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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330349/pharmacologic-inhibition-of-phospholipase-c-in-the-brain-attenuates-early-memory-formation-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l
#1
Shota Suenami, Shiori Iino, Takeo Kubo
Although the molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory in insects have been studied intensively, the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in early memory formation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that phospholipase C epsilon (PLCe), whose product is involved in calcium signaling, is almost selectively expressed in the mushroom bodies, a brain structure important for learning and memory in the honeybee. Here, we pharmacologically examined the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in learning and memory in the honeybee...
January 12, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322941/persistent-activity-in-a-recurrent-circuit-underlies-courtship-memory-in-drosophila
#2
Xiaoliang Zhao, Daniela Lenek, Ugur Dag, Barry Dickson, Krystyna Keleman
Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBg), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MBγ>M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory...
January 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284750/cyclic-amp-dependent-plasticity-underlies-rapid-changes-in-odor-coding-associated-with-reward-learning
#3
Thierry Louis, Aaron Stahl, Tamara Boto, Seth M Tomchik
Learning and memory rely on dopamine and downstream cAMP-dependent plasticity across diverse organisms. Despite the central role of cAMP signaling, it is not known how cAMP-dependent plasticity drives coherent changes in neuronal physiology that encode the memory trace, or engram. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is critically involved in olfactory classical conditioning, and cAMP signaling molecules are necessary and sufficient for normal memory in intrinsic MB neurons. To evaluate the role of cAMP-dependent plasticity in learning, we examined how cAMP manipulations and olfactory classical conditioning modulate olfactory responses in the MB with in vivo imaging...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247619/a-new-drosophila-model-of-ubiquilin-knockdown-shows-the-effect-of-impaired-proteostasis-on-locomotive-and-learning-abilities
#4
Salinee Jantrapirom, Luca Lo Piccolo, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Ubiquilin (UBQLN) plays a crucial role in cellular proteostasis through its involvement in the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy. Mutations in the UBQLN2 gene have been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS with frontotemporal lobar dementia (ALS/FTLD). Previous studies reported a key role for UBQLN in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the mechanistic involvement of UBQLN in other neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. The genome of Drosophila contains a single UBQLN homolog (dUbqn) that shows high similarity to UBQLN1 and UBQLN2; therefore, the fly is a useful model for characterizing the role of UBQLN in vivo in neurological disorders affecting locomotion and learning abilities...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208223/neuronal-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-sleep-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea
Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196744/a-simple-high-throughput-assay-to-evaluate-water-consumption-in-the-fruit-fly
#6
Man-Tat Lau, Yong Qi Lin, Stefan Kisling, James Cotterell, Yana A Wilson, Qiao-Ping Wang, Thang M Khuong, Noman Bakhshi, Tiffany A Cole, Lisa J Oyston, Adam R Cole, G Gregory Neely
Water intake is essential for survival and thus under strong regulation. Here, we describe a simple high throughput system to monitor water intake over time in Drosophila. The design of the assay involves dehydrating fly food and then adding water back separately so flies either eat or drink. Water consumption is then evaluated by weighing the water vessel and comparing this back to an evaporation control. Our system is high throughput, does not require animals to be artificially dehydrated, and is simple both in design and implementation...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187519/proteomics-reveals-the-molecular-underpinnings-of-stronger-learning-and-memory-in-eastern-compared-to-western-beess
#7
Lifeng Meng, Xinmei Huo, Mao Feng, Yu Fang, Bin Han, Han Hu, Fan Wu, Jianke Li
The eastern (Apis cerana cerana, Acc) and western (Apis mellifera ligustica, Aml) honeybee are two major honeybee species. Surprisingly, little is known about the fundamental molecular neurobiology of brain sub-organs of Acc and Aml. We characterized and compared the proteomes of mushroom bodies (MBs), antennal lobes (ALs) and optical lobes (OLs) in the brain of both species, and biologically validated the functions related to learning and memory. Acc and Aml have evolved similar proteome signatures in MBs and OLs to drive the domain-specific neural activities...
November 29, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184487/the-role-of-celestial-compass-information-in-cataglyphis-ants-during-learning-walks-and-for-neuroplasticity-in-the-central-complex-and-mushroom-bodies
#8
Robin Grob, Pauline N Fleischmann, Kornelia Grübel, Rüdiger Wehner, Wolfgang Rössler
Central place foragers are faced with the challenge to learn the position of their nest entrance in its surroundings, in order to find their way back home every time they go out to search for food. To acquire navigational information at the beginning of their foraging career, Cataglyphis noda performs learning walks during the transition from interior worker to forager. These small loops around the nest entrance are repeatedly interrupted by strikingly accurate back turns during which the ants stop and precisely gaze back to the nest entrance-presumably to learn the landmark panorama of the nest surroundings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180783/ingestion-of-artificial-sweeteners-leads-to-caloric-frustration-memory-in-drosophila
#9
Pierre-Yves Musso, Aurélie Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Paul Tchenio, Thomas Preat
Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are widely used in modern human food, raising the question about their health impact. Here we have asked whether NAS consumption is a neutral experience at neural and behavioral level, or if NAS can be interpreted and remembered as negative experience. We used behavioral and imaging approaches to demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster learn the non-caloric property of NAS through post-ingestion process. These results show that sweet taste is predictive of an energy value, and its absence leads to the formation of what we call Caloric Frustration Memory (CFM) that devalues the NAS or its caloric enantiomer...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166600/dopamine-receptor-damb-signals-via-gq-to-mediate-forgetting-in-drosophila
#10
Sophie Himmelreich, Ikuo Masuho, Jacob A Berry, Courtney MacMullen, Nickolas K Skamangas, Kirill A Martemyanov, Ronald L Davis
Prior studies have shown that aversive olfactory memory is acquired by dopamine acting on a specific receptor, dDA1, expressed by mushroom body neurons. Active forgetting is mediated by dopamine acting on another receptor, Damb, expressed by the same neurons. Surprisingly, prior studies have shown that both receptors stimulate cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, presenting an enigma of how mushroom body neurons distinguish between acquisition and forgetting signals. Here, we surveyed the spectrum of G protein coupling of dDA1 and Damb, and we confirmed that both receptors can couple to Gs to stimulate cAMP synthesis...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155751/dissection-and-immunofluorescent-staining-of-mushroom-body-and-photoreceptor-neurons-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-brains
#11
Seth M Kelly, Alexandra Elchert, Michael Kahl
Nervous system development involves a sequential series of events that are coordinated by several signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Many of the proteins involved in these pathways are evolutionarily conserved between mammals and other eukaryotes, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that similar organizing principles exist during the development of these organisms. Importantly, Drosophila has been used extensively to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating processes that are required in mammals including neurogenesis, differentiation, axonal guidance, and synaptogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127660/exposure-to-a-sublethal-concentration-of-imidacloprid-and-the-side-effects-on-target-and-nontarget-organs-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#12
Aline Fernanda Catae, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Mario Sergio Palma, Osmar Malaspina
The use of insecticides has become increasingly frequent, and studies indicate that these compounds are involved in the intoxication of bees. Imidacloprid is a widely used neonicotinoid; thus, we have highlighted the importance of assessing its oral toxicity to Africanized bees and used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the sublethal effects in the brain, the target organ, and the midgut, responsible for the digestion/absorption of food. In addition, the distribution of proteins involved in important biological processes in the brain were evaluated on the 1st day of exposure by MALDI-imaging analysis...
November 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114209/the-biogenic-amine-tyramine-and-its-receptor-amtyr1-in-olfactory-neuropils-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-brain
#13
Irina T Sinakevitch, Sasha M Daskalova, Brian H Smith
This article describes the cellular sources for tyramine and the cellular targets of tyramine via the Tyramine Receptor 1 (AmTyr1) in the olfactory learning and memory neuropils of the honey bee brain. Clusters of approximately 160 tyramine immunoreactive neurons are the source of tyraminergic fibers with small varicosities in the optic lobes, antennal lobes, lateral protocerebrum, mushroom body (calyces and gamma lobes), tritocerebrum and subesophageal ganglion (SEG). Our tyramine mapping study shows that the primary sources of tyramine in the antennal lobe and calyx of the mushroom body are from at least two Ventral Unpaired Median neurons (VUMmd and VUMmx) with cell bodies in the SEG...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109678/identification-of-genes-that-maintain-behavioral-and-structural-plasticity-during-sleep-loss
#14
Laurent Seugnet, Stephane Dissel, Matthew Thimgan, Lijuan Cao, Paul J Shaw
Although patients with primary insomnia experience sleep disruption, they are able to maintain normal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. This observation suggests that insomnia may be a condition where predisposing factors simultaneously increase the risk for insomnia and also mitigate against the deleterious consequences of waking. To gain insight into processes that might regulate sleep and buffer neuronal circuits during sleep loss, we manipulated three genes, fat facet (faf), highwire (hiw) and the GABA receptor Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl), that were differentially modulated in a Drosophila model of insomnia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096051/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-novel-neural-immediate-early-genes-possibly-differentially-contributing-to-foraging-related-learning-and-memory-processes-in-the-honeybee
#15
A Ugajin, H Uchiyama, T Miyata, T Sasaki, S Yajima, M Ono
Despite possessing a limited number of neurones compared to vertebrates, honeybees show remarkable learning and memory performance, an example being 'dance communication'. In this phenomenon, foraging honeybees learn the location of a newly discovered food source and transmit the information to nestmates by symbolic abdomen vibrating behaviour, leading to navigation of nestmates to the new food source. As an initial step toward understanding the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the sophisticated learning and memory performance of the honeybee, we focused on the neural immediate early genes (IEGs), which are specific genes quickly transcribed after neural activity without de novo protein synthesis...
November 2, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093221/experience-dependent-mushroom-body-plasticity-in-butterflies-consequences-of-search-complexity-and-host-range
#16
Laura J A van Dijk, Niklas Janz, Alexander Schäpers, Gabriella Gamberale-Stille, Mikael A Carlsson
An ovipositing insect experiences many sensory challenges during her search for a suitable host plant. These sensory challenges become exceedingly pronounced when host range increases, as larger varieties of sensory inputs have to be perceived and processed in the brain. Neural capacities can be exceeded upon information overload, inflicting costs on oviposition accuracy. One presumed generalist strategy to diminish information overload is the acquisition of a focused search during its lifetime based on experiences within the current environment, a strategy opposed to a more genetically determined focus expected to be seen in relative specialists...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082071/rapid-adaptive-remote-focusing-microscope-for-sensing-of-volumetric-neural-activity
#17
Mantas Žurauskas, Oliver Barnstedt, Maria Frade-Rodriguez, Scott Waddell, Martin J Booth
The ability to record neural activity in the brain of a living organism at cellular resolution is of great importance for defining the neural circuit mechanisms that direct behavior. Here we present an adaptive two-photon microscope optimized for extraction of neural signals over volumes in intact Drosophila brains, even in the presence of specimen motion. High speed volume imaging was made possible through reduction of spatial resolution while maintaining the light collection efficiency of a high resolution, high numerical aperture microscope...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080790/scalloped-a-member-of-the-hippo-tumor-suppressor-pathway-controls-mushroom-body-size-in-drosophila-brain-by-non-canonical-regulation-of-neuroblast-proliferation
#18
Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah Rohith, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty Shyamala
Cell proliferation, growth and survival are three different basic processes which converge at determining a fundamental property -the size of an organism. Scalloped (Sd) is the first characterised transcriptional partner to Yorkie (Yki), the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway which is a highly potential and evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size. Here we have studied the hypomorphic effect of sd on the development of Mushroom Bodies (MBs) in Drosophila brain. We show that, sd non-function results in an increase in the size of MBs...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074576/a-pre-synaptic-function-of-shank-protein-in-drosophila
#19
Song Wu, Guangming Gan, Zhiping Zhang, Jie Sun, Qifu Wang, Zhongbao Gao, Meixiang Li, Shan Jin, Juan Huang, Ulrich Thomas, Yong-Hui Jiang, Yan Li, Rui Tian, Yong Q Zhang
Human genetic studies support that loss of function mutations in the [highlight]SH[/highlight]3 domain and [highlight]ank[/highlight]yrin repeat containing family proteins (SHANK1-3), the large synaptic scaffolding proteins enriched at the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses, are causative for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. To better understand the in vivo functions of Shank and facilitate dissection of neuropathology associated with SHANK mutations in human, we generated multiple mutations in the Shank gene, the only member of the SHANK family in Drosophila melanogaster Both male and female Shank null mutants were fully viable and fertile with no apparent morphological or developmental defects...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069077/functional-convergence-of-histone-methyltransferases-ehmt1-and-kmt2c-involved-in-intellectual-disability-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Tom S Koemans, Tjitske Kleefstra, Melissa C Chubak, Max H Stone, Margot R F Reijnders, Sonja de Munnik, Marjolein H Willemsen, Michaela Fenckova, Connie T R M Stumpel, Levinus A Bok, Margarita Sifuentes Saenz, Kyna A Byerly, Linda B Baughn, Alexander P A Stegmann, Rolph Pfundt, Huiqing Zhou, Hans van Bokhoven, Annette Schenck, Jamie M Kramer
Kleefstra syndrome, caused by haploinsufficiency of euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1), is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characteristic facial dysmorphisms, and other variable clinical features. In addition to EHMT1 mutations, de novo variants were reported in four additional genes (MBD5, SMARCB1, NR1I3, and KMT2C), in single individuals with clinical characteristics overlapping Kleefstra syndrome. Here, we present a novel cohort of five patients with de novo loss of function mutations affecting the histone methyltransferase KMT2C...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
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