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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743088/chitosan-derived-co-spheroids-of-neural-stem-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-neural-regeneration
#1
Hao-Wei Han, Shan-Hui Hsu
Chitosan has been considered as candidate biomaterials for neural applications. The effective treatment of neurodegeneration or injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is still in lack nowadays. Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) represents a promising cell source to treat the CNS diseases but they are limited in number. Here, we developed the core-shell spheroids of NSCs (shell) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, core) by co-culturing cells on the chitosan surface. The NSCs in chitosan derived co-spheroids displayed a higher survival rate than those in NSC homo-spheroids...
July 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742844/control-of-runx-induced-repression-of-notch-signaling-by-mlf-and-its-partner-dnaj-1-during-drosophila-hematopoiesis
#2
Marion Miller, Aichun Chen, Vanessa Gobert, Benoit Augé, Mathilde Beau, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Marc Haenlin, Lucas Waltzer
A tight regulation of transcription factor activity is critical for proper development. For instance, modifications of RUNX transcription factors dosage are associated with several diseases, including hematopoietic malignancies. In Drosophila, Myeloid Leukemia Factor (MLF) has been shown to control blood cell development by stabilizing the RUNX transcription factor Lozenge (Lz). However, the mechanism of action of this conserved family of proteins involved in leukemia remains largely unknown. Here we further characterized MLF's mode of action in Drosophila blood cells using proteomic, transcriptomic and genetic approaches...
July 25, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740355/insights-into-cruciform-sample-design
#3
A Creuziger, M A Iadicola, T Foecke, E Rust, D Banerjee
Four different cruciform sample designs, based on the work of Abu-Farha et al., were studied in this paper. Key features of this design are a recessed pocket with fillet and re-entrant corners. These samples were shown via digital image correlation to achieve widely differing strain values inside and outside the pocket. From the results of these tests, there are two competing failure mechanisms in the sample. The pocket region is affected by stress concentrations caused by the fillet, and re-entrant notches lead to strain limited constraints similar to diffuse and localized necks in uniaxial samples...
May 2017: JOM: the Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739265/role-of-adam10-in-intestinal-crypt-homeostasis-and-tumorigenesis
#4
Peter J Dempsey
A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of multidomain, membrane-anchored proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, proteolysis and other cell signaling events. Catalytically-active ADAMs act as ectodomain sheddases that proteolytically cleave type I and type II transmembrane proteins and some GPI-anchored proteins from the cellular surface. ADAMs can also modulate other cellular signaling events through a process known as regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP)...
July 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738360/targeting-developmental-pathways-the-achilles-heel-of-cancer
#5
Wolfram C M Dempke, Klaus Fenchel, Peter Uciechowski, Timothy Chevassut
Developmental pathways (e.g., Notch, Hippo, Hedgehog, Wnt, and TGF-β/BMP/FGF) are networks of genes that act co-ordinately to establish the body plan, and disruptions of genes in one pathway can have effects in related pathways and may result in serious dysmorphogenesis or cancer. Interestingly, all developmental pathways are highly conserved cell signalling systems present in almost all multicellular organisms. In addition, they have a crucial role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and finally in organ development...
July 22, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737769/local-lung-hypoxia-determines-epithelial-fate-decisions-during-alveolar-regeneration
#6
Ying Xi, Thomas Kim, Alexis N Brumwell, Ian H Driver, Ying Wei, Victor Tan, Julia R Jackson, Jianming Xu, Dong-Kee Lee, Jeffrey E Gotts, Michael A Matthay, John M Shannon, Harold A Chapman, Andrew E Vaughan
After influenza infection, lineage-negative epithelial progenitors (LNEPs) exhibit a binary response to reconstitute epithelial barriers: activating a Notch-dependent ΔNp63/cytokeratin 5 (Krt5) remodelling program or differentiating into alveolar type II cells (AEC2s). Here we show that local lung hypoxia, through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1α), drives Notch signalling and Krt5(pos) basal-like cell expansion. Single-cell transcriptional profiling of human AEC2s from fibrotic lungs revealed a hypoxic subpopulation with activated Notch, suppressed surfactant protein C (SPC), and transdifferentiation toward a Krt5(pos) basal-like state...
July 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736522/gliotoxin-targets-nuclear-notch2-in-human-solid-tumor-derived-cell-lines-in-vitro-and-inhibits-melanoma-growth-in-xenograft-mouse-model
#7
Rainer Hubmann, Wolfgang Sieghart, Susanne Schnabl, Mohammad Araghi, Martin Hilgarth, Marlies Reiter, Dita Demirtas, Peter Valent, Christoph Zielinski, Ulrich Jäger, Medhat Shehata
Deregulation of NOTCH2 signaling is implicated in a wide variety of human neoplasias. The current concept of targeting NOTCH is based on using gamma secretase inhibitors (GSI) to regulate the release of the active NOTCH intracellular domain. However, the clinical outcome of GSI remains unsatisfactory. Therefore we analyzed human solid tumor derived cell lines for their nuclear NOTCH activity and evaluated the therapeutic potential of the NOTCH2 transactivation inhibitor gliotoxin in comparison to the representative GSI DAPT...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736165/intra-lineage-fate-decisions-involve-activation-of-notch-receptors-basal-to-the-midbody-in-drosophila-sensory-organ-precursor-cells
#8
Mateusz Trylinski, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
Notch receptors regulate cell fate decisions during embryogenesis and throughout adult life. In many cell lineages, binary fate decisions are mediated by directional Notch signaling between the two sister cells produced by cell division. How Notch signaling is restricted to sister cells after division to regulate intra-lineage decision is poorly understood. More generally, where ligand-dependent activation of Notch occurs at the cell surface is not known, as methods to detect receptor activation in vivo are lacking...
July 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735867/cleavage-of-the-interleukin-11-receptor-induces-processing-of-its-c-terminal-fragments-by-the-gamma-secretase-and-the-proteasome
#9
Juliane Lokau, Charlotte M Flynn, Christoph Garbers
The cytokine Interleukin-11 (IL-11) signals through the membrane-bound IL-11 receptor (IL-11R), which is expressed in a cell-type specific manner. We have recently shown that the metalloprotease ADAM10 can cleave the IL-11R. The liberated soluble IL-11R (sIL-11R) ectodomain can bind its ligand, and the resulting IL-11/sIL-11R complex can activate cells that do not express the IL-11R (trans-signaling). In this study, we show that the remaining C-terminal fragment (CTF1) after ADAM10-mediated cleavage is subsequently cleaved within the membrane by the gamma-secretase complex, and that the resulting shorter CTF2 is further degraded by the proteasome...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735842/angled-bio-rsa-bony-increased-offset-reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty-a-solution-for-the-management-glenoid-bone-loss-and-erosion
#10
Pascal Boileau, Nicolas Morin-Salvo, Marc-Olivier Gauci, Brian L Seeto, Peter N Chalmers, Nicolas Holzer, Gilles Walch
BACKGROUND: Glenoid deficiency and erosion (excessive retroversion/inclination) must be corrected in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) to avoid prosthetic notching or instability and to maximize function, range of motion, and prosthesis longevity. This study reports the results of RSA with an angled, autologous glenoid graft harvested from the humerus (angled BIO-RSA). METHODS: A trapezoidal bone graft, harvested from the humerus and fixed with a long-post baseplate and screws, was used to compensate for residual glenoid bone loss/erosion...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734865/single-factors-alone-can-induce-mesenchymal-like-morphology-but-not-promote-full-emt-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines-with-different-hormone-statuses
#11
Maria K Tveitarås, Inga Reigstad, Lina Leiss, Rolf K Reed, Linda Stuhr
BACKGROUND: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered to be important for cancer invasion and metastasis. Tumour hypoxia, in addition to Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) and Notch, amongst others, have been suggested to be involved in EMT. We therefore investigated if hypoxia, TGF-β1 and the Notch ligand Jagged-1 alone induced morphological changes with corresponding EMT signatures in different epithelial breast cancer cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we also studied whether or not TGF-β1, or Jagged-1 in combination with hypoxia added any effect on EMT...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734841/potential-involvement-of-mi-rna-574-3p-in-progression-of-prostate-cancer-a-bioinformatic-study
#12
Naeem M Ashraf, Komal Imran, David W Kastner, Khadija Ikram, Ayesha Mushtaq, Aadil Hussain, Nadia Zeeshan
Aberrant gene expression is a hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa), the second deadliest disease affecting males worldwide. Dysregulation of miRNA has been associated with the progression of PCa, and in recent studies, miRNA 574-3p was found to be upregulated in cancerous prostate tissue. In this study, we characterize the effects of up-regulated miRNA 574-3p on gene expression in the tumor microenvironment through different bioinformatic tools such as Diana-Tools, KEGG Pathway database, and the Reactome Database...
July 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734816/glaucoma-screening-in-nepal-cup-to-disc-estimate-with-standard-mydriatic-fundus-camera-compared-to-portable-non-mydriatic-camera
#13
Sarah E Miller, Suman Thapa, Alan L Robin, Leslie M Niziol, Pradeep Y Ramulu, Maria A Woodward, Indira Paudyal, Ian Pitha, Tyson N Kim, Paula Anne Newman-Casey
PURPOSE: To compare cup to disc ratio (CDR) measurements from images taken with a portable, 45° non-mydriatic fundus camera to images from a traditional table-top mydriatic fundus camera. DESIGN: Prospective, cross sectional, comparative instrument validation study. METHODS: materials-methods SETTING: Clinic-based. STUDY POPULATION: 422 eyes of 211 subjects were recruited from the Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology (Kathmandu, Nepal)...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734667/characterization-of-cartilage-defects-detected-by-mri-in-kellgren-lawrence-grade-0-or-1-knees
#14
Kenji Taguchi, Ko Chiba, Narihiro Okazaki, Yasuo Kido, Takashi Miyamoto, Akihiko Yonekura, Masato Tomita, Masataka Uetani, Makoto Osaki
INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis of the knee is generally evaluated by plain X-rays, which are incapable of detecting small cartilage damage. There are some patients who have small cartilage defects on MRI with no abnormal findings on plain X-rays. In this study, the prevalence and regional characteristics of cartilage defects detected by MRI were studied in cases with normal X-ray findings (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0 and 1). Relationships between the cartilage defects and OA risk factors such as obesity and leg alignment were also investigated...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733586/study-of-microstructure-and-fracture-properties-of-blunt-notched-and-sharp-cracked-high-density-polyethylene-specimens
#15
Huanyu Pan, Sheila Devasahayam, Sri Bandyopadhyay
This paper examines the effect of a broad range of crosshead speed (0.05 to 100 mm/min) and a small range of temperature (25 °C and 45 °C) on the failure behaviour of high density polyethylene (HDPE) specimens containing a) standard size blunt notch and b) standard size blunt notch plus small sharp crack - all tested in air. It was observed that the yield stress properties showed linear increase with the natural logarithm of strain rate. The stress intensity factors under blunt notch and sharp crack conditions also increased linearly with natural logarithm of the crosshead speed...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732358/lenalidomide-restores-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-multiple-myeloma-patients-via-deactivating-notch-signaling-pathway
#16
Juan Guo, Chengming Fei, Youshan Zhao, Sida Zhao, Qingqing Zheng, Jiying Su, Dong Wu, Xiao Li, Chunkang Chang
Multiple myeloma (MM) always presents osteolytic bone lesions, resulting from the abnormal osteoblastic and osteoclastic function in patients. MM patients exhibit the impairment of osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells) and osteoblast deficiency. Effects of the drug, lenalidomide on the osteoblastic functions and the involved mechanisms remain unexplored. In the present study, it is observed that the osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs from MM patients (MM-MSCs) is impaired and activation of Notch signaling pathway in MM-MSCs is abnormal...
July 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732217/finite-element-evaluation-of-stable-fixation-in-combined-mandibular-fractures
#17
Thalita Regina Vieira E Oliveira, Daniel Takanori Kemmoku, Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva, Pedro Yoshito Noritomi, Luis Augusto Passeri
PURPOSE: The fixation of combined mandibular fractures, especially symphyseal-condylar fractures, although occurring commonly and having a higher complication rate in the clinic, is rarely investigated regarding predictable therapeutic approaches. Thus this study's aim was to assess different forms of condylar fixation when combined with symphyseal fracture fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using finite element models, we analyzed the stress distribution that occurs when a condylar fracture is fixed with 1 miniplate, 2 miniplates, or a trapezoidal condylar miniplate and when a symphyseal fracture is fixed with 2 parallel plates, 2 perpendicular plates, or 2 lag screws...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732189/erratum-to-blos2-maintains-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-fetal-liver-via-repressing-notch-signaling
#18
Qiuping He, Suwei Gao, Junhua Lv, Wei Li, Feng Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730338/jagged1-promotes-aromatase-inhibitor-resistance-by-modulating-tumor-associated-macrophage-differentiation-in-breast-cancer-patients
#19
Hang Liu, Jingxuan Wang, Minghui Zhang, Qijia Xuan, Zhipeng Wang, Xin Lian, Qingyuan Zhang
PURPOSE: Endocrine resistance limits the efficacy of anti-estrogen therapies. Notch signaling is involved in modulating tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) differentiation and is upregulated in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells. Here, we analyzed the role of Jagged1 in the regulation of TAM polarization to investigate whether the Jagged1-Notch pathway promotes the acquisition of aromatase inhibitor (AI) resistance by upregulating TAM infiltration. METHODS: The Jagged1 expression levels and M2 TAM infiltration density, in 203 tumor samples from ER-positive postmenopausal patients, who received AI treatment, were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and the results were compared with clincopathological parameters and survival...
July 20, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730295/incarceration-of-the-medial-collateral-ligament-in-the-intercondylar-notch-following-proximal-avulsion
#20
Edward Walton, Martin Williams, James R Robinson
Intra-articular entrapment of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a rare but recognised complication of traumatic injury to the posteromedial corner (PMC) of the knee. Considering the MCL is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee this complication is extremely rare with only a handful of cases describing MCL entrapment following distal avulsion of the MCL. We present the first known case of MCL entrapment following proximal avulsion of the MCL and posterior oblique ligament (POL) with the mid-substance of the MCL becoming entrapped in the joint, lying on the superior surface of the medial meniscus and extending up into the intercondylar notch...
July 20, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
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