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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328546/temporal-patterns-and-drug-resistance-in-csf-viral-escape-among-art-experienced-hiv-1-infected-adults
#1
Shibani S Mukerji, Vikas Misra, David Lorenz, Anna M Cervantes-Arslanian, Jennifer Lyons, Spyridon Chalkias, Alysse Wurcel, Deirdre Burke, Nagagopal Venna, Susan Morgello, Igor J Koralnik, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape is an increasingly recognized clinical event among HIV-1-infected adults. We analyzed longitudinal data and drug-resistance mutations to characterize profiles of HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy with discordant CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. METHODS: Forty-one cases of CSF escape defined as detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA when plasma levels were undetectable, or HIV-1 RNA >0.5-log higher in CSF than plasma, were identified from Boston Hospitals and National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) from 2005-2016...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327111/temporal-distribution-of-gastroenteritis-viruses-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso-seasonality-of-rotavirus
#2
Nafissatou Ouedraogo, Stephanie Moustapha Tomba Ngangas, Isidore Juste Ouindguèta Bonkoungou, Aissatou Bénéwendé Tiendrebeogo, Kuan Abdoulaye Traore, Idrissa Sanou, Alfred Sababénédjo Traore, Nicolas Barro
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among children and adults, and continues to cause a major problem of public health in Burkina Faso. The temporal pattern of rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A was studied by examining prevalence of gastroenteritis viruses in association with meteorological variables in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. METHODS: Stool samples from 263 children under 5 years of age and 170 older children patients, adolescent and adults with gastroenteritis were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012...
March 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326910/circadian-rhythms-in-plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-differ-in-men-and-women
#3
Sean W Cain, Anne-Marie Chang, Irma Vlasac, Archana Tare, Clare Anderson, Charles A Czeisler, Richa Saxena
The measurement of circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a marker of disease and an indicator of recovery. Thus, knowing the temporal pattern and influence of potential circadian rhythms is important. Although several studies have measured BDNF at different times of day, no studies have done so while controlling for potential masking influences such as sleep and activity. Further, no previous study has examined circadian rhythms within individuals. We examined circadian rhythms in plasma BDNF while minimizing masking from behavioral and environmental factors using a 30-h constant routine (CR) protocol...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326126/scenarios-in-tropical-forest-degradation-carbon-stock-trajectories-for-redd
#4
REVIEW
Rafael B de Andrade, Jennifer K Balch, Amoreena L Parsons, Dolors Armenteras, Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Janette Bulkan
BACKGROUND: Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests-such as logging and fire-causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Using best available information, we: (i) develop short-term emissions factors (per area) for logging and fire degradation scenarios in tropical forests; and (ii) describe the temporal pattern of degradation emissions and recovery trajectory post logging and fire disturbance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325610/depositional-history-and-inventories-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-in-sediment-cores-from-an-antarctic-specially-managed-area-admiralty-bay-king-george-island
#5
Tatiane Combi, César C Martins, Satie Taniguchi, Juliana Leonel, Rafael André Lourenço, Rosalinda Carmela Montone
Temporal patterns, fluxes and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in nine sediment cores collected from selected areas of Admiralty Bay off the Antarctic Peninsula. Concentrations of total PCBs were low, but slightly higher in comparison to low-impacted, remote environments in the world, ranging from below the detection limit to 11.9ngg(-1) in dry weight. PCB concentrations and inventories suggest a possible minor influence related to the nearby logistic activities, especially in the sediment core collected close to the Ferraz Station...
March 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324854/accounting-for-urban-biogenic-fluxes-in-regional-carbon-budgets
#6
Brady S Hardiman, Jonathan A Wang, Lucy R Hutyra, Conor K Gately, Jackie M Getson, Mark A Friedl
Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323620/discovery-of-novel-determinants-of-endothelial-lineage-using-chimeric-heterokaryons
#7
Wing Tak Wong, Gianfranco Matrone, XiaoYu Tian, Simion Alin Tomoiaga, Kin Fai Au, Shu Meng, Sayumi Yamazoe, Daniel Sieveking, Kaifu Chen, David M Burns, James K Chen, Helen M Blau, John P Cooke
We wish to identify determinants of endothelial lineage. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) were fused with human endothelial cells in stable, non-dividing, heterokaryons. Using RNA-seq it is possible to discriminate between human and mouse transcripts in these chimeric heterokaryons. We observed a temporal pattern of gene expression in the ESCs of the heterokaryons that recapitulated ontogeny, with early mesodermal factors being expressed before mature endothelial genes. A set of transcriptional factors not known to be involved in endothelial development was upregulated, one of which was POU class 3 homeobox 2 (Pou3f2)...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320315/comparative-transcriptome-analyses-of-flower-development-in-four-species-of-achimenes-gesneriaceae
#8
Wade R Roberts, Eric H Roalson
BACKGROUND: Flowers have an amazingly diverse display of colors and shapes, and these characteristics often vary significantly among closely related species. The evolution of diverse floral form can be thought of as an adaptive response to pollination and reproduction, but it can also be seen through the lens of morphological and developmental constraints. To explore these interactions, we use RNA-seq across species and development to investigate gene expression and sequence evolution as they relate to the evolution of the diverse flowers in a group of Neotropical plants native to Mexico-magic flowers (Achimenes, Gesneriaceae)...
March 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319125/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-gun-violence-in-syracuse-new-york-2009-2015
#9
David A Larsen, Sandra Lane, Timothy Jennings-Bey, Arnett Haygood-El, Kim Brundage, Robert A Rubinstein
Gun violence in the United States of America is a large public health problem that disproportionately affects urban areas. The epidemiology of gun violence reflects various aspects of an infectious disease including spatial and temporal clustering. We examined the spatial and temporal trends of gun violence in Syracuse, New York, a city of 145,000. We used a spatial scan statistic to reveal spatio-temporal clusters of gunshots investigated and corroborated by Syracuse City Police Department for the years 2009-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314850/temporal-trends-and-temperature-related-incidence-of-electrical-storm-the-tempest-study-temperature-related-incidence-of-electrical-storm
#10
Federico Guerra, Paolo Bonelli, Marco Flori, Laura Cipolletta, Corrado Carbucicchio, Maite Izquierdo, Edward Kozluk, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Marmar Vaseghi, Francesca Patani, Claudio Cupido, Salvatore Pala, Ricardo Ruiz-Granell, Angel Ferrero, Claudio Tondo, Alessandro Capucci
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias seems to follow circadian, daily, and seasonal distributions. Our aim is to identify potential temporal patterns of electrical storm (ES), in which a cluster of ventricular tachycardias or ventricular fibrillation, negatively affects short- and long-term survival. METHODS AND RESULTS: The TEMPEST study (Circannual Pattern and Temperature-Related Incidence of Electrical Storm) is a patient-level, pooled analysis of previously published data sets...
March 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300478/step-by-step-harvesting-the-dynamics-of-delay-discounting-decisions
#11
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
People show a tendency to devalue rewards when they are delayed in time. This so-called delay discounting often happens to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. Research studying outcomes of delay discounting decisions has successfully derived descriptive models for such choice preferences. However, this outcome-based approach faces limitations in integrating the influence of contextual factors on the decision. Recently, this outcome-centred perspective on delay discounting has been complemented by a focus on the process dynamics leading to delay discounting decisions...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292833/mesoscale-architecture-shapes-initiation-and-richness-of-spontaneous-network-activity
#12
Samora Okujeni, Steffen Kandler, Ulrich Egert
Spontaneous activity in the absence of external input, including propagating waves of activity, is a robust feature of neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro. The neurophysiological and anatomical requirements for initiation and persistence of such activity, however, are poorly understood, as is their role in the function of neuronal networks. Computational network studies indicate that clustered connectivity may foster the generation, maintenance and richness of spontaneous activity. Since this mesoscale architecture cannot be systematically modified in intact tissue, testing these predictions is impracticable in vivo...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291615/seasonal-patterns-of-water-quality-and-phytoplankton-dynamics-in-surface-waters-in-guangzhou-and-foshan-china
#13
Yanggui Xu, Adela Jing Li, Junhao Qin, Qi Li, Jonathan G Ho, Huashou Li
During 2015, we studied the temporal patterns of nutrient concentrations and turbidity in water bodies with different degrees of agricultural and urban pressures across Guangzhou and Foshan (China). Data and observations were made by trained citizen scientists and professional researchers. Our study shows that all monitored water bodies, with the exception of Qiandeng Lake and Fengjiang River, had elevated NO3(-)-N concentrations, which ranged from 0.10 to 6.83mg/L and peaked in late winter and early spring and reached a minimum in summer and mid-autumn...
March 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284374/niche-contractions-in-declining-species-mechanisms-and-consequences
#14
REVIEW
Ben C Scheele, Claire N Foster, Sam C Banks, David B Lindenmayer
A fundamental aim of conservation biology is to understand how species respond to threatening processes, with much research effort focused on identifying threats and quantifying spatial and temporal patterns of species decline. Here, we argue that threats often reduce the realized niche breadth of declining species because environmental, biotic, and evolutionary processes reduce or amplify threats, or because a species' capacity to tolerate threats varies across niche space. Our 'niche reduction hypothesis' provides a new lens for understanding why species decline in some locations and not others...
March 8, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284091/pesticide-occurrence-and-spatio-temporal-variability-in-urban-run-off-across-australia
#15
Megan A Rippy, Ana Deletic, Jeff Black, Rupak Aryal, Jane-Louise Lampard, Janet Yat-Man Tang, David McCarthy, Peter Kolotelo, Jatinder Sidhu, Wolfgang Gernjak
Stormwater is a major driving factor of aquatic ecosystem degradation as well as one of the largest untapped urban freshwater resources. We present results from a long-term, multi-catchment study of urban stormwater pesticides across Australia that addresses this dichotomous identity (threat and resource), as well as dominant spatial and temporal patterns in stormwater pesticide composition. Of the 27 pesticides monitored, only 19 were detected in Australian stormwater, five of which (diuron, MCPA, 2,4-D, simazine, and triclopyr) were found in >50% of samples...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283582/self-organized-developmental-patterning-and-differentiation-in-cerebral-organoids
#16
Magdalena Renner, Madeline A Lancaster, Shan Bian, Heejin Choi, Taeyun Ku, Angela Peer, Kwanghun Chung, Juergen A Knoblich
Cerebral organoids recapitulate human brain development at a considerable level of detail, even in the absence of externally added signaling factors. The patterning events driving this self-organization are currently unknown. Here, we examine the developmental and differentiative capacity of cerebral organoids. Focusing on forebrain regions, we demonstrate the presence of a variety of discrete ventral and dorsal regions. Clearing and subsequent 3D reconstruction of entire organoids reveal that many of these regions are interconnected, suggesting that the entire range of dorso-ventral identities can be generated within continuous neuroepithelia...
March 10, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281292/assessing-global-transitions-in-human-development-and-colorectal-cancer-incidence
#17
Miranda M Fidler, Freddie Bray, Salvatore Vaccarella, Isabelle Soerjomataram
Colorectal cancer incidence has paralleled increases in human development across most countries. Yet, marked decreases in incidence are now observed in countries that have attained very high human development. Thus, in this study, we explored the relationship between human development and colorectal cancer incidence, and in particular assessed whether national transitions to very high human development are linked to temporal patterns in colorectal cancer incidence. For these analyses, we utilized the Human Development Index (HDI) and annual incidence data from regional and national cancer registries...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279809/historical-biogeography-of-the-highly-diverse-brown-seaweed-lobophora-dictyotales-phaeophyceae
#18
Christophe Vieira, Olga Camacho, Zhongmin Sun, Suzanne Fredericq, Frederik Leliaert, Claude Payri, Olivier De Clerck
The tropical to warm-temperate marine brown macroalgal genus Lobophora (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) recently drew attention because of its striking regional diversity. In this study we reassess Lobophora global species diversity, and species distributions, and explore how historical factors have shaped current diversity patterns. We applied a series of algorithmic species delineation techniques on a global mitochondrial cox3 dataset of 598 specimens, resulting in an estimation of 98-121 species. This diversity by far exceeds traditional diversity estimates based on morphological data...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279351/single-cell-profiling-of-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-of-human-interneuron-development-reveals-temporal-dynamics-of-cell-type-production-and-maturation
#19
Jennie L Close, Zizhen Yao, Boaz P Levi, Jeremy A Miller, Trygve E Bakken, Vilas Menon, Jonathan T Ting, Abigail Wall, Anne-Rachel Krostag, Elliot R Thomsen, Angel M Nelson, John K Mich, Rebecca D Hodge, Soraya I Shehata, Ian A Glass, Susan Bort, Nadiya V Shapovalova, N Kiet Ngo, Joshua S Grimley, John W Phillips, Carol L Thompson, Sharad Ramanathan, Ed Lein
GABAergic interneurons are essential for neural circuit function, and their loss or dysfunction is implicated in human neuropsychiatric disease. In vitro methods for interneuron generation hold promise for studying human cellular and functional properties and, ultimately, for therapeutic cell replacement. Here we describe a protocol for generating cortical interneurons from hESCs and analyze the properties and maturation time course of cell types using single-cell RNA-seq. We find that the cell types produced mimic in vivo temporal patterns of neuron and glial production, with immature progenitors and neurons observed early and mature cortical neurons and glial cell types produced late...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278208/parallel-group-independent-component-analysis-for-massive-fmri-data-sets
#20
Shaojie Chen, Lei Huang, Huitong Qiu, Mary Beth Nebel, Stewart H Mostofsky, James J Pekar, Martin A Lindquist, Ani Eloyan, Brian S Caffo
Independent component analysis (ICA) is widely used in the field of functional neuroimaging to decompose data into spatio-temporal patterns of co-activation. In particular, ICA has found wide usage in the analysis of resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data. Recently, a number of large-scale data sets have become publicly available that consist of rs-fMRI scans from thousands of subjects. As a result, efficient ICA algorithms that scale well to the increased number of subjects are required. To address this problem, we propose a two-stage likelihood-based algorithm for performing group ICA, which we denote Parallel Group Independent Component Analysis (PGICA)...
2017: PloS One
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