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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817567/accounting-for-biotic-spatial-variability-in-fields-case-of-resistance-screening-against-sunflower-verticillium-wilt
#1
Hélène Missonnier, Alban Jacques, JiSu Bang, Jean Daydé, Virginie Mirleau-Thebaud
In breeding for disease resistance, the magnitude of the genetic response is difficult to appreciate because of environmental stresses that interact with the plant genotype. We discuss herein the fundamental problems in breeding for disease resistance with the aim being to better understand the interactions between plant, pathogen, and spatial patterns. The goal of this study is to fine tune breeding decisions by incorporating spatial patterns of such biotic factors into the definition of disease-occurrence probability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815148/spatio-temporal-analysis-for-new-york-state-sparcs-data
#2
Xin Chen, Yu Wang, Elinor Schoenfeld, Mary Saltz, Joel Saltz, Fusheng Wang
Increased accessibility of health data provides unique opportunities to discover spatio-temporal patterns of diseases. For example, New York State SPARCS (Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System) data collects patient level detail on patient demographics, diagnoses, services, and charges for each hospital inpatient stay and outpatient visit. Such data also provides home addresses for each patient. This paper presents our preliminary work on spatial, temporal, and spatial-temporal analysis of disease patterns for New York State using SPARCS data...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812618/plant-spatial-patterns-identify-alternative-ecosystem-multifunctionality-states-in-global-drylands
#3
Miguel Berdugo, Sonia Kéfi, Santiago Soliveres, Fernando T Maestre
The response of drylands to environmental gradients can be abrupt rather than gradual. These shifts largely occur unannounced and are difficult to reverse once they happen; their prompt detection is of crucial importance. The distribution of vegetation patch sizes may indicate the proximity to these shifts, but the use of this metric is hampered by a lack of large-scale studies relating these distributions to the provision of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality) and comparing them to other ecosystem attributes, such as total plant cover...
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810665/determinants-of-full-vaccination-status-in-children-aged-12-23-months-in-gur%C3%A3-%C3%A3-and-milange-districts-mozambique-results-of-a-population-based-cross-sectional-survey
#4
Shellese A Shemwell, Meridith B Peratikos, Lázaro González-Calvo, Montse Renom-Llonch, Alexandre Boon, Samuel Martinho, Charlotte B Cherry, Ann F Green, Troy D Moon
Background: In 2011, 64% of children in Mozambique, ages 12-23 months, were fully immunized. Large provincial differences in vaccine uptake exist. Methods: We conducted a survey of 1650 females with children aged 12-23 months in the districts of Gurùé and Milange. Implementation occurred from November to December 2014. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression using R-software 3.0.2 were used to examine factors associated with full vaccination status. ArcGIS version 10...
July 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810507/landscape-determinants-of-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-aerosol-optical-depth-in-the-two-most-polluted-metropolitans-in-the-united-states
#5
Chenghao Wang, Chuyuan Wang, Soe W Myint, Zhi-Hua Wang
Elevated concentration of atmospheric aerosols during severe urban air pollution episodes necessitates a deep understanding of the underlying determinants for a sustainable urban environment. The 15-year (2001-2015) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data for the Phoenix and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas were applied to examine the spatio-temporal patterns and dynamics of urban aerosols. The strongly correlated temporal trends of AOD were observed due to the similar seasonal pattern of aerosol emissions and potential synoptic connections between two areas...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808257/stochastic-model-of-contact-inhibition-and-the-proliferation-of-melanoma-in-situ
#6
Mauro César Cafundó Morais, Izabella Stuhl, Alan U Sabino, Willian W Lautenschlager, Alexandre S Queiroga, Tharcisio Citrangulo Tortelli, Roger Chammas, Yuri Suhov, Alexandre F Ramos
Contact inhibition is a central feature orchestrating cell proliferation in culture experiments; its loss is associated with malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. We performed a co-culture experiment with human metastatic melanoma cell line (SKMEL- 147) and immortalized keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). After 8 days a spatial pattern was detected, characterized by the formation of clusters of melanoma cells surrounded by keratinocytes constraining their proliferation. In addition, we observed that the proportion of melanoma cells within the total population has increased...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808253/species-distribution-models-of-two-critically-endangered-deep-sea-octocorals-reveal-fishing-impacts-on-vulnerable-marine-ecosystems-in-central-mediterranean-sea
#7
V Lauria, G Garofalo, F Fiorentino, D Massi, G Milisenda, S Piraino, T Russo, M Gristina
Deep-sea coral assemblages are key components of marine ecosystems that generate habitats for fish and invertebrate communities and act as marine biodiversity hot spots. Because of their life history traits, deep-sea corals are highly vulnerable to human impacts such as fishing. They are an indicator of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), therefore their conservation is essential to preserve marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean Sea deep-sea coral habitats are associated with commercially important crustaceans, consequently their abundance has dramatically declined due to the effects of trawling...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807028/connectivity-not-region-intrinsic-properties-predicts-regional-vulnerability-to-progressive-tau-pathology-in-mouse-models-of-disease
#8
Chris Mezias, Eve LoCastro, Chuying Xia, Ashish Raj
Spatiotemporal tau pathology progression is regarded as highly stereotyped within each type of degenerative condition. For instance, AD has a progression of tau pathology consistently beginning in the entorhinal cortex, the locus coeruleus, and other nearby noradrenergic brainstem nuclei, before spreading to the rest of the limbic system as well as the cingulate and retrosplenial cortices. Proposed explanations for the consistent spatial patterns of tau pathology progression, as well as for why certain regions are selectively vulnerable to exhibiting pathology over the course of disease generally focus on transsynaptic spread proceeding via the brain's anatomic connectivity network in a cell-independent manner or on cell-intrinsic properties that might render some cell populations or regions uniquely vulnerable...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806690/occurrence-and-distribution-of-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-an-urban-watershed-comparison-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-organochlorine-pesticides
#9
Qian Wang, Barry C Kelly
Due to restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), market demand for alternative flame retardants is projected to increase, worldwide. Information regarding the environmental behavior of these compounds is limited. The present study involved field measurements of several alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), along with PBDEs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in surface water, bottom sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) within a highly urbanized watershed in Singapore...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#10
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805054/a-scalable-field-study-protocol-and-rationale-for-passive-ambient-air-sampling-a-spatial-phytosampling-for-leaf-data-collection
#11
Tonny J Oyana, Slawomir M Lomnicki, Chuqi Guo, Stephania A Cormier
Stable, bioreactive, radicals known as environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found to exist on the surface of airborne PM2.5. These EPFRs have been found to form during many combustion processes, are present in vehicular exhaust, and persist in the environment for weeks and biological systems for up to 12 hours. To measure EPFRs in PM samples, high volume samplers are required and measurements are less representative of community exposure; therefore, we developed a novel spatial phytosampling methodology to study the spatial patterns of EPFR concentrations using plants...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804480/microbial-community-structure-and-the-persistence-of-cyanobacterial-populations-in-salt-crusts-of-the-hyperarid-atacama-desert-from-genome-resolved-metagenomics
#12
Kari M Finstad, Alexander J Probst, Brian C Thomas, Gary L Andersen, Cecilia Demergasso, Alex Echeverría, Ronald G Amundson, Jillian F Banfield
Although once thought to be devoid of biology, recent studies have identified salt deposits as oases for life in the hyperarid Atacama Desert. To examine spatial patterns of microbial species and key nutrient sources, we genomically characterized 26 salt crusts from three sites along a fog gradient. The communities are dominated by a large variety of Halobacteriales and Bacteroidetes, plus a few algal and Cyanobacterial species. CRISPR locus analysis suggests the distribution of a single Cyanobacterial population among all sites...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800367/a-new-method-for-mapping-perceptual-biases-across-visual-space
#13
Nonie J Finlayson, Andriani Papageorgiou, D Samuel Schwarzkopf
How we perceive the environment is not stable and seamless. Recent studies found that how a person qualitatively experiences even simple visual stimuli varies dramatically across different locations in the visual field. Here we use a method we developed recently that we call multiple alternatives perceptual search (MAPS) for efficiently mapping such perceptual biases across several locations. This procedure reliably quantifies the spatial pattern of perceptual biases and also of uncertainty and choice. We show that these measurements are strongly correlated with those from traditional psychophysical methods and that exogenous attention can skew biases without affecting overall task performance...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798483/continental-scale-variability-of-foliar-nitrogen-and-carbon-isotopes-in-populus-balsamifera-and-their-relationships-with-climate
#14
Andrew J Elmore, Joseph M Craine, David M Nelson, Steven M Guinn
Variation across climate gradients in the isotopic composition of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in foliar tissues has the potential to reveal ecological processes related to N and water availability. However, it has been a challenge to separate spatial patterns related to direct effects of climate from effects that manifest indirectly through species turnover across climate gradients. Here we compare variation along environmental gradients in foliar N isotope (δ(15)N) and C isotopic discrimination (Δ(13)C) measured in 755 specimens of a single widely distributed tree species, Populus balsamifera, with variation represented in global databases of foliar isotopes...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795555/chemical-imaging-of-self-assembled-monolayers-on-copper-using-compressive-hyperspectral-sum-frequency-generation-microscopy
#15
Desheng Zheng, Liyang Lu, Kevin F Kelly, Steven Baldelli
Sum frequency generation microscopy is a label-free optical imaging technique with intrinsic molecular vibrational contrast for surface studies. Recent developments of compressive sensing broad-band hyperspectral SFG microscopy have demonstrated the potential application for imaging monolayer at metal surfaces with micrometer spatial resolution. Here is presented the capability of chemical imaging of spatially patterned monolayers of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and 16-methoxy-1-hexadecanethiol (MeOHT) molecules assembled on a copper surface...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793186/an-engineered-optogenetic-switch-for-spatiotemporal-control-of-gene-expression-cell-differentiation-and-tissue-morphogenesis
#16
Lauren Polstein, Mark Juhas, Gabi Hanna, Nenad Bursac, Charles A Gersbach
The precise spatial and temporal control of gene expression, cell differentiation, and tissue morphogenesis has widespread application in regenerative medicine and the study of tissue development. In this work, we applied optogenetics to control cell differentiation and new tissue formation. Specifically, we engineered an optogenetic "on" switch that provides permanent transgene expression following a transient dose of blue light illumination. To demonstrate its utility in controlling cell differentiation and reprogramming, we incorporated an engineered form of the master myogenic factor MyoD into this system in multipotent cells...
August 9, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792683/mechanotransduction-and-growth-factor-signalling-to-engineer-cellular-microenvironments
#17
REVIEW
Amaia Cipitria, Manuel Salmeron-Sanchez
Engineering cellular microenvironments involves biochemical factors, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the interaction with neighbouring cells. This progress report provides a critical overview of key studies that incorporate growth factor (GF) signalling and mechanotransduction into the design of advanced microenvironments. Materials systems have been developed for surface-bound presentation of GFs, either covalently tethered or sequestered through physico-chemical affinity to the matrix, as an alternative to soluble GFs...
August 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790905/task-complexity-modulates-sleep-related-offline-learning-in-sequential-motor-skills
#18
Klaus Blischke, Andreas Malangré
Recently, a number of authors have advocated the introduction of gross motor tasks into research on sleep-related motor offline learning. Such tasks are often designed to be more complex than traditional key-pressing tasks. However, until now, little effort has been undertaken to scrutinize the role of task complexity in any systematic way. Therefore, the effect of task complexity on the consolidation of gross motor sequence memory was examined by our group in a series of three experiments. Criterion tasks always required participants to produce unrestrained arm movement sequences by successively fitting a small peg into target holes on a pegboard...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782865/deep-learning-with-convolutional-neural-networks-for-eeg-decoding-and-visualization
#19
Robin Tibor Schirrmeister, Jost Tobias Springenberg, Lukas Dominique Josef Fiederer, Martin Glasstetter, Katharina Eggensperger, Michael Tangermann, Frank Hutter, Wolfram Burgard, Tonio Ball
Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (deep ConvNets) has revolutionized computer vision through end-to-end learning, that is, learning from the raw data. There is increasing interest in using deep ConvNets for end-to-end EEG analysis, but a better understanding of how to design and train ConvNets for end-to-end EEG decoding and how to visualize the informative EEG features the ConvNets learn is still needed. Here, we studied deep ConvNets with a range of different architectures, designed for decoding imagined or executed tasks from raw EEG...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782715/corticosterone-potentiates-dfp-induced-neuroinflammation-and-affects-high-order-diffusion-imaging-in-a-rat-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#20
Bang-Bon Koo, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Samanthan Calderazzo, Kimberly A Kelly, Kimberly Sullivan, Ronald J Killiany, James P O'Callaghan
Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War were potentially exposed to a variety of toxic chemicals, including sarin nerve agent and pesticides, which have been suspected to be involved in the development of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Several of these exposures cause a neuroinflammatory response in mice, which may serve as a basis for the sickness behavior-like symptoms seen in veterans with GWI. Furthermore, conditions mimicking the physiological stress experienced during the war can exacerbate this effect. While neuroinflammation has been observed post-exposure using animal models, it remains a challenge to evaluate neuroinflammation and its associated cellular and molecular changes in vivo in veterans with GWI...
August 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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