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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416632/null-epac-mutants-reveal-a-sequential-order-of-versatile-camp-effects-during-drosophila-aversive-odor-learning
#1
Antje Richlitzki, Philipp Latour, Martin Schwärzel
Here, we define a role of the cAMP intermediate EPAC in Drosophila aversive odor learning by means of null epac mutants. Complementation analysis revealed that EPAC acts downstream from the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase and in parallel to protein kinase A. By means of targeted knockdown and genetic rescue we identified mushroom body Kenyon cells (KCs) as a necessary and sufficient site of EPAC action. We provide mechanistic insights by analyzing acquisition dynamics and using the "performance increment" as a means to access the trial-based sequential organization of odor learning...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416593/two-components-of-aversive-memory-in-drosophila-anesthesia-sensitive-and-anesthesia-resistant-memory-require-distinct-domains-within-the-rgk1-small-gtpase
#2
Satoshi Murakami, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Ryuichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tetsuya Tabata
For aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila, multiple components have been identified that exhibit different stabilities. These components have been defined by behavioral and genetic studies, and genes specifically required for a specific component have also been identified. Intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We determined that the ASM and ARM pathways converged on the Rgk1 small GTPase and that the N-terminal domain-deleted Rgk1 was sufficient for ASM formation, whereas the full-length form was required for ARM formation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401598/dcf1-improves-behavior-deficit-in-drosophila-and-mice-caused-by-optogenetic-suppression
#3
Qiang Liu, Linhua Gan, Jian Ni, Yu Chen, Yanlu Chen, Zhili Huang, Xu Huang, Tieqiao Wen
Optogenetics play a significant role in neuroscientific research by providing a tool for understanding neural circuits and brain functions. Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) actively pumps chloride ions into the cells and hyperpolarizes neuronal membranes in response to yellow light. In this study, we generated transgenic Drosophila expressing NpHR under the control of the Gal4/UAS system and virus-infected mice expressing NpHR to explore the effect of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) on the behavior mediated by the mushroom body in Drosophila and the dentate gyrus (DG) in mice...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396840/suppression-of-a-single-pair-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila-triggers-aversive-associations
#4
Yutaro Ueoka, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Tetsuya Tabata
Memory includes the processes of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. In the study of aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster, flies are first exposed to an odor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) that is associated with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), then to another odor (CS-) without the US, before allowing the flies to choose to avoid one of the two odors. The center for memory formation is the mushroom body which consists of Kenyon cells (KCs), dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and mushroom body output neurons (MBONs)...
April 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396149/disco-interacting-protein-2-determines-direction-of-axon-projection-under-the-regulation-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body
#5
Yohei Nitta, Atsushi Sugie
Precisely controlled axon guidance for complex neuronal wiring is essential for appropriate neuronal function. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was found to play a role in axon guidance recently as well as in cell proliferation, protection and apoptosis. In spite of many genetic and molecular studies on these biological processes regulated by JNK, how JNK regulates axon guidance accurately has not been fully explained thus far. To address this question, we use the Drosophila mushroom body (MB) as a model since the α/β axons project in two distinct directions...
April 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379939/re-evaluation-of-learned-information-in-drosophila
#6
Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni, Suewei Lin, Scott Waddell
Animals constantly assess the reliability of learned information to optimize their behaviour. On retrieval, consolidated long-term memory can be neutralized by extinction if the learned prediction was inaccurate. Alternatively, retrieved memory can be maintained, following a period of reconsolidation during which it is labile. Although extinction and reconsolidation provide opportunities to alleviate problematic human memories, we lack a detailed mechanistic understanding of memory updating. Here we identify neural operations underpinning the re-evaluation of memory in Drosophila...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366532/the-drosophila-circuitry-of-sleep-wake-regulation
#7
REVIEW
Gregory Artiushin, Amita Sehgal
Sleep is a deeply conserved, yet fundamentally mysterious behavioral state. Knowledge of the circuitry of sleep-wake regulation is an essential step in understanding the physiology of the sleeping brain. Recent efforts in Drosophila have revealed new populations which impact sleep, as well as provided unprecedented mechanistic and electrophysiological detail of established sleep-regulating neurons. Multiple, distributed centers of sleep-wake circuitry exist in the fly, including the mushroom bodies, central complex and the circadian clock cells...
March 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337138/motor-skill-learning-in-an-insect-inspired-neuro-computational-control-system
#8
Eleonora Arena, Paolo Arena, Roland Strauss, Luca Patané
In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328153/behavioral-transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-social-challenge-in-honey-bees
#9
Hagai Y Shpigler, Michael C Saul, Emma E Murdoch, Amy C Cash-Ahmed, Christopher H Seward, Laura Sloofman, Sriram Chandrasekaran, Saurabh Sinha, Lisa J Stubbs, Gene E Robinson
Understanding how social experiences are represented in the brain and shape future responses is a major challenge in the study of behavior. We addressed this problem by studying behavioral, transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to intrusion in honey bees. Previous research showed that initial exposure to an intruder provokes an immediate attack; we now show that this also leads to longer-term changes in behavior in the response to a second intruder, with increases in the probability of responding aggressively and the intensity of aggression lasting two and one hours, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324737/neuroscience-intelligence-in-the-honeybee-mushroom%C3%A2-body
#10
Sophie Caron, Larry F Abbott
Intelligence, in most people's conception, involves combining pieces of evidence to reach non-obvious conclusions. A recent theoretical study shows that intelligence-like brain functions can emerge from simple neural circuits, in this case the honeybee mushroom body.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276652/worker-brain-development-and-colony-organization-in-ants-does-division-of-labor-influence-neuroplasticity
#11
J Frances Kamhi, Aynsley Sandridge-Gresko, Christina Walker, Simon K A Robson, James F A Traniello
Brain compartment size allometries may adaptively reflect cognitive needs associated with behavioral development and ecology. Ants provide an informative system to study the relationship of neural architecture and development because worker tasks and sensory inputs may change with age. Additionally, tasks may be divided among morphologically and behaviorally differentiated worker groups (subcastes), reducing repertoire size through specialization and aligning brain structure with task-specific cognitive requirements...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245532/volume-and-density-of-microglomeruli-in-the-honey-bee-mushroom-bodies-do-not-predict-performance-on-a-foraging-task
#12
Byron N Van Nest, Ashley E Wagner, Glen S Marrs, Susan E Fahrbach
The mushroom bodies (MBs) are insect brain regions important for sensory integration, learning, and memory. In adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), the volume of neuropil associated with the MBs is larger in experienced foragers compared with hive bees and less experienced foragers. In addition, the characteristic synaptic structures of the calycal neuropils, the microglomeruli, are larger but present at lower density in 35-day-old foragers relative to 1-day-old workers. Age- and experience-based changes in plasticity of the MBs are assumed to support performance of challenging tasks, but the behavioral consequences of brain plasticity in insects are rarely examined...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223318/a-drosophila-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-exhibits-defects-in-phagocytosis-by-innate-immune-cells
#13
Reed M O'Connor, Elizabeth F Stone, Charlotte R Wayne, Emily V Marcinkevicius, Matt Ulgherait, Rebecca Delventhal, Meghan M Pantalia, Vanessa M Hill, Clarice G Zhou, Sophie McAllister, Anna Chen, Jennifer S Ziegenfuss, Wesley B Grueber, Julie C Canman, Mimi M Shirasu-Hiza
Fragile X syndrome, the most common known monogenic cause of autism, results from the loss of FMR1, a conserved, ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein. Recent evidence suggests that Fragile X syndrome and other types of autism are associated with immune system defects. We found that Drosophila melanogaster Fmr1 mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to bacterial infection and decreased phagocytosis of bacteria by systemic immune cells. Using tissue-specific RNAi-mediated knockdown, we showed that Fmr1 plays a cell-autonomous role in the phagocytosis of bacteria...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220999/drosophila-divalent-metal-ion-transporter-malvolio-is-required-in-dopaminergic-neurons-for-feeding-decisions
#14
E Søvik, A LaMora, G Seehra, A B Barron, J G Duncan, Y Ben-Shahar
Members of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family are evolutionarily conserved metal ion transporters that play an essential role in regulating intracellular divalent cation homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Malvolio (Mvl), the sole NRAMP family member in insects, plays a role in food choice behaviors in Drosophila and other species. However, the specific physiological and cellular processes that require the action of Mvl for appropriate feeding decisions remain elusive...
February 21, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215558/optimal-degrees-of-synaptic-connectivity
#15
Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Kameron Decker Harris, Richard Axel, Haim Sompolinsky, L F Abbott
Synaptic connectivity varies widely across neuronal types. Cerebellar granule cells receive five orders of magnitude fewer inputs than the Purkinje cells they innervate, and cerebellum-like circuits, including the insect mushroom body, also exhibit large divergences in connectivity. In contrast, the number of inputs per neuron in cerebral cortex is more uniform and large. We investigate how the dimension of a representation formed by a population of neurons depends on how many inputs each neuron receives and what this implies for learning associations...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188850/immunolocalization-of-the-vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-in-larval-and-adult-drosophila-neurons
#16
Sridhar Boppana, Natalie Kendall, Opeyemi Akinrinsola, Daniel White, Krushali Patel, Hakeem Lawal
Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) function is essential for organismal survival, mediating the packaging of acetylcholine (ACh) for exocytotic release. However, its expression pattern in the Drosophila brain has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the localization of VAChT, we developed an antibody against the C terminal region of the protein and we show that this antibody recognizes a 65KDa protein corresponding to VAChT on an immunoblot in both Drosophila head homogenates and in Schneider 2 cells...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169433/multisensory-integration-in-lepidoptera-insights-into-flower-visitor-interactions
#17
Michiyo Kinoshita, Finlay J Stewart, Hisashi Ômura
As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context...
February 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164781/long-range-projection-neurons-in-the-taste-circuit-of-drosophila
#18
Heesoo Kim, Colleen Kirkhart, Kristin Scott
Taste compounds elicit innate feeding behaviors and act as rewards or punishments to entrain other cues. The neural pathways by which taste compounds influence innate and learned behaviors have not been resolved. Here, we identify three classes of taste projection neurons (TPNs) in Drosophila melanogaster distinguished by their morphology and taste selectivity. TPNs receive input from gustatory receptor neurons and respond selectively to sweet or bitter stimuli, demonstrating segregated processing of different taste modalities...
February 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158189/insect-bio-inspired-neural-network-provides-new-evidence-on-how-simple-feature-detectors-can-enable-complex-visual-generalization-and-stimulus-location-invariance-in-the-miniature-brain-of-honeybees
#19
Mark Roper, Chrisantha Fernando, Lars Chittka
The ability to generalize over naturally occurring variation in cues indicating food or predation risk is highly useful for efficient decision-making in many animals. Honeybees have remarkable visual cognitive abilities, allowing them to classify visual patterns by common features despite having a relatively miniature brain. Here we ask the question whether generalization requires complex visual recognition or whether it can also be achieved with relatively simple neuronal mechanisms. We produced several simple models inspired by the known anatomical structures and neuronal responses within the bee brain and subsequently compared their ability to generalize achromatic patterns to the observed behavioural performance of honeybees on these cues...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118991/morphology-and-physiology-of-antennal-lobe-projection-neurons-in-the-hawkmoth-agrius-convolvuli
#20
Takuya Nirazawa, Takeshi Fujii, Yoichi Seki, Shigehiro Namiki, Tomoki Kazawa, Ryohei Kanzaki, Yukio Ishikawa
The neuronal pathways involved in the processing of sex pheromone information were investigated in the hawkmoth Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), which uses (E,E)-11,13-hexadecadienal (E11,E13-16:Ald) as the single sex pheromone component. We first clarified the anatomical organization of the antennal lobe of A. convolvuli. Subsequently, central neurons in the antennal lobe that responded to E11,E13-16:Ald were identified. The dendritic processes of these neurons were confined within a specific glomerulus (cumulus) in the antennal lobe...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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