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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#1
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778941/ecotoxicological-effects-of-the-insecticide-fipronil-in-brazilian-native-stingless-bees-melipona-scutellaris-apidae-meliponini
#2
Cássio Resende de Morais, Bruno Augusto Nassif Travençolo, Stephan Malfitano Carvalho, Marcelo Emílio Beletti, Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Carlos Fernando Campos, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Maria Paula Carvalho Naves, Alexandre Azenha Alves de Rezende, Mário Antônio Spanó, Carlos Ueira Vieira, Ana Maria Bonetti
Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) is a pollinator of various native and cultivated plants. Because of the expansion of agriculture and the need to ensure pest control, the use of insecticides such as fipronil (FP) has increased. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sublethal doses of FP insecticide on M. scutellaris at different time intervals (6, 12, and 24 h) after exposure, via individually analyzed behavioral biomarkers (locomotor activity, behavioral change) as well as the effect of FP on different brain structures of bees (mushroom bodies, antennal cells, and optic cells), using sub-individual cell biomarkers (heterochromatin dispersion, total nuclear and heterochromatic volume)...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742029/nitric-oxide-augments-single-persistent-na-channel-currents-via-the-cgmp-pkg-signaling-pathway-in-kenyon-cells-isolated-from-the-cricket-mushroom-bodies
#3
Mariko Ikeda, Masami Yoshino
The nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP signaling pathway has been suggested to be important in the formation of olfactory memory in insects. However, the molecular targets of the NO signaling cascade in the central neurons associated with olfactory learning and memory have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO donors on single voltage-dependent Na+ channels in intrinsic neurons, called Kenyon cells, in the mushroom bodies in the brain of the cricket. Step depolarization on cell-attached patch membranes induces single-channel currents with fast-activating and -inactivating brief openings at the beginning of the voltage steps followed by more persistently recurring brief openings all along the 150-ms pulses...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726098/mef2-induction-of-the-immediate-early-gene-hr38-nr4a-is-terminated-by-sirt1-to-promote-ethanol-tolerance
#4
Pratik Adhikari, Donnoban Orozco, Harpreet Randhawa, Fred W Wolf
Drug naïve animals given a single dose of ethanol show changed responses to subsequent doses, including the development of ethanol tolerance and ethanol preference. These simple forms of behavioral plasticity are due in part to changes in gene expression and neuronal properties. Surprisingly little is known about how ethanol initiates changes in gene expression or what the changes do. Here we demonstrate a role in ethanol plasticity for Hr38, the sole Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Nr4a1/2/3 class of immediate early response transcription factors...
May 3, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718508/expression-characterization-and-localization-of-the-foraging-gene-in-the-chinese-bee-apis-cerana-cerana-hymenoptera-apidae
#5
WeiHua Ma, YuSuo Jiang, Jiao Meng, HuiTing Zhao, HuaiLei Song, JinShan Shen
In social insects, the foraging gene (for) regulates insect age- and task-based foraging behaviors. We studied the expression and localization of the for gene (Acfor) in Apis cerana cerana workers to explore whether the differential regulation of this gene is associated with the behaviors of nurses and foragers. The expression profiles of Acfor in different tissues and at different ages were examined using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cellular localization in the brain was detected using in situ hybridization...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709023/relationship-between-brain-plasticity-learning-and-foraging-performance-in-honey-bees
#6
Amélie Cabirol, Alex J Cope, Andrew B Barron, Jean-Marc Devaud
Brain structure and learning capacities both vary with experience, but the mechanistic link between them is unclear. Here, we investigated whether experience-dependent variability in learning performance can be explained by neuroplasticity in foraging honey bees. The mushroom bodies (MBs) are a brain center necessary for ambiguous olfactory learning tasks such as reversal learning. Using radio frequency identification technology, we assessed the effects of natural variation in foraging activity, and the age when first foraging, on both performance in reversal learning and on synaptic connectivity in the MBs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706545/dendritic-integration-of-sensory-evidence-in-perceptual-decision-making
#7
Lukas N Groschner, Laura Chan Wah Hak, Rafal Bogacz, Shamik DasGupta, Gero Miesenböck
Perceptual decisions require the accumulation of sensory information to a response criterion. Most accounts of how the brain performs this process of temporal integration have focused on evolving patterns of spiking activity. We report that subthreshold changes in membrane voltage can represent accumulating evidence before a choice. αβ core Kenyon cells (αβc KCs) in the mushroom bodies of fruit flies integrate odor-evoked synaptic inputs to action potential threshold at timescales matching the speed of olfactory discrimination...
April 25, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673482/dunce-phosphodiesterase-acts-as-a-checkpoint-for-drosophila-long-term-memory-in-a-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons
#8
Lisa Scheunemann, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Yann Dromard, Martin Schwärzel, Thomas Preat
A key function of the brain is to filter essential information and store it in the form of stable, long-term memory (LTM). We demonstrate here that the Dunce (Dnc) phosphodiesterase, an important enzyme that degrades cAMP, acts as a molecular switch that controls LTM formation in Drosophila. We show that, during LTM formation, Dnc is inhibited in the SPN, a pair of newly characterized serotonergic neurons, which stimulates the cAMP/PKA pathway. As a consequence, the SPN activates downstream dopaminergic neurons, opening the gate for LTM formation in the olfactory memory center, the mushroom body...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659025/synaptic-depression-induced-by-postsynaptic-camp-production-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-calyx
#9
Shoma Sato, Kohei Ueno, Minoru Saitoe, Takaomi Sakai
Synaptic plasticity has been studied to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms of associative and nonassociative learning. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster can be used to identify the molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity because vast genetic information or tools are available. Here, by ex vivo Ca2+ imaging of an isolated cultured Drosophila brain, we examined the novel activity-dependent synaptic depression between the projection neurons of the antennal lobe (AL) and mushroom body (MB). Ex vivo Ca2+ imaging analysis revealed that electrical stimulation of AL elicits Ca2+ responses in the dendritic (calyx) and axonal (α lobe) regions of MB neurons, and the responses are reduced after repetitive AL stimulation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643770/neural-control-of-startle-induced-locomotion-by-the-mushroom-bodies-and-associated-neurons-in-drosophila
#10
Jun Sun, An Qi Xu, Julia Giraud, Haiko Poppinga, Thomas Riemensperger, André Fiala, Serge Birman
Startle-induced locomotion is commonly used in Drosophila research to monitor locomotor reactivity and its progressive decline with age or under various neuropathological conditions. A widely used paradigm is startle-induced negative geotaxis (SING), in which flies entrapped in a narrow column react to a gentle mechanical shock by climbing rapidly upwards. Here we combined in vivo manipulation of neuronal activity and splitGFP reconstitution across cells to search for brain neurons and putative circuits that regulate this behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625207/synaptic-organization-and-division-of-labor-in-the-exceptionally-polymorphic-ant-pheidole-rhea
#11
Darcy G Gordon, James F A Traniello
Social insect polyphenisms provide models to examine the neural basis of division of labor and anatomy of the invertebrate social brain. Worker size-related behavior is hypothesized to enhance task performance, raising questions concerning the integration of morphology, behavior, and cellular neuroarchitecture, and how variation in sensory inputs and cognitive demands of behaviorally differentiated workers is reflected in higher-order processing ability. We used the highly polymorphic ant Pheidole rhea, which has three distinct worker size classes - minors, soldiers, and supersoldiers - to examine variation in synaptic circuitry across worker size and social role...
April 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551489/active-protection-learning-activated-raf-mapk-activity-protects-labile-memory-from-rac1-independent-forgetting
#12
Xuchen Zhang, Qian Li, Lianzhang Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Yi Zhong
Active forgetting explains the intrinsic instability of a labile memory lasting for hours. However, how such memory maintains stability against unwanted disruption is not completely understood. Here, we report a learning-activated active protection mechanism that enables labile memory to resist disruptive sensory experiences in Drosophila. Aversive olfactory conditioning activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transiently in the mushroom-body γ lobe, where labile-aversive memory is stored. This increased MAPK activity significantly prolongs labile memory retention and enhances its resistance to disruption induced by heat shock, electric shock, or odor reactivation...
April 4, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549237/functional-architecture-of-reward-learning-in-mushroom-body-extrinsic-neurons-of-larval-drosophila
#13
Timo Saumweber, Astrid Rohwedder, Michael Schleyer, Katharina Eichler, Yi-Chun Chen, Yoshinori Aso, Albert Cardona, Claire Eschbach, Oliver Kobler, Anne Voigt, Archana Durairaja, Nino Mancini, Marta Zlatic, James W Truman, Andreas S Thum, Bertram Gerber
The brain adaptively integrates present sensory input, past experience, and options for future action. The insect mushroom body exemplifies how a central brain structure brings about such integration. Here we use a combination of systematic single-cell labeling, connectomics, transgenic silencing, and activation experiments to study the mushroom body at single-cell resolution, focusing on the behavioral architecture of its input and output neurons (MBINs and MBONs), and of the mushroom body intrinsic APL neuron...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547121/-drosophila-mushroom-bodies-integrate-hunger-and-satiety-signals-to-control-innate-food-seeking-behavior
#14
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545390/elongator-complex-is-required-for-long-term-olfactory-memory-formation-in-drosophila
#15
Dinghui Yu, Ying Tan, Molee Chakraborty, Seth Tomchik, Ronald L Davis
The evolutionarily conserved Elongator Complex associates with RNA polymerase II for transcriptional elongation. Elp3 is the catalytic subunit, contains histone acetyltransferase activity, and is associated with neurodegeneration in humans. Elp1 is a scaffolding subunit and when mutated causes familial dysautonomia. Here, we show that elp3 and elp1 are required for aversive long-term olfactory memory in Drosophila RNAi knockdown of elp3 in adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory (LTM) without affecting earlier forms of memory...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515886/multimodal-integration-and-stimulus-categorization-in-putative-mushroom-body-output-neurons-of-the-honeybee
#16
Martin F Strube-Bloss, Wolfgang Rössler
Flowers attract pollinating insects like honeybees by sophisticated compositions of olfactory and visual cues. Using honeybees as a model to study olfactory-visual integration at the neuronal level, we focused on mushroom body (MB) output neurons (MBON). From a neuronal circuit perspective, MBONs represent a prominent level of sensory-modality convergence in the insect brain. We established an experimental design allowing electrophysiological characterization of olfactory, visual, as well as olfactory-visual induced activation of individual MBONs...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507112/rap1-canoe-and-mbt-cooperate-with-bazooka-to-promote-zonula-adherens-assembly-in-the-fly-photoreceptor
#17
Rhian F Walther, Mubarik Burki, Noelia Pinal, Clare Rogerson, Franck Pichaud
In Drosophila epithelial cells, apical exclusion of Bazooka (the Drosophila Par3 protein) defines the position of the zonula adherens (ZA), which demarcates the apical and lateral membrane and allows cells to assemble into sheets. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rap1, its effector Canoe (Cno) and the Cdc42 effector kinase Mushroom bodies tiny (Mbt), converge in regulating epithelial morphogenesis by coupling stabilization of the adherens junction (AJ) protein E-Cadherin and Bazooka retention at the ZA. Furthermore, our results show that the localization of Rap1, Cno and Mbt at the ZA is interdependent, indicating that their functions during ZA morphogenesis are interlinked...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491443/long-term-optical-brain-imaging-in-live-adult-fruit-flies
#18
Cheng Huang, Jessica R Maxey, Supriyo Sinha, Joan Savall, Yiyang Gong, Mark J Schnitzer
Time-lapse in vivo microscopy studies of cellular morphology and physiology are crucial toward understanding brain function but have been infeasible in the fruit fly, a key model species. Here we use laser microsurgery to create a chronic fly preparation for repeated imaging of neural architecture and dynamics for up to 50 days. In fly mushroom body neurons, we track axonal boutons for 10 days and record odor-evoked calcium transients over 7 weeks. Further, by using voltage imaging to resolve individual action potentials, we monitor spiking plasticity in dopamine neurons of flies undergoing mechanical stress...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490271/two-parallel-pathways-assign-opposing-odor-valences-during-drosophila-memory-formation
#19
Daisuke Yamazaki, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Kazumichi Shimizu, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Yuko Maeyama, Junjiro Horiuchi, Tetsuya Tabata
During olfactory associative learning in Drosophila, odors activate specific subsets of intrinsic mushroom body (MB) neurons. Coincident exposure to either rewards or punishments is thought to activate extrinsic dopaminergic neurons, which modulate synaptic connections between odor-encoding MB neurons and MB output neurons to alter behaviors. However, here we identify two classes of intrinsic MB γ neurons based on cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent expression, γCRE-p and γCRE-n, which encode aversive and appetitive valences...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477608/mushroom-body-glycolysis-is-required-for-olfactory-memory-in-drosophila
#20
Chia-Lin Wu, Ching-Ching Chang, Jie-Kai Wu, Meng-Hsuan Chiang, Chu-Huai Yang, Hsueh-Cheng Chiang
Glucose catabolism, also known as glycolysis, is important for energy generation and involves a sequence of enzymatic reactions that convert a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules. The glycolysis process generates adenosine triphosphate as a byproduct. In this study, we investigated whether glycolysis plays a role in maintaining neuronal functions in the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs), which are generally accepted to be an olfactory learning and memory center. Our data showed that individual knockdown of glycolytic enzymes in the MBs, including hexokinase (HexA), phosphofructokinase (Pfk), or pyruvate kinase (PyK), disrupts olfactory memory...
April 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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