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"temporal patterning"

Alex Han, Alfred C Gellhorn
OBJECTIVE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has a significant impact on quality of life (QOL). Although QOL is generally thought to diminish over time, it is unknown if different patient groups demonstrate unique patterns of change in QOL. We sought to identify and characterize QOL trajectories in knee OA. DESIGN: This prospective cohort study included 1013 individuals with symptomatic knee OA from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify distinct temporal patterns of change in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) QOL subscale over 8 years...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Jinny Robson, Parham Aram, Martyn P Nash, Chris P Bradley, Martin Hayward, David J Paterson, Peter Taggart, Richard H Clayton, Visakan Kadirkamanathan
In this paper, we present a novel approach to quantify the spatio-temporal organization of electrical activation during human ventricular fibrillation (VF). We propose three different methods based on correlation analysis, graph theoretical measures and hierarchical clustering. Using the proposed approach, we quantified the level of spatio-temporal organization during three episodes of VF in ten patients, recorded using multi-electrode epicardial recordings with 30 s coronary perfusion, 150 s global myocardial ischaemia and 30 s reflow...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Fanny Cortes, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, João Bosco Siqueira Junior, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Neal Alexander, Wayner Vieira de Souza
The aim of the study was to evaluate the temporal patterns of dengue incidence from 2001 to 2014 and forecast for 2015 in two Brazilian cities. We analysed dengue surveillance data (SINAN) from Recife, 1.6 million population, and Goiania, 1.4 million population. We used Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) modelling of monthly notified dengue incidence (2001 to 2014). Forecasting models (95% prediction interval) were developed to predict numbers of dengue cases for 2015. During the study period, 73,479 dengue cases were reported in Recife varying from 11 cases/100,000 inhab (2004) to 2,418 cases/100,000 inhab (2002)...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Mette Korshøj, Marie Birk Jørgensen, David M Hallman, Julie Lagersted-Olsen, Andreas Holtermann, Nidhi Gupta
Objective Low-back pain (LBP) is a massive health problem. Sitting at work has been suggested to be both a risk and protective factor for LBP. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the association between total and temporal patterns of objectively measured sitting duration and individual time course of LBP. Methods The analysis was performed among 665 participants from the DPhacto cohort of mainly blue-collar workers. Sitting at work was measured by accelerometry at baseline, expressed in total duration and temporal pattern [% of working time spent in brief bursts (≤5 minutes), moderate (>5 - ≤20 minutes) and prolonged periods (>20 minutes)] of sitting...
March 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Yefei Jiang, Shuangge Ma, Ben-Chang Shia, Tian-Shyug Lee
In "classic" biomedical research, diseases have usually been studied individually. The pioneering human disease network (HDN) studies jointly consider a large number of diseases, analyse their interconnections, and provide a more comprehensive description of diseases. However, most of the existing HDN studies are based on molecular information and can only partially describe disease interconnections. Building on the unique Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), in this study, we construct the epidemiological HDN (eHDN), where two diseases are concluded as interconnected if their observed probability of co-occurrence deviating that expected under independence...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Martin C S Wong, Willie Hamilton, David C Whiteman, Johnny Y Jiang, Youlin Qiao, Franklin D H Fung, Harry H X Wang, Philip W Y Chiu, Enders K W Ng, Justin C Y Wu, Jun Yu, Francis K L Chan, Joseph J Y Sung
Oesophageal cancers (adenocarcinomas [AC] and squamous cell carcinomas [SCC]) are characterized by high incidence/mortality in many countries. We aimed to delineate its global incidence and mortality, and studied whether socioeconomic development and its incidence rate were correlated. The age-standardized rates (ASRs) of incidence and mortality of this medical condition in 2012 for 184 nations from the GLOBOCAN database; national databases capturing incidence rates, and the WHO mortality database were examined...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sean T Vittadello, Scott W McCue, Gency Gunasingh, Nikolas K Haass, Matthew J Simpson
The fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator, also known as FUCCI, allows the visualization of the G1 and S/G2/M cell cycle phases of individual cells. FUCCI consists of two fluorescent probes, so that cells in the G1 phase fluoresce red and cells in the S/G2/M phase fluoresce green. FUCCI reveals real-time information about cell cycle dynamics of individual cells, and can be used to explore how the cell cycle relates to the location of individual cells, local cell density, and different cellular microenvironments...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Belén Cotes, Mónica González, Emilio Benítez, Eva De Mas, Gemma Clemente-Orta, Mercedes Campos, Estefanía Rodríguez
The promotion of native vegetation as a habitat for natural enemies, which could increase their abundance and fitness, is especially useful in highly simplified settings such as Mediterranean greenhouse landscapes. Spiders as generalist predators may also be involved in intra-guild predation. However, the niche complementarity provided by spiders as a group means that increased spider diversity may facilitate complementary control actions. In this study, the interactions between spiders, the two major horticultural pests, Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis , and their naturally occurring predators and parasitoids were evaluated in a mix of 21 newly planted shrubs selected for habitat management in a highly disturbed horticultural system...
March 14, 2018: Insects
Jin Soo Lee, Seong-Joon Lee, Ji Man Hong, Jin Wook Choi, Jeong-Ho Hong, Hyuk-Won Chang, Chang-Hyun Kim, Yong-Won Kim, Dong-Hun Kang, Yong-Sun Kim, Bruce Ovbiagele, Andrew M Demchuk, Yang-Ha Hwang, Sung-Il Sohn
Background and Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the influence of temporal patterns related to the availability of new endovascular treatment (EVT) devices on care processes and outcomes among patients with AIS. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 720 consecutive patients (January 2011 to May 2016) in a retrospective registry, ASIAN KR, from three Korean hospitals, who received EVT for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by cervicocephalic arterial occlusions...
March 2018: Neurointervention
Mira C Patel, Kari Ann Shirey, Marina S Boukhvalova, Stefanie N Vogel, Jorge C G Blanco
Host-derived "danger-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) contribute to innate immune responses and serve as markers of disease progression and severity for inflammatory and infectious diseases. There is accumulating evidence that generation of DAMPs such as oxidized phospholipids and high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) during influenza virus infection leads to acute lung injury (ALI). Treatment of influenza virus-infected mice and cotton rats with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist Eritoran blocked DAMP accumulation and ameliorated influenza virus-induced ALI...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Concetta Federico, Debora Lombardo, Noemi La Porta, Anna Maria Pappalardo, Venera Ferrito, Francesco Lombardo, Salvatore Saccone
The arrival of arthropods at a corpse exhibits specific temporal patterns, and Diptera play a key role in the initial stages of the decomposition process. Thus, the correct species assignment of the insect larvae found on a decomposing body is an important step in forensic investigations. Here, we describe a molecular procedure to define the species at larval age found on a corpse more quickly and easily than current systems. Our method involves a unique PCR amplification of a DNA segment within the evolutionarily conserved wingless gene, involved in embryo development...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Nishanth Makthal, Hackwon Do, Arica R VanderWal, Randall J Olsen, James M Musser, Muthiah Kumaraswami
Bacterial virulence factor production is a highly coordinated process. The temporal pattern of bacterial gene expression varies in different host anatomic sites to overcome niche-specific challenges. The human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS) produces a potent secreted protease, SpeB, that is crucial for pathogenesis. Recently, we discovered that a quorum-sensing pathway comprised of a leaderless short peptide, SpeB-inducing peptide (SIP), and cytosolic global regulator, RopB, controls speB expression in concert with bacterial population density...
March 12, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Wei-Feng Ye, Zhong-Yu Ma, Xiu-Zhen Ha
Air pollution has become a major concern in cities worldwide. The present study explores the spatial-temporal patterns of PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5μm) and the variation in the attainment rate (the number of cities attaining the national PM2.5 standard each day) at different time-scales based on PM2.5 concentrations. One-year of monitoring was conducted in 338 cities at or above the prefectural level in China. Spatial hot spots of PM2.5 were analyzed using exploratory spatial data analysis...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alexia Giannoula, Alba Gutierrez-Sacristán, Álex Bravo, Ferran Sanz, Laura I Furlong
Time is a crucial parameter in the assessment of comorbidities in population-based studies, as it permits to identify more complex disease patterns apart from the pairwise disease associations. So far, it has been, either, completely ignored or only, taken into account by assessing the temporal directionality of identified comorbidity pairs. In this work, a novel time-analysis framework is presented for large-scale comorbidity studies. The disease-history vectors of patients of a regional Spanish health dataset are represented as time sequences of ordered disease diagnoses...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Scinob Kuroki, Shin'ya Nishida
When we touch an object, the skin copies its surface shape/texture, and this deformation pattern shifts according to the objects movement. This shift pattern directly encodes spatio-temporal "motion" information of the event, and has been detected in other modalities (e.g., inter-aural time differences for audition and first-order motion for vision). Since previous studies suggested that mechanoreceptor-afferent channels with small receptive field and slow temporal characteristics contribute to tactile motion perception, we tried to tap the spatio-temporal processor using low-frequency sine-waves as primitive probes in our previous study...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jingcong Li, Zhu Liang Yu, Zhenghui Gu, Wei Wu, Yuanqing Li, Lianwen Jin
Detecting and Please provide the correct one analyzing the event-related potential (ERP) remains an important problem in neuroscience. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and complex spatio-temporal patterns of ERP signals, conventional methods usually rely on ensemble averaging technique for reliable detection, which may obliterate subtle but important information in each trial of ERP signals. Inspired by deep learning methods, we propose a novel hybrid network termed ERP-NET. With hybrid deep structure, the proposed network is able to learn complex spatial and temporal patterns from single-trial ERP signals...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
J Mason Earles, Thorsten Knipfer, Aude Tixier, Jessica Orozco, Clarissa Reyes, Maciej A Zwieniecki, Craig R Brodersen, Andrew J McElrone
Starch is the primary energy storage molecule used by most terrestrial plants to fuel respiration and growth during periods of limited to no photosynthesis, and its depletion can drive plant mortality. Destructive techniques at coarse spatial scales exist to quantify starch, but these techniques face methodological challenges that can lead to uncertainty about the lability of tissue-specific starch pools and their role in plant survival. Here, we demonstrate how X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) and a machine learning algorithm can be coupled to quantify plant starch content in vivo, repeatedly and nondestructively over time in grapevine stems (Vitis spp...
March 8, 2018: New Phytologist
Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez, Agneta Nordberg
The recent progress in the development of in vivo biomarkers is rapidly changing how neurodegenerative diseases are conceptualized and diagnosed, and how clinical trials are designed today. Alzheimer's disease (AD)-the most common neurodegenerative disorder-is characterized by a complex neuropathology involving the deposition of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, accompanied by the activation of glial cells-astrocytes and microglia-and neuroinflammatory responses, leading to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Corrine Jacobs, Roi Holzman
Suction feeding is a widespread prey capture strategy among aquatic vertebrates. It is almost omnipresent across fishes, and has repeatedly evolved in other aquatic vertebrates. By rapidly expanding the mouth cavity, suction-feeders generate a fluid flow outside of their mouth, drawing prey inside. Fish and other suction feeding organisms display remarkable trophic diversity, echoed in the diversity of their skull and mouth morphologies. Yet, it is unclear how variable suction flows are across species, and whether variation in suction flows supports trophic diversity...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Lin Li, Mayur Patel, Joyel Almajano, Jerome Engel, Anatol Bragin
The current study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the intra-/extrahippocampal areas during epileptogenesis. Local field potentials were bilaterally recorded from hippocampus (CA1), thalamus, motor cortex, and prefrontal cortex in 13 rats before and after intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) lesions. HFOs in the ripple (100-200 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) ranges were detected and their rates were computed during different time periods (1-5 weeks) after KA-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
March 6, 2018: Epilepsia
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