise Magro, Jane Sykes, Polina Vishkautsan, Beatriz Martínez-López
Sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA) causes chronic nasal discharge in dogs and has a worldwide distribution, although most reports of SNA in North America originate from the western USA. SNA is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous saprophytic filamentous fungus. Infection is thought to follow inhalation of spores. SNA is a disease of the nasal cavity and/or sinuses with variable degrees of local invasion and destruction. While some host factors appear to predispose to SNA (such as belonging to a dolichocephalic breed), environmental risk factors have been scarcely studied...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715435/spatial-patterns-of-dengue-cases-in-brazil
#3
Fernando Jose Antonio, Andreia Silva Itami, Sergio de Picoli, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Renio Dos Santos Mendes
Dengue infection plays a central role in our society, since it is the most prevalent vector-borne viral disease affecting humans. We statistically investigated patterns concerning the spatial spreading of dengue epidemics in Brazil, as well as their temporal evolution in all Brazilian municipalities for a period of 12 years. We showed that the distributions of cases in municipalities follow power laws persistent in time and that the infection scales linearly with the population of the municipalities. We also found that the average number of dengue cases does not have a clear dependence on the longitudinal position of municipalities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712085/long-term-spatiotemporal-trends-and-health-risk-assessment-of-oyster-arsenic-levels-in-coastal-waters-of-northern-south-china-sea
#4
Xuefeng Wang, Lifei Wang, Xiaoping Jia, Donald A Jackson
Long-term spatiotemporal trends and health risk assessment of oyster arsenic levels in the coastal waters of northern South China Sea were investigated in order to help improve the quality and safety control and sustainable aquaculture for mollusks in China. Cultured oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) collected from the waters of 23 bays, harbors, and estuaries along the coast of northern South China Sea from 1989 to 2012 were examined for spatial patterns and long-term temporal trends of oyster arsenic levels...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710999/recent-changes-in-county-level-corn-yield-variability-in-the-united-states-from-observations-and-crop-models
#5
Guoyong Leng
The United States is responsible for 35% and 60% of global corn supply and exports. Enhanced supply stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability of US corn yield would greatly benefit global food security. Important in this regard is to understand how corn yield variability has evolved geographically in the history and how it relates to climatic and non-climatic factors. Results showed that year-to-year variation of US corn yield has decreased significantly during 1980-2010, mainly in Midwest Corn Belt, Nebraska and western arid regions...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710501/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-and-hopanes-in-plastic-resin-pellets-as-markers-of-oil-pollution-via-international-pellet-watch-monitoring
#6
Bee Geok Yeo, Hideshige Takada, Junki Hosoda, Atsuko Kondo, Rei Yamashita, Mahua Saha, Thomas Maes
Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710410/combining-molecular-typing-and-spatial-pattern-analysis-to-identify-areas-of-high-tuberculosis-transmission-in-a-moderate-incidence-county-in-taiwan
#7
Yih-Yuan Chen, Jia-Ru Chang, Chih-Da Wu, Yen-Po Yeh, Shiu-Ju Yang, Chih-Hao Hsu, Ming-Ching Lin, Ching-Fang Tsai, Ming-Shian Lin, Ih-Jen Su, Horng-Yunn Dou
In total, 303 randomly selected clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from 303 patients (collected January to December 2012) in central Taiwan were examined. The major lineages found were Beijing (N = 114, 37.62%), Haarlem (N = 76, 25.08%) and East African-Indian (EAI) (N = 42, 13.86%). Notably, younger persons (≤30 years old) were 6.58 times more likely to be infected with a Beijing genotype compared to older persons (>70 years) (p < 0.05). Combining molecular typing methods and geographical information system (GIS) analysis, we uncovered a twofold higher incidence of Beijing strains in a hotspot area (33%) compared to non-hotspot areas (17%)...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709920/visual-discomfort-and-flicker
#8
Sanae Yoshimoto, Jesel Garcia, Fang Jiang, Arnold J Wilkins, Tatsuto Takeuchi, Michael A Webster
Flickering lights can be uncomfortable to look at and can induce seizures in observers with photosensitive epilepsy. However, the temporal characteristics contributing to these effects are not fully known. In the spatial domain, one identified source of visual discomfort is when images have Fourier amplitude spectra that deviate from the natural (∼1/frequency, 1/f) statistical characteristics of natural scenes, especially if they contain excess energy at the medium frequencies at which the visual system is most sensitive...
July 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707336/mechanical-role-of-the-spatial-patterns-of-contractile-cells-in-invagination-of-growing-epithelial-tissue
#9
Yasuhiro Inoue, Tadashi Watanabe, Satoru Okuda, Taiji Adachi
Epithelial invagination is one of the fundamental deformation modes during morphogenesis, and is essential for deriving the three-dimensional shapes of organs from a flat epithelial sheet. Invagination occurs in an orderly manner according to the spatial pattern of the contractile cells; however, it remains elusive how tissue deformation can be caused by cellular activity in the patterned region. In this study, we investigated the mechanical role of the spatial patterns of the contractile cells in invagination of growing tissue using multicellular dynamics simulations...
July 13, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706472/relevant-feature-integration-and-extraction-for-single-trial-motor-imagery-classification
#10
Lili Li, Guanghua Xu, Feng Zhang, Jun Xie, Min Li
Brain computer interfaces provide a novel channel for the communication between brain and output devices. The effectiveness of the brain computer interface is based on the classification accuracy of single trial brain signals. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is believed to be an effective algorithm for the classification of single trial brain signals. As the amplitude feature for spatial projection applied by this algorithm is based on a broad frequency bandpass filter (mainly 5-30 Hz) in which the frequency band is often selected by experience, the CSP is sensitive to noise and the influence of other irrelevant information in the selected broad frequency band...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705412/relationship-between-structure-of-macrobenthic-assemblages-and-environmental-variables-in-shallow-sublittoral-soft-bottoms
#11
Puri Veiga, Waldo Redondo, Isabel Sousa-Pinto, Marcos Rubal
We establish baseline knowledge of abundance, diversity and multivariate structure of macrobenthos from shallow sublitoral soft bottoms in the North Portuguese coast and elucidate main environmental factors that shape their spatial patterns. In this area distribution of soft bottoms is patchy, surrounded by boulders and rocky substrates. This particular landscape and the lack of significant anthropogenic disturbances are values for the conservation of this habitat. Sediment and physicochemical properties of the water column were studied to provide models for each studied macrobenthic variable...
July 4, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704969/urban-green-space-perception-and-its-contribution-to-well-being
#12
Gyula Kothencz, Ronald Kolcsár, Pablo Cabrera-Barona, Péter Szilassi
Individual perceptions are essential when evaluating the well-being benefits from urban green spaces. This study predicted the influence of perceived green space characteristics in the city of Szeged, Hungary, on two well-being variables: the green space visitors' level of satisfaction and the self-reported quality of life. The applied logistic regression analysis used nine predictors: seven perceived green space characteristics from a questionnaire survey among visitors of five urban green spaces of Szeged; and the frequency of green space visitors' crowd-sourced recreational running paths and photographs picturing green space aesthetics...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704562/cerebral-18f-fdg-pet-in-macrophagic-myofasciitis-an-individual-svm-based-approach
#13
Paul Blanc-Durand, Axel Van Der Gucht, Eric Guedj, Mukedaisi Abulizi, Mehdi Aoun-Sebaiti, Lionel Lerman, Antoine Verger, François-Jérôme Authier, Emmanuel Itti
INTRODUCTION: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with highly specific myopathological alterations. A peculiar spatial pattern of a cerebral glucose hypometabolism involving occipito-temporal cortex and cerebellum have been reported in patients with MMF; however, the full pattern is not systematically present in routine interpretation of scans, and with varying degrees of severity depending on the cognitive profile of patients. Aim was to generate and evaluate a support vector machine (SVM) procedure to classify patients between healthy or MMF 18F-FDG brain profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704515/structural-characterization-of-chaos-game-fractals-using-small-angle-scattering-analysis
#14
Eugen Mircea Anitas, Azat Slyamov
Small-angle scattering (SAS) technique is applied to study the nano and microstructural properties of spatial patterns generated from chaos game representation (CGR). Using a simplified version of Debye formula, we calculate and analyze in momentum space, the monodisperse scattering structure factor from a system of randomly oriented and non-interacting 2D Sierpinski gaskets (SG). We show that within CGR approach, the main geometrical and fractal properties, such as the overall size, scaling factor, minimal distance between scattering units, fractal dimension and the number of units composing the SG, can be recovered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704362/local-and-global-genetic-diversity-of-protozoan-parasites-spatial-distribution-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-genotypes
#15
Juan C Garcia-R, Nigel French, Anthony Pita, Niluka Velathanthiri, Rima Shrestha, David Hayman
Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are recognized as significant enteric diseases due to their long-term health effects in humans and their economic impact in agriculture and medical care. Molecular analysis is essential to identify species and genotypes causing these infectious diseases and provides a potential tool for monitoring. This study uses information on species and genetic variants to gain insights into the geographical distribution and spatial patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites. Here, we describe the population heterogeneity of genotypic groups within Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in New Zealand using gp60 and gdh markers to compare the observed variation with other countries around the globe...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700594/hierarchical-patterning-modes-orchestrate-hair-follicle-morphogenesis
#16
James D Glover, Kirsty L Wells, Franziska Matthäus, Kevin J Painter, William Ho, Jon Riddell, Jeanette A Johansson, Matthew J Ford, Colin A B Jahoda, Vaclav Klika, Richard L Mort, Denis J Headon
Two theories address the origin of repeating patterns, such as hair follicles, limb digits, and intestinal villi, during development. The Turing reaction-diffusion system posits that interacting diffusible signals produced by static cells first define a prepattern that then induces cell rearrangements to produce an anatomical structure. The second theory, that of mesenchymal self-organisation, proposes that mobile cells can form periodic patterns of cell aggregates directly, without reference to any prepattern...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698614/spatial-patterns-of-wet-season-precipitation-vertical-gradients-on-the-tibetan-plateau-and-the-surroundings
#17
Lan Cuo, Yongxin Zhang
The Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding (TPS) with its vast land mass and high elevation affects regional climate and weather. The TPS is also the headwater of 9 major Asian rivers that provide fresh water for 1.65 billion people and many ecosystems, with wet season (May-September) precipitation being the critical component of the fresh water. Using station observations, ERA-Interim and MERRA2 reanalysis, we find that wet season precipitation displays vertical gradients (i.e., changes with elevation) that vary within the region on the TPS...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696313/behavioral-self-organization-underlies-the-resilience-of-a-coastal-ecosystem
#18
Hélène de Paoli, Tjisse van der Heide, Aniek van den Berg, Brian R Silliman, Peter M J Herman, Johan van de Koppel
Self-organized spatial patterns occur in many terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Theoretical models and observational studies suggest self-organization, the formation of patterns due to ecological interactions, is critical for enhanced ecosystem resilience. However, experimental tests of this cross-ecosystem theory are lacking. In this study, we experimentally test the hypothesis that self-organized pattern formation improves the persistence of mussel beds (Mytilus edulis) on intertidal flats. In natural beds, mussels generate self-organized patterns at two different spatial scales: regularly spaced clusters of mussels at centimeter scale driven by behavioral aggregation and large-scale, regularly spaced bands at meter scale driven by ecological feedback mechanisms...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695887/a-volumetric-three-dimensional-digital-light-photoactivatable-dye-display
#19
Shreya K Patel, Jian Cao, Alexander R Lippert
Volumetric three-dimensional displays offer spatially accurate representations of images with a 360° view, but have been difficult to implement due to complex fabrication requirements. Herein, a chemically enabled volumetric 3D digital light photoactivatable dye display (3D Light PAD) is reported. The operating principle relies on photoactivatable dyes that become reversibly fluorescent upon illumination with ultraviolet light. Proper tuning of kinetics and emission wavelengths enables the generation of a spatial pattern of fluorescent emission at the intersection of two structured light beams...
July 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693471/spatial-pattern-analysis-of-nuclear-migration-in-remodelled-muscles-during-drosophila-metamorphosis
#20
Kuleesha, Lin Feng, Martin Wasser
BACKGROUND: Many human muscle wasting diseases are associated with abnormal nuclear localization. During metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster, multi-nucleated larval dorsal abdominal muscles either undergo cell death or are remodeled to temporary adult muscles. Muscle remodeling is associated with anti-polar nuclear migration and atrophy during early pupation followed by polar migration and muscle growth during late pupation. Muscle remodeling is a useful model to study genes involved in myonuclear migration...
July 10, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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