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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107053/diversity-and-coevolutionary-dynamics-in-high-dimensional-phenotype-spaces
#1
Michael Doebeli, Iaroslav Ispolatov
We study macroevolutionary dynamics by extending microevolutionary competition models to long timescales. It has been shown that for a general class of competition models, gradual evolutionary change in continuous phenotypes (evolutionary dynamics) can be nonstationary and even chaotic when the dimension of the phenotype space in which the evolutionary dynamics unfold is high. It has also been shown that evolutionary diversification can occur along nonequilibrium trajectories in phenotype space. We combine these lines of thinking by studying long-term coevolutionary dynamics of emerging lineages in multidimensional phenotype spaces...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106317/changes-in-vascular-reactivity-and-endothelial-ca-2-dynamics-with-chronic-low-flow
#2
Mark S Taylor, Chung-Sik Choi, Leith Bayazid, Katherine E Glosemeyer, Calvin C P Baker, David S Weber
Disruption of blood flow promotes endothelial dysfunction and predisposes vessels to remodeling and atherosclerosis. Recent findings suggest spatial and temporal tuning of local Ca(2+) signals along the endothelium is vital to vascular function. In the current study, we examined whether chronic flow disruption causes alteration of dynamic endothelial Ca(2+) signal patterning associated with changes in vascular structure and function. For these studies, we performed surgical partial-ligation (PL) of the left carotid arteries of mice to establish chronic low flow for 2 weeks; right carotid arteries remained open and served as controls (C)...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102912/different-spatio-temporal-eeg-features-drive-the-successful-decoding-of-binaural-and-monaural-cues-for-sound-localization
#3
Adam Bednar, Francis M Boland, Edmund C Lalor
The human ability to localize sound is essential for monitoring the environment and helps us to analyze complex auditory scenes. Although the acoustic cues mediating sound localization have been established, it remains unknown how these cues are represented in human cortex. In particular, it is still a point of contention whether binaural and monaural cues are processed by the same or distinct cortical networks. In this study, participants listened to a sequence of auditory stimuli from different spatial locations while we recorded their neural activity using electroencephalography (EEG)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088024/multi-year-record-of-atmospheric-and-snow-surface-nitrate-in-the-central-antarctic-plateau
#4
R Traversi, S Becagli, M Brogioni, L Caiazzo, V Ciardini, F Giardi, M Legrand, G Macelloni, B Petkov, S Preunkert, C Scarchilli, M Severi, V Vitale, R Udisti
Continuous all year-round samplings of atmospheric aerosol and surface snow at high (daily to 4-day) resolution were carried out at Dome C since 2004-05 to 2013 and nitrate records are here presented. Basing on a larger statistical data set than previous studies, results confirm that nitrate seasonal pattern is characterized by maxima during austral summer for both aerosol and surface snow, occurring in-phase with solar UV irradiance. This temporal pattern is likely due to a combination of nitrate sources and post-depositional processes whose intensity usually enhances during the summer...
December 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081085/coherent-and-incoherent-seeding-of-dissipative-modulation-instability-in-a-nonlinear-fiber-ring-cavity
#5
A Bendahmane, J Fatome, C Finot, G Millot, B Kibler
We investigate the coherent or incoherent seeding of dissipative modulation instability (MI) in a nonlinear fiber ring cavity. By varying wavelength and degree of coherence of the seed signal across the MI gain band, we observe a strong sensitivity of the resulting MI sidebands in terms of bandwidth and amplification. Both spectral and temporal characterizations are performed to reveal intensity coherence properties (over a single round-trip) of the generated temporal patterns. Experimental observations are well confirmed by numerical simulations...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077663/temporally-precise-control-of-single-neuron-spiking-by-juxtacellular-nanostimulation
#6
Maik Christopher Stüttgen, Lourens Jp Nonkes, Hans-Rüdiger Ap Geis, Paul H Tiesinga, Arthur R Houweling
Temporal patterns of action potentials influence a variety of activity-dependent intra- and inter-cellular processes and play an important role in theories of neural coding. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying these phenomena requires imposing spike trains with precisely defined patterns, but this has been challenging due to the limitations of existing stimulation techniques. Here we present a new nanostimulation method providing control over the action potential output of individual cortical neurons. Spikes are elicited through the juxtacellular application of short-duration fluctuating currents ('kurzpulses'), allowing for the sub-millisecond precise and reproducible induction of arbitrary patterns of action potentials at all physiologically relevant firing frequencies (<120 Hz), including minute-long spike trains recorded in freely moving animals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074884/actin-interacting-protein-1-contributes-to-intranuclear-rod-assembly-in-dictyostelium-discoideum
#7
Hellen C Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Wioleta Daszkiewicz, Michael Schleicher, Annette Müller-Taubenberger
Intranuclear rods are aggregates consisting of actin and cofilin that are formed in the nucleus in consequence of chemical or mechanical stress conditions. The formation of rods is implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, such as certain myopathies and some neurological disorders. It is still not well understood what exactly triggers the formation of intranuclear rods, whether other proteins are involved, and what the underlying mechanisms of rod assembly or disassembly are. In this study, Dictyostelium discoideum was used to examine appearance, stages of assembly, composition, stability, and dismantling of rods...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073595/genetically-encoded-calcium-indicators-for-studying-long-term-calcium-dynamics-during-apoptosis
#8
M Iveth Garcia, Jessica J Chen, Darren Boehning
Intracellular calcium release is essential for regulating almost all cellular functions. Specific spatio-temporal patterns of cytosolic calcium elevations are critical determinants of cell fate in response to pro-apoptotic cellular stressors. As the apoptotic program can take hours or days, measurement of long-term calcium dynamics are essential for understanding the mechanistic role of calcium in apoptotic cell death. Due to the technical limitations of using calcium-sensitive dyes to measure cytosolic calcium little is known about long-term calcium dynamics in living cells after treatment with apoptosis-inducing drugs...
January 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067277/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-proportions-of-influenza-b-cases
#9
Daihai He, Alice P Y Chiu, Qianying Lin, Duo Yu
We studied the spatio-temporal patterns of the proportions of influenza B cases out of all typed cases, with data from 139 countries and regions downloaded from the FluNet compiled by the World Health Organization, from January 2006 to October 2015. We restricted our analysis to 34 countries that reported more than 2,000 confirmations for each of types A and B over the study period. Globally, we found that Pearson's correlation is greater than 0.6 between effective distance from Mexico and the proportions of influenza B cases among the countries during the post-pandemic era (i...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064513/temporal-patterns-and-predictors-of-bullying-roles-among-adolescents-in-vietnam-a-school-based-cohort-study
#10
Ha Thi Hai Le, Michael P Dunne, Marilyn A Campbell, Michelle L Gatton, Huong Thanh Nguyen, Nam T Tran
Although many cross-sectional studies have examined bullying experiences and correlated factors among adolescents in schools, relatively little is known about the extent to which bullying roles are stable or fluid over time. This short-term quantitative longitudinal study in Vietnam examined temporal patterns and predictors of bullying roles over an academic year. A total of 1424 middle and high school students aged 12-17 years completed two anonymous, self-administered questionnaires six months apart in 2014 and 2015...
January 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063653/temporal-and-spatial-analysis-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-relation-to-climate-factors-a-study-in-the-mekong-delta-region-vietnam
#11
Huong Xuan Nguyen, Cordia Chu, Huong Lien Thi Nguyen, Ha Thanh Nguyen, Cuong Manh Do, Shannon Rutherford, Dung Phung
This study examined the temporal and spatial patterns of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam. A time-series analysis was used to examine the temporal patterns of HFMD in relation to climate factors while a retrospective space-time scan was used to detect the high-risk space-time clusters of this disease. A 1°C increase in average temperature was associated with 5.6% increase in HFMD rate at lag 5days (95% CI 0.3-10.9). A 1% increase in humidity had equal influence of 1...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062939/early-transverse-tubule-development-begins-in-utero-in-the-sheep-heart
#12
Michelle L Munro, Christian Soeller
The ventricular cardiomyocytes of adult mammals contain invaginations of the plasma membrane known as transverse (t)-tubules. These regular structures are essential for the synchronisation of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling throughout the cell, which is a vital process for cardiac function. T-tubules form a close association with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to form junctions, where several key proteins involved in EC coupling are localised, including the SR calcium release channels-the ryanodine receptors (RyR)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058613/spatial-and-temporal-patterns-of-precipitation-and-stream-flow-variations-in-tigris-euphrates-river-basin
#13
Prasad Daggupati, Raghavan Srinivasan, Mehdi Ahmadi, Deepa Verma
Tigris and Euphrates river basin (TERB) is one of the largest river basins in the Middle East, and the precipitation (in the form of snowfall) is a major source of streamflow. This study investigates the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and streamflow in TERB to better understand the hydroclimatic variables and how they varied over time. The precipitation shows a decreasing trend with 1980s being wetter and 2000s being drier. A total of 55 and 40% reduction in high flows in Tigris and Euphrates rivers at T20 and E3 was seen in post-reservoir period...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053151/optimized-temporal-pattern-of-brain-stimulation-designed-by-computational-evolution
#14
David T Brocker, Brandon D Swan, Rosa Q So, Dennis A Turner, Robert E Gross, Warren M Grill
Brain stimulation is a promising therapy for several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Stimulation parameters are selected empirically and are limited to the frequency and intensity of stimulation. We varied the temporal pattern of deep brain stimulation to ameliorate symptoms in a parkinsonian animal model and in humans with Parkinson's disease. We used model-based computational evolution to optimize the stimulation pattern. The optimized pattern produced symptom relief comparable to that from standard high-frequency stimulation (a constant rate of 130 or 185 Hz) and outperformed frequency-matched standard stimulation in a parkinsonian rat model and in patients...
January 4, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049248/nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-retina-with-pharmaceutically-induced-retinal-degeneration
#15
Chan Hee Moon, Heeyoon Cho, Yoon Kyung Kim, Tae Kwann Park
The present study investigated the temporal pattern and cellular localization of nestin in the adult mouse retina with pharmaceutically induced retinal degeneration using N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). After a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU in 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice, the animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 21 days (n = 6, in each stage). The eyes were examined by means of immunohistochemical tests using nestin, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule (Iba-1), CD11b, F4/80, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048388/su-f-r-16-delineation-of-tumor-habitats-based-on-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#16
Y Chang, G Solorzano, E Ackerstaff, R Yechieli, T Subhawong, R Stoyanova
PURPOSE: To determine an automatic procedure for determining the number and delineation of tumor habitats from Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI data. METHODS: An automatic procedure for delineation of tumor habitats from DCE-MRI datasets was developed as a two-part process involving: (1) statistical testing of the principal components of the dataset to detect the number of habitats and (2) the use of this number in an unsupervised pattern recognition (PR) technique to recover the temporal pattern and location of detected habitats...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045092/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-stream-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-emissions-in-a-hemiboreal-catchment-in-southwest-sweden
#17
Sivakiruthika Natchimuthu, Marcus B Wallin, Leif Klemedtsson, David Bastviken
Global stream and river greenhouse gas emissions seem to be as large as the oceanic C uptake. However, stream and river emissions are uncertain until both spatial and temporal variability have been quantified. Here we investigated in detail the stream CH4 and CO2 emissions within a hemiboreal catchment in Southwest Sweden primarily covered by coniferous forest. Gas transfer velocities (k600), CH4 and CO2 concentrations were measured with multiple methods. Our data supported modelling approaches accounting for various stream slopes, water velocities and discharge...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039575/the-high-cost-of-stroke-and-stroke-cytoprotection-research
#18
Paul A Lapchak, John H Zhang
Acute ischemic stroke is inadequately treated in the USA and worldwide due to a lengthy history of neuroprotective drug failures in clinical trials. The majority of victims must endure life-long disabilities that not only affect their livelihood, but also have an enormous societal economic impact. The rapid development of a neuroprotective or cytoprotective compound would allow future stroke victims to receive a treatment to reduce disabilities and further promote recovery of function. This opinion article reviews in detail the enormous costs associated with developing a small molecule to treat stroke, as well as providing a timely overview of the cell-death time-course and relationship to the ischemic cascade...
December 30, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036135/circumstances-surrounding-non-fatal-opioid-overdoses-attended-by-ambulance-services
#19
Desiree Madah-Amiri, Thomas Clausen, Lars Myrmel, Guttorm Brattebø, Philipp Lobmaier
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Opioid overdose fatalities are a significant concern globally. Non-fatal overdoses have been described as a strong predictor for future overdoses, and are often attended by the ambulance services. This paper explores characteristics associated with non-fatal overdoses and aims to identify possible trends among these events in an urban area in Norway. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of non-fatal overdoses from Bergen ambulance services from 2012 to 2013...
December 30, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033522/effects-of-nitrate-addition-on-water-column-methylmercury-in-occoquan-reservoir-virginia-usa
#20
Marc W Beutel, Ricardi Duvil, Francisco J Cubas, Thomas J Grizzard
Mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic biota poses a widespread threat to human and environmental health. Methylmercury (MeHg), the toxic form of mercury, tends to build up under anaerobic conditions in the profundal zones of lakes. In this study we performed a two-year assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, MeHg, manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in Occoquan Reservoir, a large run-of-the-river drinking water reservoir in Virginia, USA. A tributary to the reservoir receives input of nitrate-rich tertiary-treated wastewater that enhances the oxidant capacity of bottom water...
December 18, 2016: Water Research
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