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"temporal patterning"

Tommi L Gaines, Daniel Werb, Jaime Arredondo, Victor M Alaniz, Carlos Vilalta, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexico enacted a drug policy reform (Narcomenudeo) designed to divert persons possessing small amounts of illicit drugs to treatment rather than incarceration. To assess reform impact, this study examines the spatial-temporal trends of drug-related policing in Tijuana, Mexico post-enactment. METHOD: Location of self-reported arrests (N = 1,160) among a prospective, community-recruited cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana (N = 552) was mapped across city neighborhoods...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Arpita Bose, Rosalind Wood, Swathi Kiran
BACKGROUND: Verbal fluency tasks are included in a broad range of aphasia assessments. It is well documented that people with aphasia (PWA) produce fewer items in these tasks. Successful performance on verbal fluency relies on the integrity of both linguistic and executive control abilities. It remains unclear if limited output in aphasia is solely due to their lexical retrieval difficulties or has a basis in their executive control abilities. Analysis techniques, such as temporal characteristics of word retrieved, clustering and switching, are better positioned to inform the debate surrounding the lexical and/or executive control contribution for success in verbal fluency...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Christoph Funk, Adrian Roth
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major concern for drug developers, regulators and clinicians. It is triggered by drug and xenobiotic insults leading to liver impairment or damage, in the worst-case liver failure. In contrast to acute "intrinsic" hepatotoxicity, DILI typically manifests in a very small subset of the population under treatment with no clear dose relationship and inconsistent temporal patterns and is therefore termed an idiosyncratic event. Involved are multifactorial, compound-dependent mechanisms and host-specific factors, making the prediction in preclinical test systems very challenging...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Catherine R Glenn, Elizabeth C Lanzillo, Erika C Esposito, Angela C Santee, Matthew K Nock, Randy P Auerbach
Suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) among youth are major public health concerns. Although a growing body of research has focused on the complex association between nonsuicidal and suicidal self-injury, the temporal relationship between these two classes of behaviors is unclear. The current study addresses this empirical gap by examining the course of SITBs in adolescents receiving outpatient (N = 106; 82.1 % female) and inpatient (N = 174; 75.9 % female) treatment. SITBs (co-occurrence, age-of-onset, and time lag between SITBs) and major psychiatric disorders were assessed at a single time point with well-validated structured interviews...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
N Andres Parra, Amber Orman, Kyle Padgett, Victor Casillas, Sanoj Punnen, Matthew Abramowitz, Alan Pollack, Radka Stoyanova
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop an automated procedure for identifying suspicious foci of residual/recurrent disease in the prostate bed using dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) in prostate cancer patients after prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 22 patients presenting for salvage radiotherapy (RT) with an identified gross tumor volume (GTV) in the prostate bed were analyzed retrospectively. An unsupervised pattern recognition method was used to analyze DCE-MRI curves from the prostate bed...
October 19, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Clarissa J Whitmire, Daniel C Millard, Garrett B Stanley
Sensory stimulation drives complex interactions across neural circuits as information is encoded and then transmitted from one brain region to the next. In the highly interconnected thalamocortical circuit, these complex interactions elicit repeatable neural dynamics in response to temporal patterns of stimuli that provide insight into the circuit properties that generated them. Here, using a combination of in-vivo voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging of cortex, single unit recording in thalamus, and optogenetics to manipulate thalamic state in the rodent vibrissa pathway, we probed the thalamocortical circuit with simple temporal patterns of stimuli delivered either to the whiskers on the face (sensory stimulation) or to the thalamus directly via electrical or optogenetic inputs (artificial stimulation)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Aurore Woller, Hélène Duez, Bart Staels, Marc Lefranc
To maintain energy homeostasis despite variable energy supply and consumption along the diurnal cycle, the liver relies on a circadian clock synchronized to food timing. Perturbed feeding and fasting cycles have been associated with clock disruption and metabolic diseases; however, the mechanisms are unclear. To address this question, we have constructed a mathematical model of the mammalian circadian clock, incorporating the metabolic sensors SIRT1 and AMPK. The clock response to various temporal patterns of AMPK activation was simulated numerically, mimicking the effects of a normal diet, fasting, and a high-fat diet...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Daniel Silva de Azevedo, Angela Salomao Macedo Salinet, Marcelo de Lima Oliveira, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Ricardo de Carvalho Nogueira
Cerebral microcirculation is gradually compromised during sepsis, with significant reductions in the function of capillaries and blood perfusion in small vessels. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) has been used to assess cerebral circulation in a typical clinical setting. This study was to systematically review TCD studies, assess their methodological quality, and identify trends that can be associated with the temporal evolution of sepsis and its clinical outcome. A meta-analysis of systematic reviews was conducted according to the PRISMA statement...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Fubiao Wang, Jianchao Liu, Lujian Zhou, Gang Pan, Zhaowei Li, Syed-Hassan-Raza Zaidi, Fangmin Cheng
To clarify the interaction between different antioxidant enzymes for monitoring oxidative stress and ROS burst in rice senescent leaves, we investigated the genotype-dependent alteration in temporal patterns of the O2(•-) production rate, H2O2 content, and ROS-scavenging enzyme activities during leaf senescence in two rice genotypes, namely, the premature senescence of flag leaf (psf) mutant and its wild type. Results showed that the psf mutant differed obviously from its wild type in leaf O2(•-) generation rate and H2O2 content accumulation, and the decreased activities of SOD, CAT, and APX in the psf leaves were strongly responsible for the increased ROS level and the accelerated leaf senescence...
October 11, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Alejandro Ruete, Tord Snäll, Mari Jönsson
Diversity patterns and dynamics at forest edges are not well understood. We disentangle the relative importance of edge-effect variables on spatio-temporal patterns in species richness and occupancy of deadwood-dwelling fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. We related richness and log occupancy by 10 old-growth forest indicator fungi and by two common fungi to log conditions in natural and anthropogenic edge habitats of 31 old-growth Picea abies forest stands in central Sweden. We compared edge-to-interior gradients (100 m) to the forest interior (beyond 100 m), and we analyzed stand-level changes after 10 yr...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Katherine L Tully, Jonathan Hickman, Madeline McKenna, Christopher Neill, Cheryl A Palm
Fertilizer applications are poised to increase across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the fate of added nitrogen (N) is largely unknown. We measured vertical distributions and temporal variations of soil inorganic N following fertilizer application in two maize (Zea mays L.)-growing regions of contrasting soil type. Fertilizer trials were established on a clayey soil in Yala, Kenya, and on a sandy soil in Tumbi, Tanzania, with application rates of 0-200 kg N/ha/yr. Soil profiles were collected (0-400 cm) annually (for three years in Yala and two years in Tumbi) to examine changes in inorganic N pools...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jennifer D H Walthall, Aaron Burgess, Elizabeth Weinstein, Charles Miramonti, Thomas Arkins, Sarah Wiehe
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe spatiotemporal correlates of pediatric violent injury in an urban community. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using patient-level data (2009-2011) from a novel emergency medical service computerized entry system for violent injury resulting in an ambulance dispatch among children aged 0 to 16 years. Assault location and patient residence location were cleaned and geocoded at a success rate of 98%. Distances from the assault location to both home and nearest school were calculated...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Tengfei Guo, Matthias Brendel, Timo Grimmer, Axel Rominger, Igor Yakushev
: Knowledge about spatial and temporal patterns of beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is essential for understanding Alzheimer's disease (AD) and for design of anti-amyloid drug trials. Here, we tested if the regional pattern of longitudinal Aβ accumulation can be predicted by baseline amyloid PET. METHODS: Analyzed were baseline and 2 years follow-up (18)F-florbetapir PET data from 58 patients with incipient and manifest dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). By determining how fast amyloid deposits in a given region relative to the whole brain grey matter, a pseudo-temporal accumulation rate for each region was calculated...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Kacie Seil, Jennifer Marcum, Ramona Lall, Catherine Stayton
BACKGROUND: The New York City emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance (SS) system provides near real-time data on the majority of ED visits. The utility of ED SS for injury surveillance has not been thoroughly evaluated. We created injury syndromes based on ED chief complaint information and evaluated their utility compared to administrative billing data. METHODS: Six injury syndromes were developed: traffic-related injuries to pedal cyclists, pedestrians, and motor vehicle occupants; fall-related injuries; firearm-related injuries; and assault-related stabbings...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Afshin Samani, Divya Srinivasan, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Pascal Madeleine
The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg's CR-10 scale. We collected high-density surface electromyogram (HD-EMG) over the upper trapezius, as well as bipolar EMG from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius from 21 healthy women...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Maiara L Bouzas, Juliana R Oliveira, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Igor C Borges, Aldina Barral, Winke Van der Gucht, Elke Wollants, Marc Van Ranst, Camila I de Oliveira, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common etiological agents of childhood respiratory infections globally. Information on seasonality of different antigenic groups is scarce. We aimed to describe the frequency, seasonality, and age of children infected by RSV antigenic groups A (RSVA) and B (RSVB) among children with ARI in a 4-year period.Children (6-23 months old) with respiratory infection for ≤7 days were enrolled in a prospective cross-sectional study, from September, 2009 to October, 2013, in Salvador, in a tropical region of Brazil...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gennady Andrienko, Natalia Andrienko, Georg Fuchs, Jo Wood
Origin-destination (OD) movement data describe moves or trips between spatial locations by specifying the origins, destinations, start, and end times, but not the routes travelled. For studying the spatio-temporal patterns and trends of mass mobility, individual OD moves of many people are aggregated into flows (collective moves) by time intervals. Time-variant flow data pose two difficult challenges for visualization and analysis. First, flows may connect arbitrary locations (not only neighbors), thus making a graph with numerous edge intersections, which is hard to visualize in a comprehensible way...
October 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Eun-Kyeong Kim, Hang-Hyun Jo
Characterizing inhomogeneous temporal patterns in natural and social phenomena is important to understand underlying mechanisms behind such complex systems and, hence, even to predict and control them. Temporal inhomogeneities in event sequences have been described in terms of bursts that are rapidly occurring events in short time periods alternating with long inactive periods. The bursts can be quantified by a simple measure, called the burstiness parameter, which was introduced by Goh and Barabási [Europhys...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Natalia Królikowska, Jakub Szymkowiak, Rebecca Anne Laidlaw, Lechosław Kuczyński
Birds exhibit various forms of anti-predator behaviours to avoid reproductive failure, with mobbing-observation, approach and usually harassment of a predator-being one of the most commonly observed. Here, we investigate patterns of temporal variation in the mobbing response exhibited by a precocial species, the northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus). We test whether brood age and self-reliance, or the perceived risk posed by various predators, affect mobbing response of lapwings. We quantified aggressive interactions between lapwings and their natural avian predators and used generalized additive models to test how timing and predator species identity are related to the mobbing response of lapwings...
2016: Acta Ethologica
Benjamin C Williams, Gordon H Kruse, Martin W Dorn
Catch quotas for walleye pollock Gadus chalcogrammus, the dominant species in the groundfish fishery off Alaska, are set by applying harvest control rules to annual estimates of spawning stock biomass (SSB) from age-structured stock assessments. Adult walleye pollock abundance and maturity status have been monitored in early spring in Shelikof Strait in the Gulf of Alaska for almost three decades. The sampling strategy for maturity status is largely characterized as targeted, albeit opportunistic, sampling of trawl tows made during hydroacoustic surveys...
2016: PloS One
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