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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087206/spatial-relationships-between-entomopathogenic-nematodes-and-nematophagous-fungi-in-florida-citrus-orchards
#1
Ekta Pathak, Raquel Campos-Herrera, Fahiem E El-Borai, Larry W Duncan
Relationships between entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), nematophagous fungi (NF) and soil physical and chemical properties were studied in a survey of 53 citrus orchards in central ridge and flatwoods ecoregions of Florida. Seven species of NF associated with nematodes were quantified directly using a real time qPCR assay. All nematophagous fungi studied exceptArthrobotrys musiformis andHirsutella rhossiliensiswere frequently detected (24-56%) in both regions.Paecilomyces lilacinusandGamsylella gephyropagumwere encountered more frequently in the flatwoods (P = 0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086910/identifying-youth-friendly-service-practices-associated-with-adolescents-use-of-reproductive-healthcare-services-in-post-conflict-burundi-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Imelda K Moise, Jaclyn F Verity, Joseph Kangmennaang
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about reproductive health service (RHS) availability and adolescents' use of these services in post-conflict settings. Such information is crucial for targeted community interventions that aim to improve quality delivery of RHS and outcomes in post-conflict settings. The objectives of this study therefore was to examine the density of RHS availability; assess spatial patterns of RHC facilities; and identify youth-friendly practices associated with adolescents' use of services in post-conflict Burundi...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079138/spatiotemporal-pattern-of-pm2-5-concentrations-in-mainland-china-and-analysis-of-its-influencing-factors-using-geographically-weighted-regression
#3
Jieqiong Luo, Peijun Du, Alim Samat, Junshi Xia, Meiqin Che, Zhaohui Xue
Based on annual average PM2.5 gridded dataset, this study first analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of PM2.5 across Mainland China during 1998-2012. Then facilitated with meteorological site data, land cover data, population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, etc., the contributions of latent geographic factors, including socioeconomic factors (e.g., road, agriculture, population, industry) and natural geographical factors (e.g., topography, climate, vegetation) to PM2.5 were explored through Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077877/integration-of-temporal-and-spatial-patterning-generates-neural-diversity
#4
Ted Erclik, Xin Li, Maximilien Courgeon, Claire Bertet, Zhenqing Chen, Ryan Baumert, June Ng, Clara Koo, Urfa Arain, Rudy Behnia, Alberto Del Valle Rodriguez, Lionel Senderowicz, Nicolas Negre, Kevin P White, Claude Desplan
In the Drosophila optic lobes, 800 retinotopically organized columns in the medulla act as functional units for processing visual information. The medulla contains over 80 types of neuron, which belong to two classes: uni-columnar neurons have a stoichiometry of one per column, while multi-columnar neurons contact multiple columns. Here we show that combinatorial inputs from temporal and spatial axes generate this neuronal diversity: all neuroblasts switch fates over time to produce different neurons; the neuroepithelium that generates neuroblasts is also subdivided into six compartments by the expression of specific factors...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075550/vascularization-in-engineered-tissue-construct-by-assembly-of-cellular-patterned-micro-modules-and-degradable-microspheres
#5
Meiling Zhong, Dan Wei, You Yang, Jing Sun, Xuening Chen, Likun Guo, Qingrong Wei, Yizao Wan, Hongsong Fan, Xingdong Zhang
Tissue engineering aims to generate functional tissue constructs in which proper ECM for cell survival and establishment of vascular network are necessary. A modular approach via the assembly of modules mimicking the complex tissues' micro-architectural features and establishing vascular network represents a promising strategy for fabricating larger and more complex tissue constructs. Herein, as a model for this modular tissue engineering, engineered bone-like constructs were developed by self-assembly of osteon-like modules and fast degradable gelatin microspheres...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074837/two-layer-elastographic-3-d-traction-force-microscopy
#6
Begoña Álvarez-González, Shun Zhang, Manuel Gómez-González, Ruedi Meili, Richard A Firtel, Juan C Lasheras, Juan C Del Álamo
Cellular traction force microscopy (TFM) requires knowledge of the mechanical properties of the substratum where the cells adhere to calculate cell-generated forces from measurements of substratum deformation. Polymer-based hydrogels are broadly used for TFM due to their linearly elastic behavior in the range of measured deformations. However, the calculated stresses, particularly their spatial patterns, can be highly sensitive to the substratum's Poisson's ratio. We present two-layer elastographic TFM (2LETFM), a method that allows for simultaneously measuring the Poisson's ratio of the substratum while also determining the cell-generated forces...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#7
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073474/challenges-for-mapping-cyanotoxin-patterns-from-remote-sensing-of-cyanobacteria
#8
REVIEW
Richard P Stumpf, Timothy W Davis, Timothy T Wynne, Jennifer L Graham, Keith A Loftin, Thomas H Johengen, Duane Gossiaux, Danna Palladino, Ashley Burtner
Using satellite imagery to quantify the spatial patterns of cyanobacterial toxins has several challenges. These challenges include the need for surrogate pigments - since cyanotoxins cannot be directly detected by remote sensing, the variability in the relationship between the pigments and cyanotoxins - especially microcystins (MC), and the lack of standardization of the various measurement methods. A dual-model strategy can provide an approach to address these challenges. One model uses either chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) or phycocyanin (PC) collected in situ as a surrogate to estimate the MC concentration...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072885/functional-role-of-intracellular-calcium-receptor-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-type-1-in-rat-hippocampus-after-neonatal-anoxia
#9
Juliane Midori Ikebara, Silvia Honda Takada, Débora Sterzeck Cardoso, Natália Myuki Moralles Dias, Beatriz Crossiol Vicente de Campos, Talitha Amanda Sanches Bretherick, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar Higa, Mariana Sacrini Ayres Ferraz, Alexandre Hiroaki Kihara
Anoxia is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm neonates, constituting an important public health problem due to permanent neurological sequelae observed in patients. Oxygen deprivation triggers a series of simultaneous cascades, culminating in cell death mainly located in more vulnerable metabolic brain regions, such as the hippocampus. In the process of cell death by oxygen deprivation, cytosolic calcium plays crucial roles. Intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are important regulators of cytosolic calcium levels, although the role of these receptors in neonatal anoxia is completely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070274/cunningham-s-skinks-show-low-genetic-connectivity-and-signatures-of-divergent-selection-across-its-distribution
#10
Benjamin Y Ofori, Linda J Beaumont, Adam J Stow
Establishing corridors of connecting habitat has become a mainstay conservation strategy to maintain gene flow and facilitate climate-driven range shifts. Yet, little attention has been given to ascertaining the extent to which corridors will benefit philopatric species, which might exhibit localized adaptation. Measures of genetic connectivity and adaptive genetic variation across species' ranges can help fill this knowledge gap. Here, we characterized the spatial genetic structure of Cunningham's skink (Egernia cunninghami), a philopatric species distributed along Australia's Great Dividing Range, and assessed evidence of localized adaptation...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065198/random-spatial-patterning-of-cone-bipolar-cell-mosaics-in-the-mouse-retina
#11
Patrick W Keeley, Jason J Kim, Sammy C S Lee, Silke Haverkamp, Benjamin E Reese
Retinal bipolar cells spread their dendritic arbors to tile the retinal surface, extending them to the tips of the dendritic fields of their homotypic neighbors, minimizing dendritic overlap. Such uniform nonredundant dendritic coverage of these populations would suggest a degree of spatial order in the properties of their somal distributions, yet few studies have examined the patterning in retinal bipolar cell mosaics. The present study examined the organization of two types of cone bipolar cells in the mouse retina, the Type 2 cells and the Type 4 cells, and compared their spatial statistical properties with those of the horizontal cells and the cholinergic amacrine cells, as well as to random simulations of cells matched in density and constrained by soma size...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063653/temporal-and-spatial-analysis-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-relation-to-climate-factors-a-study-in-the-mekong-delta-region-vietnam
#12
Huong Xuan Nguyen, Cordia Chu, Huong Lien Thi Nguyen, Ha Thanh Nguyen, Cuong Manh Do, Shannon Rutherford, Dung Phung
This study examined the temporal and spatial patterns of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam. A time-series analysis was used to examine the temporal patterns of HFMD in relation to climate factors while a retrospective space-time scan was used to detect the high-risk space-time clusters of this disease. A 1°C increase in average temperature was associated with 5.6% increase in HFMD rate at lag 5days (95% CI 0.3-10.9). A 1% increase in humidity had equal influence of 1...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063582/cross-border-patterns-in-dna-matches-between-the-netherlands-and-belgium
#13
M D Taverne, A P A Broeders
In this article we present the results of a study to explore if cross-border DNA matches between the Netherlands and Belgium are relatively more likely to occur in areas near the Dutch-Belgian border than in areas at some distance from this border. For this study we used the results of the transnational DNA profile exchange and comparison between the Belgian and Dutch DNA databases, which first took place in 2014. It appears that the Dutch regions adjacent to Belgium, i.e., Zeeland-West-Brabant, Oost-Brabant and Limburg, have relatively more DNA matches with Belgium than the other Dutch regions...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063179/integrated-carbon-sulfur-and-nitrogen-isotope-chemostratigraphy-of-the-ediacaran-lantian-formation-in-south-china-spatial-gradient-ocean-redox-oscillation-and-fossil-distribution
#14
W Wang, C Guan, C Zhou, Y Peng, L M Pratt, X Chen, L Chen, Z Chen, X Yuan, S Xiao
The Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in South China is a prime target for geobiological investigation because it offers opportunities to integrate chemostratigraphic and paleobiological data. Previous studies were mostly focused on successions in shallow-water shelf facies, but data from deep-water successions are needed to fully understand basinal redox structures. Here, we report δ(13) Ccarb , δ(13) Corg , δ(34) Spyr , δ(34) SCAS , and δ(15) Nsed data from a drill core of the fossiliferous Lantian Formation, which is a deep-water equivalent of the Doushantuo Formation...
January 6, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062110/ozone-exposure-assessment-for-children-in-greece-results-from-the-respoze-study
#15
Georgios Grivas, Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Evangelia Samoli, Despina Papakosta, Anna Karakatsani, Klea Katsouyanni, Archontoula Chaloulakou
Ozone exposure of 179 children in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece was assessed during 2013-2014, by repeated weekly personal measurements, using passive samplers. O3 was also monitored at school locations of participants to characterize community-level ambient exposure. Average personal concentrations in the two cities (5.0 and 2.8ppb in Athens and Thessaloniki, respectively) were considerably lower than ambient concentrations (with mean personal/ambient ratios of 0.13-0.15). The temporal variation of personal concentrations followed the -typical for low-latitude areas- pattern of cold-warm seasons...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060708/characterization-and-decoding-the-spatial-patterns-of-hand-extension-flexion-using-high-density-ecog
#16
Tianxiao Jiang, Tao Jiang, Taylor Wang, Shanshan Mei, Qingzhu Liu, Yunlin Li, Xiaofei Wang, Sujit Prabhu, Zhiyi Sha, Nuri F Ince
During awake brain surgeries, electrocorticogram (ECoG) was recorded using a high density electrode grid from the motor cortex of two subjects while they were asked to execute spontaneous hand extension and flexion. Firstly, we characterized the spatio-spectral patterns of high-density ECoG during the hand movements. In both subjects, we observed event related desynchronization (ERD) in low frequency band (LFB:8-32Hz) and event related synchronization (ERS) in high frequency band (HFB:60-200Hz) where HFB-ERS was more spatially localized and movement specific compared to LFB-ERD...
January 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056537/local-and-widely-distributed-eeg-activity-in-schizophrenia-with-prevalence-of-negative-symptoms
#17
Vera A Grin-Yatsenko, Valery A Ponomarev, Marina V Pronina, Yury I Poliakov, Irina V Plotnikova, Juri D Kropotov
We evaluated EEG frequency abnormalities in resting state (eyes closed and eyes open) EEG in a group of chronic schizophrenia patients as compared with healthy subjects. The study included 3 methods of analysis of deviation of EEG characteristics: genuine EEG, current source density (CSD), and group independent component (gIC). All 3 methods have shown that the EEG in schizophrenia patients is characterized by enhanced low-frequency (delta and theta) and high-frequency (beta) activity in comparison with the control group...
January 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054205/the-social-and-spatial-patterning-of-life-stress-among-immigrants-in-canada
#18
Lu Wang, Elmer Lara Palacios
While much literature has examined immigrants' health in Canada, less attention has focused specifically on the life stress, an important yet understudied post-migration challenge which may lead to poor coping strategies and negative health consequences. For this study, the pooled 2009-2014 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) was analyzed, using multilevel logistic regression to examine the compositional effects (at an individual level) and areal effects (at a CMA/CA level) on reported high life stress...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052505/integrating-field-and-satellite-data-for-spatially-explicit-inference-on-the-density-of-threatened-arboreal-primates
#19
Nathalie Cavada, Marco Ciolli, Duccio Rocchini, Claudia Barelli, Andrew R Marshall, Francesco Rovero
Spatially explicit models of animal abundance are a critical tool to inform conservation planning and management. However, they require the availability of spatially diffuse environmental predictors of abundance, which may be challenging, especially in complex and heterogeneous habitats. This is particularly the case for tropical mammals, such as nonhuman primates, that depend on multi-layered and species-rich tree canopy coverage, which is usually measured through a limited sample of ground plots. We developed an approach that calibrates remote-sensing imagery to ground measurements of tree density to derive basal area, in turn used as a predictor of primate density based on published models...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047432/su-g-iep1-11-resting-state-fluctuation-of-bold-signal-amplitude-for-mapping-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-presurgical-functional-mri
#20
P Wang, P Hou, S Kesler, R Colen, A Kumar, S Prabhu, H Liu
PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) MRI with hypercapnia challenges, such as a breath-hold (BH) task, has been proposed to indicate areas with neurovascular uncoupling potentials for presurgical functional MRI (fMRI). This study aimed to explore the use of resting-state (RS) fMRI, in particular, the RS fluctuation of amplitude (RSFA) for detecting the impaired CVR and compare with BH MRI in patients with gliomas. METHODS: The BH and RS fMRI from six patients as part of their presurgical fMRI studies were analyzed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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