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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166600/dopamine-receptor-damb-signals-via-gq-to-mediate-forgetting-in-drosophila
#1
Sophie Himmelreich, Ikuo Masuho, Jacob A Berry, Courtney MacMullen, Nickolas K Skamangas, Kirill A Martemyanov, Ronald L Davis
Prior studies have shown that aversive olfactory memory is acquired by dopamine acting on a specific receptor, dDA1, expressed by mushroom body neurons. Active forgetting is mediated by dopamine acting on another receptor, Damb, expressed by the same neurons. Surprisingly, prior studies have shown that both receptors stimulate cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, presenting an enigma of how mushroom body neurons distinguish between acquisition and forgetting signals. Here, we surveyed the spectrum of G protein coupling of dDA1 and Damb, and we confirmed that both receptors can couple to Gs to stimulate cAMP synthesis...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155751/dissection-and-immunofluorescent-staining-of-mushroom-body-and-photoreceptor-neurons-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-brains
#2
Seth M Kelly, Alexandra Elchert, Michael Kahl
Nervous system development involves a sequential series of events that are coordinated by several signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Many of the proteins involved in these pathways are evolutionarily conserved between mammals and other eukaryotes, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that similar organizing principles exist during the development of these organisms. Importantly, Drosophila has been used extensively to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating processes that are required in mammals including neurogenesis, differentiation, axonal guidance, and synaptogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127660/exposure-to-a-sublethal-concentration-of-imidacloprid-and-the-side-effects-on-target-and-nontarget-organs-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#3
Aline Fernanda Catae, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Mario Sergio Palma, Osmar Malaspina
The use of insecticides has become increasingly frequent, and studies indicate that these compounds are involved in the intoxication of bees. Imidacloprid is a widely used neonicotinoid; thus, we have highlighted the importance of assessing its oral toxicity to Africanized bees and used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the sublethal effects in the brain, the target organ, and the midgut, responsible for the digestion/absorption of food. In addition, the distribution of proteins involved in important biological processes in the brain were evaluated on the 1st day of exposure by MALDI-imaging analysis...
November 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114209/the-biogenic-amine-tyramine-and-its-receptor-amtyr1-in-olfactory-neuropils-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-brain
#4
Irina T Sinakevitch, Sasha M Daskalova, Brian H Smith
This article describes the cellular sources for tyramine and the cellular targets of tyramine via the Tyramine Receptor 1 (AmTyr1) in the olfactory learning and memory neuropils of the honey bee brain. Clusters of approximately 160 tyramine immunoreactive neurons are the source of tyraminergic fibers with small varicosities in the optic lobes, antennal lobes, lateral protocerebrum, mushroom body (calyces and gamma lobes), tritocerebrum and subesophageal ganglion (SEG). Our tyramine mapping study shows that the primary sources of tyramine in the antennal lobe and calyx of the mushroom body are from at least two Ventral Unpaired Median neurons (VUMmd and VUMmx) with cell bodies in the SEG...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109678/identification-of-genes-that-maintain-behavioral-and-structural-plasticity-during-sleep-loss
#5
Laurent Seugnet, Stephane Dissel, Matthew Thimgan, Lijuan Cao, Paul J Shaw
Although patients with primary insomnia experience sleep disruption, they are able to maintain normal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. This observation suggests that insomnia may be a condition where predisposing factors simultaneously increase the risk for insomnia and also mitigate against the deleterious consequences of waking. To gain insight into processes that might regulate sleep and buffer neuronal circuits during sleep loss, we manipulated three genes, fat facet (faf), highwire (hiw) and the GABA receptor Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl), that were differentially modulated in a Drosophila model of insomnia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096051/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-novel-neural-immediate-early-genes-possibly-differentially-contributing-to-foraging-related-learning-and-memory-processes-in-the-honeybee
#6
A Ugajin, H Uchiyama, T Miyata, T Sasaki, S Yajima, M Ono
Despite possessing a limited number of neurones compared to vertebrates, honeybees show remarkable learning and memory performance, an example being 'dance communication'. In this phenomenon, foraging honeybees learn the location of a newly discovered food source and transmit the information to nestmates by symbolic abdomen vibrating behaviour, leading to navigation of nestmates to the new food source. As an initial step toward understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the sophisticated learning and memory performance of the honeybee, we focused on the neural immediate early genes (IEGs), which are specific genes quickly transcribed after neural activity without de novo protein synthesis...
November 2, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093221/experience-dependent-mushroom-body-plasticity-in-butterflies-consequences-of-search-complexity-and-host-range
#7
Laura J A van Dijk, Niklas Janz, Alexander Schäpers, Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Mikael A Carlsson
An ovipositing insect experiences many sensory challenges during her search for a suitable host plant. These sensory challenges become exceedingly pronounced when host range increases, as larger varieties of sensory inputs have to be perceived and processed in the brain. Neural capacities can be exceeded upon information overload, inflicting costs on oviposition accuracy. One presumed generalist strategy to diminish information overload is the acquisition of a focused search during its lifetime based on experiences within the current environment, a strategy opposed to a more genetically determined focus expected to be seen in relative specialists...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082071/rapid-adaptive-remote-focusing-microscope-for-sensing-of-volumetric-neural-activity
#8
Mantas Žurauskas, Oliver Barnstedt, Maria Frade-Rodriguez, Scott Waddell, Martin J Booth
The ability to record neural activity in the brain of a living organism at cellular resolution is of great importance for defining the neural circuit mechanisms that direct behavior. Here we present an adaptive two-photon microscope optimized for extraction of neural signals over volumes in intact Drosophila brains, even in the presence of specimen motion. High speed volume imaging was made possible through reduction of spatial resolution while maintaining the light collection efficiency of a high resolution, high numerical aperture microscope...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080790/scalloped-a-member-of-the-hippo-tumor-suppressor-pathway-controls-mushroom-body-size-in-drosophila-brain-by-non-canonical-regulation-of-neuroblast-proliferation
#9
Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah Rohith, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty Shyamala
Cell proliferation, growth and survival are three different basic processes which converge at determining a fundamental property -the size of an organism. Scalloped (Sd) is the first characterised transcriptional partner to Yorkie (Yki), the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway which is a highly potential and evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size. Here we have studied the hypomorphic effect of sd on the development of Mushroom Bodies (MBs) in Drosophila brain. We show that, sd non-function results in an increase in the size of MBs...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074576/a-pre-synaptic-function-of-shank-protein-in-drosophila
#10
Song Wu, Guangming Gan, Zhiping Zhang, Jie Sun, Qifu Wang, Zhongbao Gao, Meixiang Li, Shan Jin, Juan Huang, Ulrich Thomas, Yong-Hui Jiang, Yan Li, Rui Tian, Yong Q Zhang
Human genetic studies support that loss of function mutations in the [highlight]SH[/highlight]3 domain and [highlight]ank[/highlight]yrin repeat containing family proteins (SHANK1-3), the large synaptic scaffolding proteins enriched at the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses, are causative for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. To better understand the in vivo functions of Shank and facilitate dissection of neuropathology associated with SHANK mutations in human, we generated multiple mutations in the Shank gene, the only member of the SHANK family in Drosophila melanogaster Both male and female Shank null mutants were fully viable and fertile with no apparent morphological or developmental defects...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069077/functional-convergence-of-histone-methyltransferases-ehmt1-and-kmt2c-involved-in-intellectual-disability-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Tom S Koemans, Tjitske Kleefstra, Melissa C Chubak, Max H Stone, Margot R F Reijnders, Sonja de Munnik, Marjolein H Willemsen, Michaela Fenckova, Connie T R M Stumpel, Levinus A Bok, Margarita Sifuentes Saenz, Kyna A Byerly, Linda B Baughn, Alexander P A Stegmann, Rolph Pfundt, Huiqing Zhou, Hans van Bokhoven, Annette Schenck, Jamie M Kramer
Kleefstra syndrome, caused by haploinsufficiency of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characteristic facial dysmorphisms, and other variable clinical features. In addition to EHMT1 mutations, de novo variants were reported in four additional genes (MBD5, SMARCB1, NR1I3, and KMT2C), in single individuals with clinical characteristics overlapping Kleefstra syndrome. Here, we present a novel cohort of five patients with de novo loss of function mutations affecting the histone methyltransferase KMT2C...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064449/molecular-affinity-of-mabolo-extracts-to-an-octopamine-receptor-of-a-fruit-fly
#12
Francoise Neil D Dacanay, Ma Carmina Joyce A Ladra, Hiyas A Junio, Ricky B Nellas
Essential oils extracted from plants are composed of volatile organic compounds that can affect insect behavior. Identifying the active components of the essential oils to their biochemical target is necessary to design novel biopesticides. In this study, essential oils extracted from Diospyros discolor (Willd.) were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) to create an untargeted metabolite profile. Subsequently, a conformational ensemble of the Drosophila melanogaster octopamine receptor in mushroom bodies (OAMB) was created from a molecular dynamics simulation to resemble a flexible receptor for docking studies...
October 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062138/increased-complexity-of-mushroom-body-kenyon-cell-subtypes-in-the-brain-is-associated-with-behavioral-evolution-in-hymenopteran-insects
#13
Satoyo Oya, Hiroki Kohno, Yooichi Kainoh, Masato Ono, Takeo Kubo
In insect brains, the mushroom bodies (MBs) are a higher-order center for sensory integration and memory. Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) MBs comprise four Kenyon cell (KC) subtypes: class I large-, middle-, and small-type, and class II KCs, which are distinguished by the size and location of somata, and gene expression profiles. Although these subtypes have only been reported in the honeybee, the time of their acquisition during evolution remains unknown. Here we performed in situ hybridization of tachykinin-related peptide, which is differentially expressed among KC subtypes in the honeybee MBs, in four hymenopteran species to analyze whether the complexity of KC subtypes is associated with their behavioral traits...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061687/environmental-effects-on-drosophila-brain-development-and-learning
#14
Xia Wang, Amei Amei, J Steven de Belle, Stephen P Roberts
Brain development and behavior are sensitive to a variety of environmental influences including social interactions and physicochemical stressors. Sensory input in situ is a mosaic of both enrichment and stress, yet little is known about how multiple environmental factors interact to affect brain anatomical structures, circuits, and cognitive function. In this study, we address these issues by testing the individual and combined effects of sub-adulthood thermal stress, larval density, and early-adulthood living spatial enrichment on brain anatomy and olfactory associative learning in adult Drosophila melanogaster In response to heat stress, the mushroom bodies (MBs) were the most volumetrically impaired among all of the brain structures, an effect highly correlated with reduced odor learning performance...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059675/nasonia-parasitic-wasps-escape-from-haller-s-rule-by-diphasic-partially-isometric-brain-body-size-scaling-and-selective-neuropil-adaptations
#15
Jitte Groothuis, Hans M Smid
Haller's rule states that brains scale allometrically with body size in all animals, meaning that relative brain size increases with decreasing body size. This rule applies both on inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Only 1 species, the extremely small parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens, is known as an exception and shows an isometric brain-body size relation in an intraspecific comparison between differently sized individuals. Here, we investigated if such an isometric brain-body size relationship also occurs in an intraspecific comparison with a slightly larger parasitic wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, a species that may vary 10-fold in body weight upon differences in levels of scramble competition during larval development...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024727/interspecific-comparison-of-mushroom-body-synaptic-complexes-of-dimorphic-workers-in-the-ant-genus-pheidole
#16
Darcy G Gordon, Alejandra Zelaya, Katherine Ronk, James F A Traniello
Social insects may have morphologically and behaviorally specialized workers that vary in requirements for sensory information processing, making them excellent systems to examine the relationship between brain structure and behavior. The density and size of synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MG) in the mushroom bodies (MB) have served as proxies for processing ability and synaptic plasticity, and have been shown to vary among insect species that differ in behavioral complexity. To understand the relationship between behavioral specialization and synaptic structure, we examined age-related changes in MG density and size between minor worker and soldier subcastes in two species of Pheidole ants, P...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993465/camp-signaling-mediates-behavioral-flexibility-and-consolidation-of-social-status-in-drosophila-aggression
#17
Nitin Singh Chouhan, Krithika Mohan, Aurnab Ghose
Social rituals, like male-male aggression in Drosophila, are often stereotyped and the component behavioral patterns modular. The likelihood of transition from one behavioral pattern to another is malleable by experience and confers flexibility to the behavioral repertoire. Experience-dependent modification of innate aggressive behavior in flies alters fighting strategies during fights and establishes dominant-subordinate relationships. Dominance hierarchies resulting from agonistic encounters are consolidated to longer lasting social status-dependent behavioral modifications resulting in a robust loser effect...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978727/a-possible-structural-correlate-of-learning-performance-on-a-colour-discrimination-task-in-the-brain-of-the-bumblebee
#18
Li Li, HaDi MaBouDi, Michaela Egertová, Maurice R Elphick, Lars Chittka, Clint J Perry
Synaptic plasticity is considered to be a basis for learning and memory. However, the relationship between synaptic arrangements and individual differences in learning and memory is poorly understood. Here, we explored how the density of microglomeruli (synaptic complexes) within specific regions of the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) brain relates to both visual learning and inter-individual differences in learning and memory performance on a visual discrimination task. Using whole-brain immunolabelling, we measured the density of microglomeruli in the collar region (visual association areas) of the mushroom bodies of the bumblebee brain...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973902/drk-mediated-signaling-to-rho-kinase-is-required-for-anesthesia-resistant-memory-in-drosophila
#19
Vasileia Kotoula, Anastasios Moressis, Ourania Semelidou, Efthimios M C Skoulakis
Anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) was described decades ago, but the mechanisms that underlie this protein synthesis-independent form of consolidated memory in Drosophila remain poorly understood. Whether the several signaling molecules, receptors, and synaptic proteins currently implicated in ARM operate in one or more pathways and how they function in the process remain unclear. We present evidence that Drk, the Drosophila ortholog of the adaptor protein Grb2, is essential for ARM within adult mushroom body neurons...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966087/steroid-hormone-ecdysone-signaling-specifies-mushroom-body-neuron-sequential-fate-via-chinmo
#20
Giovanni Marchetti, Gaia Tavosanis
The functional variety in neuronal composition of an adult brain is established during development. Recent studies proposed that interactions between genetic intrinsic programs and external cues are necessary to generate proper neural diversity [1]. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this developmental process are still poorly understood. Three main subtypes of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons are sequentially generated during development and provide a good example of developmental neural plasticity [2]...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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