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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933142/salidroside-reduces-tau-hyperphosphorylation-via-up-regulating-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-a-tau-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Bei Zhang, Qiongqiong Li, Xingkun Chu, Suya Sun, Shengdi Chen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe treatment against AD. Salidroside (Sal) is the main effective component of Rhodiola rosea L., which has several pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sal in the treatment of AD transgenic Drosophila and the associated mechanisms...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908785/disco-interacting-protein-2-regulates-axonal-bifurcation-and-guidance-of-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons
#2
Yohei Nitta, Daisuke Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugie, Makoto Hiroi, Tetsuya Tabata
Axonal branching is one of the key processes within the enormous complexity of the nervous system to enable a single neuron to send information to multiple targets. However, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. In particular, previous studies have rarely addressed the mechanisms underlying axonal bifurcation, in which axons form new branches via splitting of the growth cone. We demonstrate that DISCO Interacting Protein 2 (DIP2) is required for precise axonal bifurcation in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons by suppressing ectopic bifurcation and regulating the guidance of sister axons...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905548/neurexin-regulates-nighttime-sleep-by-modulating-synaptic-transmission
#3
Huawei Tong, Qian Li, Zi Chao Zhang, Yi Li, Junhai Han
Neurexins are cell adhesion molecules involved in synaptic formation and synaptic transmission. Mutations in neurexin genes are linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are frequently associated with sleep problems. However, the role of neurexin-mediated synaptic transmission in sleep regulation is unclear. Here, we show that lack of the Drosophila α-neurexin homolog significantly reduces the quantity and quality of nighttime sleep and impairs sleep homeostasis. We report that neurexin expression in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) αβ neurons is essential for nighttime sleep...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905515/neonicotinoid-induced-impairment-of-odour-coding-in-the-honeybee
#4
Mara Andrione, Giorgio Vallortigara, Renzo Antolini, Albrecht Haase
Exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides is considered one of the possible causes of honeybee (Apis mellifera) population decline. At sublethal doses, these chemicals have been shown to negatively affect a number of behaviours, including performance of olfactory learning and memory, due to their interference with acetylcholine signalling in the mushroom bodies. Here we provide evidence that neonicotinoids can affect odour coding upstream of the mushroom bodies, in the first odour processing centres of the honeybee brain, i...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871975/the-role-of-the-drosophila-lateral-horn-in-olfactory-information-processing-and-behavioral-response
#5
REVIEW
Janna N Schultzhaus, Sehresh Saleem, Hina Iftikhar, Ginger E Carney
Animals must rapidly and accurately process environmental information to produce the correct behavioral responses. Reactions to previously encountered as well as to novel but biologically important stimuli are equally important, and one understudied region in the insect brain plays a role in processing both types of stimuli. The lateral horn is a higher order processing center that mainly processes olfactory information and is linked via olfactory projection neurons to another higher order learning center, the mushroom body...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856766/context-dependent-memory-traces-in-the-crab-s-mushroom-bodies-functional-support-for-a-common-origin-of-high-order-memory-centers
#6
Francisco Javier Maza, Julieta Sztarker, Avishag Shkedy, Valeria Natacha Peszano, Fernando Federico Locatelli, Alejandro Delorenzi
The hypothesis of a common origin for the high-order memory centers in bilateral animals is based on the evidence that several key features, including gene expression and neuronal network patterns, are shared across several phyla. Central to this hypothesis is the assumption that the arthropods' higher order neuropils of the forebrain [the mushroom bodies (MBs) of insects and the hemiellipsoid bodies (HBs) of crustaceans] are homologous structures. However, even though involvement in memory processes has been repeatedly demonstrated for the MBs, direct proof of such a role in HBs is lacking...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852762/transcriptomic-analysis-of-instinctive-and-learned-reward-related-behaviors-in-honey-bees
#7
Nicholas L Naeger, Gene E Robinson
We used transcriptomics to compare instinctive and learned, reward-based honey bee behaviors with similar spatio-temporal components: mating flights by males (drones) and time-trained foraging flights by females (workers), respectively. Genome-wide gene expression profiling via RNA sequencing was performed on the mushroom bodies, a region of the brain known for multi-modal sensory integration and responsive to various types of reward. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the onset of mating (623 genes) were enriched for the gene ontology (GO) categories of Transcription, Unfolded Protein Binding, Post-embryonic Development, and Neuron Differentiation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845202/the-synganglion-of-the-jumping-spider-marpissa-muscosa-arachnida-salticidae-insights-from-histology-immunohistochemistry-and-microct-analysis
#8
Philip O M Steinhoff, Andy Sombke, Jannis Liedtke, Jutta M Schneider, Steffen Harzsch, Gabriele Uhl
Jumping spiders are known for their extraordinary cognitive abilities. The underlying nervous system structures, however, are largely unknown. Here, we explore and describe the anatomy of the brain in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa (Clerck, 1757) by means of paraffin histology, X-ray microCT analysis and immunohistochemistry as well as three-dimensional reconstruction. In the prosoma, the CNS is a clearly demarcated mass that surrounds the esophagus. The anteriormost neuromere, the protocerebrum, comprises nine bilaterally paired neuropils, including the mushroom bodies and one unpaired midline neuropil, the arcuate body...
November 11, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818176/a-putative-biochemical-engram-of-long-term-memory
#9
Liying Li, Consuelo Perez Sanchez, Brian D Slaughter, Yubai Zhao, Mohammed Repon Khan, Jay R Unruh, Boris Rubinstein, Kausik Si
How a transient experience creates an enduring yet dynamic memory remains an unresolved issue in studies of memory. Experience-dependent aggregation of the RNA-binding protein CPEB/Orb2 is one of the candidate mechanisms of memory maintenance. Here, using tools that allow rapid and reversible inactivation of Orb2 protein in neurons, we find that Orb2 activity is required for encoding and recall of memory. From a screen, we have identified a DNA-J family chaperone, JJJ2, which facilitates Orb2 aggregation, and ectopic expression of JJJ2 enhances the animal's capacity to form long-term memory...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798312/social-complexity-influences-brain-investment-and-neural-operation-costs-in-ants
#10
J Frances Kamhi, Wulfila Gronenberg, Simon K A Robson, James F A Traniello
The metabolic expense of producing and operating neural tissue required for adaptive behaviour is considered a significant selective force in brain evolution. In primates, brain size correlates positively with group size, presumably owing to the greater cognitive demands of complex social relationships in large societies. Social complexity in eusocial insects is also associated with large groups, as well as collective intelligence and division of labour among sterile workers. However, superorganism phenotypes may lower cognitive demands on behaviourally specialized workers resulting in selection for decreased brain size and/or energetic costs of brain metabolism...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783640/does-fine-color-discrimination-learning-in-free-flying-honeybees-change-mushroom-body-calyx-neuroarchitecture
#11
Frank M J Sommerlandt, Johannes Spaethe, Wolfgang Rössler, Adrian G Dyer
Honeybees learn color information of rewarding flowers and recall these memories in future decisions. For fine color discrimination, bees require differential conditioning with a concurrent presentation of target and distractor stimuli to form a long-term memory. Here we investigated whether the long-term storage of color information shapes the neural network of microglomeruli in the mushroom body calyces and if this depends on the type of conditioning. Free-flying honeybees were individually trained to a pair of perceptually similar colors in either absolute conditioning towards one of the colors or in differential conditioning with both colors...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780041/regulation-of-drosophila-brain-wiring-by-neuropil-interactions-via-a-slit-robo-rptp-signaling-complex
#12
Carlos Oliva, Alessia Soldano, Natalia Mora, Natalie De Geest, Annelies Claeys, Maria-Luise Erfurth, Jimena Sierralta, Ariane Ramaekers, Dan Dascenco, Radoslaw K Ejsmont, Dietmar Schmucker, Natalia Sanchez-Soriano, Bassem A Hassan
The axonal wiring molecule Slit and its Round-About (Robo) receptors are conserved regulators of nerve cord patterning. Robo receptors also contribute to wiring brain circuits. Whether molecular mechanisms regulating these signals are modified to fit more complex brain wiring processes is unclear. We investigated the role of Slit and Robo receptors in wiring Drosophila higher-order brain circuits and identified differences in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Robo/Slit function. First, we find that signaling by Robo receptors in the brain is regulated by the Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase RPTP69d...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#13
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764141/memory-elicited-by-courtship-conditioning-requires-mushroom-body-neuronal-subsets-similar-to-those-utilized-in-appetitive-memory
#14
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762066/a-new-brain-dopamine-deficient-drosophila-and-its-pharmacological-and-genetic-rescue
#15
Karol Cichewicz, Emma J Garren, Chika Adiele, Yoshinori Aso, Zhang Wang, Martin Wu, Serge Birman, Gerald M Rubin, Jay Hirsh
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with conserved behavioral roles between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In addition to its neural functions, in insects DA is a critical substrate for cuticle pigmentation and hardening. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is the rate limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis. Viable brain DA deficient flies were previously generated using tissue selective GAL4-UAS binary expression rescue of a DTH null mutation and these flies show specific behavioral impairments. To circumvent the limitations of rescue via binary expression, here we achieve rescue utilizing genomically integrated mutant DTH...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760793/a-genetic-screen-to-assess-dopamine-receptor-dopr1-dependent-sleep-regulation-in-drosophila
#16
Yiqin Jiang, Elise Pitmon, Jack Berry, Fred W Wolf, Zach McKenzie, Tim J Lebestky
Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb) to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilize DopR in daytime sleep regulation...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746723/the-circuitry-of-olfactory-projection-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#17
Hanna Zwaka, Daniel Münch, Gisela Manz, Randolf Menzel, Jürgen Rybak
In the honeybee brain, two prominent tracts - the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tract - project from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes (ALs), to the central brain, the mushroom bodies (MBs), and the protocerebral lobe (PL). Intracellularly stained uniglomerular projection neurons were reconstructed, registered to the 3D honeybee standard brain atlas, and then used to derive the spatial properties and quantitative morphology of the neurons of both tracts. We evaluated putative synaptic contacts of projection neurons (PNs) using confocal microscopy...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634569/developmental-inhibition-of-mir-iab8-3p-disrupts-mushroom-body-neuron-structure-and-adult-learning-ability
#18
Germain U Busto, Tugba Guven-Ozkan, Molee Chakraborty, Ronald L Davis
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit protein expression post-transcriptionally. They have been implicated in many different physiological processes, but little is known about their individual involvement in learning and memory. We recently identified several miRNAs that either increased or decreased intermediate-term memory when inhibited in the central nervous system, including miR-iab8-3p. We report here a new developmental role for this miRNA. Blocking the expression of miR-iab8-3p during the development of the organism leads to hypertrophy of individual mushroom body neuron soma, a reduction in the field size occupied by axonal projections, and adult intellectual disability...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629706/drosophila-neprilysins-are-involved-in-middle-term-and-long-term-memory
#19
Oriane Turrel, Aurélie Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Thomas Préat, Valérie Goguel
UNLABELLED: Neprilysins are type II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides. Neprilysins in particular are the major amyloid-β peptide-degrading enzymes. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, neprilysin overexpression improves learning and memory deficits, whereas neprilysin deficiency aggravates the behavioral phenotypes. However, whether these enzymes are involved in memory in nonpathological conditions is an open question. Drosophila melanogaster is a well suited model system with which to address this issue...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594088/scintillate-an-open-source-graphical-viewer-for-time-series-calcium-imaging-evaluation-and-pre-processing
#20
I A N Dublon, M Nilsson, A Balkenius, P Anderson, M C Larsson
BACKGROUND: Calcium imaging is based on the detection of minute signal changes in an image time-series encompassing pre- and post-stimuli. Depending on the function of the elicited response, change may be pronounced, as in the case of a genetically encoded calcium-reporter protein, or subtle, as is the case in a bath-applied dye system. Large datasets are thus often acquired and appraised only during post-processing where specific Regions of Interest (ROIs) are examined. NEW METHOD: The scintillate software provides a platform allowing for near instantaneous viewing of time-sequenced tiffs within a discrete GUI environment...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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