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"spatial patterning"

Nicholas Page, Gary Higgs, Mitchel Langford
Spatial variations in rates of registered organ donors have not been studied in the UK at detailed spatial scales despite some evidence of national and regional differences. By drawing on the findings from the existing literature, this study examines associations between small-area variations in rates of new registrants to the UK organ donor register (ODR) within Wales and key demographic factors. Using map-based visualisations and statistical regression methods, spatial patterns in new registrants to the ODR are identified within Wales, a country which moved to an opt-out system of consent for organ donation following the Human Transplantation (Wales) Act 2013...
May 15, 2018: Health & Place
Qing Ye, Peishi Gu, Hugh Z Li, Ellis S Robinson, Eric M Lipsky, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Alex K Y Lee, Joshua Schulz Apte, Allen L Robinson, Ryan Christopher Sullivan, Albert A Presto, Neil M Donahue
Characterizing intra-city variations of atmospheric particulate matter has mostly relied on fixed-site monitoring and quantifying variability in terms of different bulk aerosol species. In this study, we performed ground-based mobile measurements using a single-particle mass spectrometer to study spatial patterns of source-specific particles and the evolution of particle mixing state in 21 areas in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA. We selected sampling areas based on traffic density and restaurant density with each area ranging from 0...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Bedilu Alamirie Ejigu, Eshetu Wencheko, Kiros Berhane
Anaemia is a condition in which the haemoglobin concentration falls below an established cut-off value due to a decrease in the number and size of red blood cells. The current study aimed (i) to assess the spatial pattern and (ii) to identify determinants related to anaemia using the third Ethiopian demographic health survey. To achieve these objectives, this study took into account the sampling weight and the clustered nature of the data. As a result, multilevel modeling has been used in the statistical analysis...
2018: PloS One
Sever Lee, Alpert Pinhas, Lyapustin Alexei, Wang Yujie, Chudnovsky A Alexandra
The extreme rate of evaporation of the Dead Sea (DS) has serious implicatios for the surrounding area, including atmospheric conditions. This study analyzes the aerosol properties over the western and eastern parts of the DS during the year 2013, using MAIAC (Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction) for MODIS, which retrieves aerosol optical depth (AOD) data at a resolution of 1km. The main goal of the study is to evaluate MAIAC over the study area and determine, for the first time, the prevailing aerosol spatial patterns...
September 2017: Atmospheric Environment
Wongsa Laohasiriwong, Nattapong Puttanapong, Atthawit Singsalasang
Spatial pattern detection can be a useful tool for understanding the geographical distribution of hypertension (HT). The aim of this study was to apply the technique of local indicators of spatial association statistics to examine the spatial patterns of HT in the 76 provinces of Thailand. Previous studies have demonstrated that socioeconomic status (SES), economic growth, population density and urbanization have effects on the occurrence of disease. Research has suggested that night-time light (NTL) can be used as a proxy for a number of variables, including urbanization, density, economic growth and SES...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
Guillaume Hennequin, Yashar Ahmadian, Daniel B Rubin, Máté Lengyel, Kenneth D Miller
Correlated variability in cortical activity is ubiquitously quenched following stimulus onset, in a stimulus-dependent manner. These modulations have been attributed to circuit dynamics involving either multiple stable states ("attractors") or chaotic activity. Here we show that a qualitatively different dynamical regime, involving fluctuations about a single, stimulus-driven attractor in a loosely balanced excitatory-inhibitory network (the stochastic "stabilized supralinear network"), best explains these modulations...
May 16, 2018: Neuron
Xuyang Wang, Yuqiang Li, Yinping Chen, Jie Lian, Yongqing Luo, Yayi Niu, Xiangwen Gong
The spatial pattern of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) densities plays a profound important role in estimating carbon and nitrogen budgets. Naiman Banner located in northern China was chosen as research site, a total of 332 soil samples were taken in a depth of 100 cm from the low hilly land in the southern part, sandy land in the middle part and an alluvial plain in the northern part of the county. The results showed that SOC and TN density initially decreased and then increased from the north to the south, The highest densities, were generally in the south, with the lowest generally in the middle part...
2018: PloS One
Jianshu Lv, Yuanhe Yu
In this study, 234 soil samples were recently collected from Gaoqing County (a typical area of the lower Yellow River) to determine the contents of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Multivariate statistical analyses such as correlation analysis, principal components analysis, and one-way ANOVA were applied to identify the source of metals in the soil. Geostatistical methods were used to analyze the spatial structure and distribution of the metals. The results indicated that the mean contents of all metals exceeded the background value of the lower Yellow River, especially for As, Cu, and Hg (1...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Volmar Morais Fontoura, Iolanda Graepp-Fontoura, Floriacy Stabnow Santos, Marcelino Santos Neto, Hanari Santos de Almeida Tavares, Maria Onice Lopes Bezerra, Marcela de Oliveira Feitosa, Adriano Figuerêdo Neves, Jesuane Cavalcante Melo de Morais, Luiz Fernando Costa Nascimento
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a waterborne disease that affects children, especially those under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to identify the spatial patterns of distribution of diarrheal disease in under 5-year-old children in the State of Tocantins, Brazil, from 2008 to 2013. METHODS: Geoprocessing tools were used to carry out an epidemiological study, to prepare thematic maps in the TerraView 4.2.2 software based on secondary data. General indicators of the disease, presence of spatial dependence through the Global Moran's Index (I) and the Spatial Association Index (LISA) were described...
2018: PloS One
M Schwieder, P J Leitão, J R R Pinto, A M C Teixeira, F Pedroni, M Sanchez, M M Bustamante, P Hostert
BACKGROUND: The quantification and spatially explicit mapping of carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems is important to better understand the global carbon cycle and to monitor and report change processes, especially in the context of international policy mechanisms such as REDD+ or the implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Especially in heterogeneous ecosystems, such as Savannas, accurate carbon quantifications are still lacking, where highly variable vegetation densities occur and a strong seasonality hinders consistent data acquisition...
May 15, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Ernesto Buiza, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Antonio Arjona, Carlos M Gómez
The possibility that power-to-power (theta-beta) frequency coupling increases during development was analyzed. Three minutes of spontaneous EEG in an open eyes condition were recorded in a sample of 160 subjects ranging from 6 to 26 years old. Theta (4-7 Hz) and beta band (15-20 Hz) power was calculated in a trial-by-trial basis. Inter-electrode power correlations (IPC) were computed in each subject as the correlation between the power of two frequency bands recorded in two electrodes. An increase in theta-beta IPC with age was obtained...
June 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Mercedes A Bravo, Rebecca Anthopolos, Rachel T Kimbro, Marie Lynn Miranda
Neighborhood characteristics such as racial segregation may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but studies have not examined these relationships using spatial models appropriate for geographically patterned health outcomes. We construct a local, spatial index of racial isolation (RI) for blacks, which measures the extent to which blacks are exposed to only one another, to estimate associations of diabetes with RI and examine how RI relates to spatial patterning in diabetes. We obtained 2007-2011 electronic health records from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Hildur Magnúsdóttir, Snæbjörn Pálsson, Kristen M Westfall, Zophonías O Jónsson, Erla Björk Örnólfsdóttir
Geographical patterns in morphology can be the result of divergence among populations due to neutral or selective changes and/or phenotypic plasticity in response to different environments. Marine gastropods are ideal subjects on which to explore these patterns, by virtue of the remarkable intraspecific variation in life-history traits and morphology often observed across relatively small spatial scales. The ubiquitous N-Atlantic common whelk ( Buccinum undatum ) is well known for spatial variation in life-history traits and morphology...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Verónica Méndez, Jamie R Wood, Simon J Butler
Functional diversity metrics are increasingly used to augment or replace taxonomic diversity metrics to deliver more mechanistic insights into community structure and function. Metrics used to describe landscape structure and characteristics share many of the same limitations as taxonomy-based metrics, particularly their reliance on anthropogenically defined typologies with little consideration of structure, management, or function. However, the development of alternative metrics to describe landscape characteristics has been limited...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Marianne Bauer, Erwin Frey
Multiple scales in metapopulations can give rise to paradoxical behavior: in a conceptual model for a public goods game, the species associated with a fitness cost due to the public good production can be stabilized in the well-mixed limit due to the mere existence of these scales. The scales in this model involve a length scale corresponding to separate patches, coupled by mobility, and separate time scales for reproduction and interaction with a local environment. Contrary to the well-mixed high mobility limit, we find that for low mobilities, the interaction rate progressively stabilizes this species due to stochastic effects, and that the formation of spatial patterns is not crucial for this stabilization...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Pekka E Kauppi, Vilma Sandström, Antti Lipponen
A universal turnaround has been detected in many countries of the World from shrinking to expanding forests. The forest area of western Europe expanded already in the 19th century. Such early trends of forest resources cannot be associated with the rapid rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide nor with the anthropogenic climate change, which have taken place since the mid 20th century. Modern, most recent spatial patterns of forest expansions and contractions do not correlate with the geography of climate trends nor with dry versus moist areas...
2018: PloS One
S Hellsten, U Dragosits, C J Place, A J Dore, Y S Tang, M A Sutton
Ammonia emissions vary greatly at a local scale, and effects (eutrophication, acidification) occur primarily close to sources. Therefore it is important that spatially distributed emission estimates are located as accurately as possible. The main source of ammonia emissions is agriculture, and therefore agricultural survey statistics are the most important input data to an ammonia emission inventory alongside per activity estimates of emission potential. In the UK, agricultural statistics are collected at farm level, but are aggregated to parish level, NUTS-3 level or regular grid resolution for distribution to users...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Thomas C Pesacreta, Karl H Hasenstein
Potassium (K), phosphorous (P), and carboxyfluorescein (CF) accumulate in functionally distinct tissues within the pine seedling root cortex. Seedlings of Pinus pinea translocate exogenous CF and endogenous K and P from the female gametophyte/cotyledons to the growing radicle. Following unloading in the root tip, these materials accumulate in characteristic spatial patterns. Transverse sections of root tips show high levels of P in a circular ring of several layers of inner cortical cells. K and CF are minimal in the high P tissue...
May 11, 2018: Planta
Clarissa Zimmerman Cooley, Melissa W Haskell, Stephen F Cauley, Charlotte Sappo, Cristen D Lapierre, Christopher G Ha, Jason P Stockmann, Lawrence L Wald
Permanent magnet arrays offer several attributes attractive for the development of a low-cost portable MRI scanner for brain imaging. They offer the potential for a relatively lightweight, low to mid-field system with no cryogenics, a small fringe field, and no electrical power requirements or heat dissipation needs. The cylindrical Halbach array, however, requires external shimming or mechanical adjustments to produce B0 fields with standard MRI homogeneity levels (e.g., 0.1 ppm over FOV), particularly when constrained or truncated geometries are needed, such as a head-only magnet where the magnet length is constrained by the shoulders...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Lian Song, Luis Guanter, Kaiyu Guan, Liangzhi You, Alfredo Huete, Weimin Ju, Yongguang Zhang
Extremely high temperatures represent one of the most severe abiotic stresses limiting crop productivity. However, understanding crop responses to heat stress is still limited considering the increases in both the frequency and severity of heat wave events under climate change. This limited understanding is partly due to the lack of studies or tools for the timely and accurate monitoring of crop responses to extreme heat over broad spatial scales. In this work, we use novel space-borne data of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), which is a new proxy for photosynthetic activity, along with traditional vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI & Enhanced Vegetation Index EVI) to investigate the impacts of heat stress on winter wheat in northwestern India, one of the world's major wheat production areas...
May 10, 2018: Global Change Biology
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